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Apabhraṃśa is a term used by vyākaraṇin since Patañjali to refer to languages spoken in north India before the rise of the modern languages. In Indology, it is used as an umbrella term for the dialects forming the transition between the late Middle and the early Modern Indo-Aryan languages, spanning the period between the 6th and 13th centuries CE. However, these dialects are conventionally included in the Middle Indo-Aryan period. Apabhraṃśa in Sanskrit means "corrupt" or "non-grammatical language", that which deviates from the norm of Sanskrit grammar. Apabhraṃśa literature is a valuable source for the history of North India for the period spanning the 12th to 16th centuries; the term Prakrit, which includes Pali, is used as a cover term for the vernaculars of North India that were spoken as late as the 4th to 8th centuries, but some scholars use the term for the entire Middle Indo-Aryan period. Middle Indo-Aryan languages transformed into Apabhraṃśa dialects, which were used until about the 13th century.

The Apabhraṃśas evolved into Modern Indo-Aryan languages. The boundaries of these periods are somewhat hazy, not chronological. Modern North Indian languages are considered to have begun to develop a distinct identity around the 11th century - while Apabhraṃśas were still in use - and became distinct by the end of the 12th century. A significant amount of Apabhraṃśa literature has been found in Jain libraries. While Amir Khusrow and Kabir were writing in a language quite similar to modern Hindi, many poets in regions that were still ruled by Hindu kings, continued to write in Apabhraṃśa; these authors include Saraha and Kanha of Kamarupa. An early example of the use of Apabhraṃśa is the Vikramorvashiyam of Kālidāsa, when Pururavas asks the animals in the forest about his beloved who had disappeared. Compositions in Apabhramsha continued until Vikram Samvat 1700, when Bhagavatidasa wrote Migankaleha Chariu; the only known example of an Apabhramsa work by a Muslim is the Sandesh Rasak of Abdur Rahman of Multan written around 1000 A.

D. Below is the list of some of the eminent writers & poets of Apabhraṃśa literature: Mahakavi Swyambhudev Ritthanemichariu Pauma-ChariuMahakavi Pushpadant Mahapuran Naykumarchariu JasaharchariuHemachandra Abdul RehmanMultani poet who penned an epic romance in Apabhraṃśa. Kanhadade Prabandha Hindavi History of Hindustani Shapiro, Michael C. Hindi. Facts about the world's languages: An encyclopedia of the world's major languages and present. Ed. Jane Garry, Carl Rubino: New England Publishing Associates, 2001. Dr. Devendra Kumar Shastri Hindi: The language of songs Halder, Shashwati. "Apabhrangsha". In Islam, Sirajul. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh

2016 Purdue Boilermakers football team

The 2016 Purdue Boilermakers football team was an American football team that represented Purdue University in the 2016 NCAA Division I FBS football season. The Boilermakers were members of the West Division of the Big Ten Conference and played their home games at Ross–Ade Stadium in West Lafayette, Indiana, they were led by fourth-year head coach Darrell Hazell until he was fired on October 16, 2016. Gerad Parker was named the interim head coach for the remainder of the season, they finished the season 1 -- 8 in Big Ten play to finish in last place in the West Division. In 2015, Purdue compiled a 2–10 record during the regular season, failing to qualify for a bowl game for the third straight season. Purdue had a coaching shake up prior to the season, when defensive coordinator Greg Hudson, offensive coordinator / quarterbacks coach John Shoop and defensive line coach Rubin Carter were fired on November 29, 2015. On December 22, 2015, it was announced that tight ends coach Terry Malone would be promoted to offensive coordinator in addition to his tight end coaching duties.

Purdue hired former Syracuse Orange football offensive coordinator Tim Lester as quarterbacks coach. On December 30, 2015, Purdue hired Miami Hurricanes football defensive line coach Randy Melvin to coach the defensive line. Just two days Purdue announced that they had completed their coaching staff with the hiring of Lincoln Southwest High School assistant Ross Els as the defensive coordinator. Purdue suffered attrition when offensive line coach Jim Bridge left to take the role of assistant head coach, special teams coordinator and tight ends coach with the Duke Blue Devils football team, running backs coach Jafar Williams took the same position with Rutgers. Williams was replaced by Syracuse running backs coach DeAndre Smith, Bridge was replaced by Akron offensive line coach Darrell Funk. Purdue's recruiting class consisted including three that enrolled early. Purdue's recruiting class was ranked 84th by Scout, 74th by Rivals, 61st by ESPN. Purdue announced its 2016 football schedule on July 11, 2013.

