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Apache HTTP Server

The Apache HTTP Server, colloquially called Apache, is a free and open-source cross-platform web server software, released under the terms of Apache License 2.0. Apache is developed and maintained by an open community of developers under the auspices of the Apache Software Foundation; the vast majority of Apache HTTP Server instances run on a Linux distribution, but current versions run on Microsoft Windows and a wide variety of Unix-like systems. Past versions ran on OpenVMS, NetWare, OS/2 and other operating systems, including ports to mainframes. Based on the NCSA HTTPd server, development of Apache began in early 1995 after work on the NCSA code stalled. Apache played a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web overtaking NCSA HTTPd as the dominant HTTP server, has remained most popular since April 1996. In 2009, it became the first web server software to serve more than 100 million websites; as of August 2019, it was estimated to serve 29% of all active websites, ranked 2nd after nginx at 32%, 32% of the top million websites, ranked 2nd after "Other" with 33%.

A number of explanations for the origin of the Apache name have been offered over the years. From the inception of the Apache project in 1995 the official documentation stated: Apache is a cute name which stuck, it was based on a series of software patches, a pun on "A PAtCHy" server. In an April 2000 interview, Brian Behlendorf, one of the creators of Apache said: The name came out of the blue. I wish I could say that it was something fantastic. I put it on a page and a few months when this project started, I pointed people to this page and said: "Hey, what do you think of that idea?"... Someone said they liked the name and that it was a good pun, and I was like, "A pun? What do you mean?" He said, "Well, we're building a server out of a bunch of software patches, right? So it's a patchy Web server." I went, "Oh, all right."... When I thought of the name, no, it just sort of connotated: "Take no prisoners. Be kind of aggressive and kick some ass." Since 2013 the Apache Foundation has explained the origin of the name as: The name'Apache' was chosen from respect for the various Native American nations collectively referred to as Apache, well-known for their superior skills in warfare strategy and their inexhaustible endurance.

It makes a cute pun on "a patchy web server"—a server made from a series of patches—but this was not its origin. The group of developers who released this new software soon started to call themselves the "Apache Group"; when Apache is running under Unix, its process name is httpd, short for "HTTP daemon". Apache supports a variety of features, many implemented as compiled modules which extend the core functionality; these can range from authentication schemes to supporting server-side programming languages such as Perl, Tcl and PHP. Popular authentication modules include mod_access, mod_auth, mod_digest, mod_auth_digest, the successor to mod_digest. A sample of other features include Secure Sockets Layer and Transport Layer Security support, a proxy module, a URL rewriting module, custom log files, filtering support. Popular compression methods on Apache include the external extension module, mod_gzip, implemented to help with reduction of the size of web pages served over HTTP. ModSecurity is an open source intrusion prevention engine for Web applications.

Apache logs can be analyzed through a Web browser using free scripts, such as AWStats/W3Perl or Visitors. Virtual hosting allows one Apache installation to serve many different websites. For example, one computer with one Apache installation could serve,,, etc. Apache features configurable error messages, DBMS-based authentication databases, content negotiation and supports several graphical user interfaces, it supports digital certificate authentication. Because the source code is available, anyone can adapt the server for specific needs, there is a large public library of Apache add-ons. A more detailed list of features is provided below: Loadable Dynamic Modules Multiple Request Processing modes including Event-based/Async and Prefork. Scalable Handling of static files, index files, auto-indexing and content negotiation.htaccess per-directory configuration support Reverse proxy with cachingLoad balancing with in-band health checks Multiple load balancing mechanisms Fault tolerance and Failover with automatic recovery WebSocket, FastCGI, SCGI, AJP and uWSGI support with caching Dynamic configuration TLS/SSL with SNI and OCSP stapling support, via OpenSSL or wolfSSL.

Name- and IP address-based virtual servers IPv6-compatible HTTP/2 support Fine-grained authentication and authorization access control gzip compression and decompression URL rewriting Headers and content rewriting Custom logging with rotation Concurrent connection limiting Request processing rate limiting Bandwidth throttling Server Side Includes IP address-based geolocation User and Session tracking WebDAV Embedded Perl, PHP and Lua scripting CGI support public_html per-user web-pages Generic expression parser Real-time status views XML support FTP support Instead of implementing a single architecture, Apache provides a variety of MultiProcessing Modules, which allow it to run in either a process-based mode, a hybrid mode, or an event-hybrid mode, in order to better match the demands of each particular infrastructure. Choice of MPM and configuration is therefore i

Jewish-Polish history (1989–present)

With the end of Communism in Poland, many historical issues related to the Holocaust in Poland and the long period of Soviet domination in the country – suppressed by Communist censorship – have been reevaluated and publicly discussed leading to better understanding and visible improvement in Polish-Jewish relations. In 1989, the Soviet-backed regime – notorious for its political repression – collapsed, thus exposing the rift between the Polish and Jewish communities caused by the World War II remembrance and the 1944–1989 period of prolonged human rights violations committed by the Polish government against its own people. Since the 20th-century history of the Polish Jews have been popularized, including the circumstances surrounding the Massacre in Jedwabne, the Koniuchy Massacre, the Polish-Jewish wartime as well as postwar relations in general, Stalinist reign of terror and the March 1968 events. Many negative stereotypes originating from the cold-war literature on the subject have been challenged.

The rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust suppressed by the Soviet-backed regime in an attempt to discredit the Polish resistance movements as reactionary has been reasserted. In 1993 the Union of Jewish Religious Communities in Poland was established with the aim of organizing the religious and cultural life of the members of the Jewish communities in Poland, it helps the descendants of the Holocaust survivors in a variety of legal matters such as, in the process of recovery and restoration of property once owned by the Jewish Kehilla and nationalized in communist Poland. Jewish religious practise has been helped financially with grants from the Ronald Lauder Foundation; the Polish Jewish community employs two rabbis, runs a network of Jewish schools and summer camps, sustains several Jewish periodicals and book series. Academic Jewish studies programs were established at Warsaw University and the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. Kraków became home to the Judaica Foundation, which has sponsored a wide range of cultural and educational programs on Jewish themes for a predominantly Polish audience.

Poland was the first Communist Bloc country to recognize Israel in 1986 again, restore full relations in 1990. Government relations between Poland and Israel are improving, resulting in the mutual visits of presidents and the ministers of foreign affairs; the Polish government will finance the construction of the Museum of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw. In September 2000, dignitaries from Poland, the United States, other countries gathered in the city of Oświęcim to commemorate the opening of the refurbished Chevra Lomdei Mishnayot synagogue and the Auschwitz Jewish Center; the synagogue, the sole synagogue in Oświęcim to survive World War II and an adjacent Jewish cultural and educational center, provide visitors a place to pray and to learn about the active pre–World War II Jewish community that existed in Oświęcim. The synagogue was the first communal property in the country to be returned to the Jewish community under the 1997 law allowing for restitution of Jewish communal property.

In April 2001, during the 13th March of the Living from Auschwitz to Birkenau honouring victims of the Holocaust, several hundred local citizens joined the 2,000 marchers from Israel and other countries. Government officials participating in the event included Members of Parliament, the province's governor, Oświęcim's mayor and the chairman of city council. Schoolchildren, boy scouts, the Polish-Israeli Friendship Society, the Polish Union of Jewish Students participated in the march. In May 2001, several hundred students from around the world marched through the town in The March of Remembrance and Hope. In April 2002, during the 14th March of the Living from Auschwitz to Birkenau to honor victims of the Holocaust, several hundred citizens joined 1,500 marchers from Israel and other countries. In a 2005 survey commissioned by Anti-Defamation League from New York in 12 European countries, asking about selective stereotypes among 500 callers each, Polish respondents averaged 52% at question #1, 43% at #2, 43% at #3, 52% at #4 and 39% at #5 asked if "The Jews are responsible for the death of Christ", with the lowest percentage of believers that Israeli actions were responsible for violence against European Jews among all of the 12 countries surveyed.

According to a Polish survey conducted in 2005, by CBOS institute, in which Poles were asked to assess their attitudes toward 32 nationalities representing different European and non-European countries, 45% claimed to feel antipathy towards Jews with 18% to feel sympathy, while 29% felt impartial and 8% were undecided. Those surveyed were asked to express their feeling on the scale from −3 to +3; the average score for attitude towards Jews was −0.67 in that year. In the CBOS survey from 2010, antipathy decreased to 27%, sympathy rose to 31%; the average score for attitude was +0.05 at that time. The Chief Rabbi of Poland, Michael Schudrich, said in a BBC interview: "it's... false and painful stereotype that all Poles are antisemitic. This is something I want to state: this is a false stereotype. Today there is antisemitism in Poland, as the rest of Europe. More important is that you have a growing number of Poles who oppose antisemitism."According to Alina Cała, in 1968 the Moczarite faction transposed the Jewish victims


Koumasa is the site of a prepalatial cemetery on Crete. The cemetery is located between Loukia and Koumasa near the southern border of the Mesara plain, right at the foothills of the Asterousia-Mountains; this Minoan archaeological site was first excavated by Stephanos Xanthoudides from 1904-1906, published in The vaulted tombs of Mesara. After another campaign within the years 1991 and 1992 by Alexandra Karetsou and Athanasia Kanta, the site is investigated by the University of Heidelberg supervised by Prof. Dr. Diamantis Panagiotopoulos; the site contained four tombs. Circa 10 meters in diameter and a couple of meters in height, Minoan tholoi are considered to be the tombs of the elite and richly-stocked with valuable objects. Though the site is known for these sepulcral remains, as being part of Xanthoudides fundamental studies, the site extends further to the east. There, on the steep slope as well as on top of the mound itself, Minoan archaeologists expect the position of the actual city and a precinct of bronze-age Koumasa.

After Xanthoudides excavation back at the beginning of the 20th century, Koumasa was robbed and declined until 1991, when Alexandra Karetsou and Athanasia