The 2016 schedule consists of 7 home and 5 away games in the regular season. The Boilermakers will host Big Ten foes Iowa, Penn State, Wisconsin, will travel to Illinois, Maryland and Nebraska; the team will host all of the three non–conference games which are against the Cincinnati Bearcats from the American Athletic Conference, the Eastern Kentucky Colonels from the Ohio Valley Conference, the Nevada Wolf Pack from the Mountain West Conference. Schedule Source: Radio coverage for all games will be broadcast statewide on The Purdue Sports Network and on Sirius XM Satellite Radio; the radio announcers are Tim Newton with play-by-play, Pete Quinn with color commentary, Kelly Kitchel with sideline reports. To begin the season, Purdue hosted the Eastern Kentucky Colonels; this was the first meeting between the teams since 2012, which saw Purdue defeat Eastern Kentucky 48–6. Purdue won the game 45–24. Purdue opened the scoring in the first quarter with a 3-yard touchdown rush and added to its lead with a 1-yard run by David Blough.

Purdue would increase their lead more with a 78-yard interception return by Gelen Robinson. After Missouri transfer Maty Mauk struggled in his first drive, Eastern Kentucky opened their scoring near the end of the first quarter with a 10-yard pass to Dan Crimmins from Bennie Coley and added a two-point conversion with a Neiko Creamer rush. Purdue responded to Eastern Kentucky touchdown with a 35-yard touchdown pass to DeAngelo Yancey from David Blough. On the ensuing drive, Eastern Kentucky added 3 points with a 35-yard field goal by Lucas Williams; the Colonels would add a 10-yard touchdown run by Ethan Thomas to draw the score 28–18 at halftime. After both teams failed to score any points in the third quarter, Purdue opened the scoring in the fourth with a 1-yard run by David Blough. J. D. Dellinger added a 48-yard run by Brian Lankford-Johnson. Eastern Kentucky closed out the scoring with a 2-yard pass to Cameron Fogle from Tyler Swafford. Purdue's 45 points scored. After its game against Eastern Kentucky, Purdue will faced Cincinnati.

Cincinnati defeated Purdue 42–7 in the previous meeting. Purdue was defeated 38–20 by Cincinnati. Cincinnati opened the scoring with a 5-yard pass to Nate Cole from Hayden Moore. Cincinnati increased their lead with a 9-yard Moore run to make the score 14-0. Purdue got on the board with a 19-yard Domonique Young pass to David Blough. Cincinnati closed out the first half scoring with a 20-yard D. J. Dowdy pass from Moore to make the score 21-7; the only scoring during the 3rd quarter was a 26-yard field goal by Andrew Gantz. Cole scored again for the Bearcats on a 28-yard pass from Moore. Purdue's comeback attempt started with a 4-yard Richie Worship run. Purdue scored again on a 36-yard pass from DeAngelo Yancey from Blough. After Blough was intercepted by Mike Tyson on their next drive, Cincinnati capped the scoring on a 23-yard run by Moore. After playing Cincinnati, Purdue hosted the Nevada Wolf Pack; this was the first meeting between the two teams. Purdue overcame an 11-point second quarter deficit to defeat the Nevada Wolf Pack 24–14.

Purdue began the game with the loss of both of their starting offensive tackles, Martesse Patterson and Matt McCann for personal and injury reasons. Nevada opened up the scoring with a 15-yard touchdown pass from Tyler Stewart. Purdue answered back in the second quarter with a 36-yard field goal from J. D. Dellinger. After an exchanging of punts, Nevada increased their lead with a 6-yard touchdown pass to James Butler from Stewart. Purdue scored one more time before the half on a 48-yard pass to Bilal Marshall from David Blough

Big Daddy (1999 film)

Big Daddy is a 1999 American comedy film directed by Dennis Dugan and starring Adam Sandler, Joey Lauren Adams, Jon Stewart, Rob Schneider, Cole Sprouse, Dylan Sprouse, Leslie Mann. The film was produced by Robert Simonds and released on June 25, 1999, by Sony Pictures Releasing it label to Columbia Pictures, where it opened #1 at the box office with a $41,536,370 first weekend, it was Sandler's last film before starting his production company, Happy Madison Productions, his first film distributed by Columbia Pictures, his highest-grossing film domestically until Hotel Transylvania 2. Immature and lazy 32-year-old bachelor Sonny Koufax lives in New York City and refuses to take on adult responsibility. Despite having a law degree, he refuses to take the bar exam, works one day a week as a toll booth attendant, lives off a large compensation payout from a minor accident, his girlfriend Vanessa threatens to break up with him. His roommate Kevin Gerrity proposes to his podiatrist girlfriend Corinne Maloney before he leaves for China to work at his law firm, she accepts.

Sonny teases Corinne about her former job at Hooters. The next day, Sonny wakes up to find a five-year-old boy named Julian McGrath abandoned at their apartment. A written explanation states that Julian's mother is no longer able to care for him and that Kevin is his biological father. Sonny contacts Kevin, puzzled by the news, but Sonny assures him that he will look after Julian until Kevin returns from China. In order to win Vanessa back, Sonny introduces her to Julian. However, he discovers that she is now dating Sid, an elderly man, more motivated and intelligent and has a "five-year plan." Posing as Kevin, Sonny takes Julian to his social worker Arthur Brooks, telling him that Julian should return to his mother. However, Brooks informs Sonny. Sonny decides to raise Julian his own way; as such, the boy renames himself "Frankenstein" and helps Sonny find a new girlfriend in Corinne's lawyer sister Layla. Brooks finds a foster home for Julian and leaves messages for Sonny, but is suspicious when Sonny does not answer.

At a meeting at Julian's school, the teacher is shocked by the terrible habits Sonny has allowed Julian to develop, causing Sonny to rethink his parenting methods. He turns Julian's behavior around, but Brooks arrives to find out Sonny impersonated Kevin, threatens to arrest him if he doesn't hand over Julian. Sonny contacts Layla to help take legal action. In court, numerous people including Corinne testify on Sonny's behalf and tell the judge he is a suitable father. Julian testifies and provides information regarding his heritage. Sonny calls himself to the stand and asks his Florida lawyer father Lenny to question him. Despite Lenny's fervent belief that Sonny is not father material, Sonny convinces Lenny that he will try his best at being a father. Impressed by Sonny's sincerity, Lenny vouches for him. Nonetheless, the unconvinced judge orders Sonny's arrest. Kevin, having pieced the necessary information together, confesses to being Julian's biological father and insists they drop the charges.

Sonny hands him off to Kevin, watching them bond. One year Sonny has turned his life around: he is a successful lawyer, is married to Layla, they have a child of their own. At Sonny's surprise birthday party at a Hooters restaurant, attended by Kevin, Corinne and others, Sonny sees Vanessa working as a waitress with Sid working as a cook, revealing his "five-year-plan" has gone awry. Everyone but Vanessa celebrates Sonny's birthday. Adam Sandler as Sonny Koufax Joey Lauren Adams as Layla Maloney Jon Stewart as Kevin Gerrity Rob Schneider as Nazo Cole Sprouse and Dylan Sprouse as Julian "Frankenstein" McGrath Leslie Mann as Corinne Maloney Jonathan Loughran as Mike Allen Covert as Phil D'Amato Peter Dante as Tommy Grayton Kristy Swanson as Vanessa Joseph Bologna as Lenny Koufax Steve Buscemi as Homeless Guy Josh Mostel as Arthur Brooks Edmund Lyndeck as Mr. Herlihy Geoffrey Horne as Sid Jackie Sandler as Waitress Helen Lloyd Breed as Ms. Foote Chloé Hult as Teacher Jared Sandler as Jared Jillian Sandler as Jillian Carmen De Lavallade as Judge Steven Brill as Castellucci On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 40% based on 93 reviews, an average rating of 5.1/10.

The site's critical consensus reads, "Adam Sandler acquits himself admirably, but his charm isn't enough to make up for Big Daddy's jarring shifts between crude humor and mawkish sentimentality." On Metacritic the film has a weighted average score of 41 out of 100, based on reviews from 26 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews". Audiences surveyed by CinemaScore gave the film a grade B+. Nathan Rabin of The A. V. Club called it "Sandler's best movie" noting that "Sandler possesses an innocence that makes the mean-spiritedness inherent in much of his work palatable." Robert Koehler of Variety called it "a step forward for Adam Sandler, as well as a strategy to expand his audience. While the loyal male-teen aud core will not be disappointed with the spate of gags just for them, story contains solid date-movie material."Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times said: "There's no doubt Sandler is talented, but if he persists in believing that, like Elvis, his presence alone covers a multitude of omissions and inconsistencies, he will squander his gift and make a series of forgettable films in the process."Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film one-and-a-half out of four stars, describing the main character as "seriously disturbed" and the story as "predictable", although he did praise Joey Lauren Adams's character as "entertaining".

The film won a BMI Film Music Award. Th

Thomas Täglichsbeck

Thomas Täglichsbeck was a German violinist and composer. Täglichsbeck was born in Ansbach, his family settled in the region of the Vogtland between Bavaria and Saxony, in 1800. Following violin lessons from his father, Johann Täglichsbeck, young Thomas moved to Munich where he studied with Pietro Rovelli. In 1817 a mass of his, written under the supervision of Josef Gratz, was performed in Munich; that same year, Täglichsbeck became a violinist in the Isarthortheater orchestra. Two years at the age of 20, he succeeded Lindpaintner as music director, making him one of the youngest conductors of the theater orchestra in Lower Saxony. In 1822 he became a solo violinist at the Munich court, which had the added advantage of freeing up his time to work on composing. On 24 August 1823 Webers Bild, premiered at the court theater, his variations on La gazza ladra date from this period. In 1824 he made an extensive tour of Germany and northern Italy. Reviews of his concerts in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung are laudatory, although his playing in Munich in 1832 was described as ‘more charming than exceptional’.

In 1827 Täglichsbeck became the Kapellmeister to Prince Hohenzollern-Hechingen. Under Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Konstantin the court became a well-known musical centre, visited by Berlioz and Liszt; when political changes in 1848 eliminated the principality, Täglichsbeck was pensioned and the musicians were given paid leave. Constantine recalled Täglichsbeck from Stuttgart in 1852 and reconstituted his orchestra at Löwenberg. Five years Täglichsbeck was pensioned and succeeded by Max Seyfriz, he subsequently taught composition at the Dresden Conservatory for two years lived for a while in Munich before retiring to Baden-Baden in 1866. He died in Baden-Baden a year aged 67; the climax of Täglichsbeck’s career as a composer came with the performance of his Symphony no. 1 in E at the Paris Conservatoire in 1836. It was a popular success, though Berlioz dismissed it as ‘academic music, nothing more’; the opera König Enzio, produced in Karlsruhe in 1843, did not establish itself in the repertory. Täglichsbeck was an excellent Kapellmeister, a good if not brilliant violinist and a skilled if not original composer.

Albert Mell. The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, edited by Stanley Sadie. ISBN 0-333-73432-7 and ISBN 1-56159-228-5 Free scores by Thomas Täglichsbeck at the International Music Score Library Project

John Pelham (bishop)

John Thomas Pelham, styled The Honourable from birth, was a British Anglican clergyman. He was the third son of Thomas Pelham, 2nd Earl of Chichester and his wife Lady Mary Henrietta Juliana Osborne, eldest daughter of Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds, his older brothers were Henry Pelham, 3rd Earl of Chichester and Frederick Thomas Pelham, a rear-admiral in the Royal Navy. Pelham was educated at Westminster School and went to Christ Church, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1832 and Master of Arts four years thereafter. In 1857, he received a Doctor of Divinity by the University of Oxford. Pelham was ordained by Charles James Blomfield, at that time Bishop of London, in 1834 and assumed the post as deacon of Eastergate, befriending Henry Edward Manning. In 1837, he was appointed rector at Bergh Apton until 1852, when he was transferred as curate to Christ Church, Hampstead. After three years, he became rector of Marylebone and in 1857 on the resignation of Samuel Hinds, he was consecrated the 64th Bishop of Norwich.

From 1847, he served as chaplain to Queen Victoria. Pelham spent the next year in Thorpe St Andrew. On 6 November 1845, Pelham married Henrietta Tatton, second daughter of Thomas William Tatton, had by her four sons and a daughter, his oldest child was the scholar Henry Francis Pelham. He is commemorated by a monument in Norwich Cathedral. Atherton, Ian. Norwich Cathedral: Church and Diocese, 1096-1996. London: The Hambledon Press. ISBN 1-85285-134-1

Johannes Junius

Johannes Junius was the mayor of Bamberg, a victim of the Bamberg witch trials, who wrote a letter to his daughter from jail while he awaited execution for witchcraft. Junius had first entered local politics in 1608 and had held the title of burgomaster in the years 1614, 1617, 1621, from the years 1624 to 1628; the Bamberg witch trials, which lasted from 1626 to 1631, were presided over by Prince-Bishop Johann Georg, dedicated to spreading the Counter-Reformation. There had been suspicion of Junius being due to his wife having been executed for witchcraft. Another bürgermeister, Georg Neudecker had been accused of witchcraft and, following his imprisonment in April 1628, named Junius as an accomplice, leading to his arrest in June 1628. Junius was implicated in the confessions of other suspected witches. Court documents describe how Junius at first denied all charges and demanded to confront his witnesses, continued to deny his involvement in witchcraft after a week of torture, which included the application of thumbscrews, leg vises, strappado.

He confessed on July 5, 1628, in which he claimed that he had renounced God for the Devil and that he had seen twenty-seven of his colleagues at a sabbat. Junius was publicly burned to death one month later. In his confession, Junius relates that in 1624, while in a difficult financial state, he was seduced by a woman who proved to be a succubus and threatened to kill him unless he renounced God. At first Junius refused, but soon more demons materialised and attacked him further convincing him to accept the Devil as his God, he took the witch-name of Krix and was provided with a familiar named Füchsin, at which point several local townsfolk revealed themselves as allied with Satan and congratulated him. Thereafter he attended witch's sabbats, to which he rode on the back of a monstrous, flying black dog. At one such sabbat he attended a Black Mass. Although his fellow witches and familiar demons had commanded him to kill his children in their name, he had been unable to perform this sacrifice, for which he was beaten.

However, he did burying a sacred wafer. On July 24, shortly before his execution, Junius managed to write a letter to his daughter, smuggled out of jail by his guard and delivered. In the letter he defends his innocence, claims that those who testified against him have secretly begged his forgiveness, recounts the abject horror of his torture, from which his hands still shake at the time of writing the letter, he says that at first he attempted to create a confession in which he could not identify the other witches, but was forced to name names under threat of further torture. The letter begins: "Many hundred thousand good-nights, dearly beloved daughter Veronica," and ends "Good night, for your father Johannes Junius will see you no more." Many hundred thousand good-nights, dearly beloved daughter Veronica. Innocent have I come into prison, innocent have I been tortured, innocent must. For whoever comes into the witch prison must become a witch or be tortured until he invents something out of his head and - God pity him- bethinks him of something.

I will tell you. When I was the first time put to the torture, Dr. Braun, Dr. Kotzendorffer, two strange doctors were there. Dr. Braun, asks me, "Kinsman, how come you here?", I answer, "Through falsehood, through misfortune." "Hear, "you are a witch. If not, we'll bring in witnesses and the executioner for you." I said "I am no witch, I have a pure conscience in the matter. Now the chancellor's son was set before me... and afterward Hoppfen Elss. She had seen me dance on Haupts-moor... I answered: "I have never renounced God, will never do it- God graciously keep me from it. I'll rather bear whatever I must." And came also- God in highest Heaven have mercy- the executioner, put the thumb-screws on me, both hands bound together, so that the blood ran out at the nails and everywhere, so that for four weeks I could not use my hands, as you can see from the writing... Thereafter they first stripped me, bound my hands behind me, drew me up in the torture. I thought heaven and earth were at an end, and this happened on Friday, June 30, with God's help I had to bear the torture.

When at last the executioner led me back into the prison, he said to me: "Sir, I beg you, for God's sake confess something, for you cannot endure the torture which you will be put to. Not before that," he said, "will they let you go, as you may see by all their trials, for one is just like another."... And so I begged, since I was in a wretched plight, to be given one day for a priest; the priest was refused me. Now, my dear child, see what hazard I still stand. I must say that I am a witch, though I am not, - must now renounce God, though I have never done it before Day and night I was troubled, but a last there came to me a new idea. I would not be anxious, since I had been given no priest with whom I could take counsel, I would myself think of something and say it, it were better that I just say it with mouth and words though I had not done it'.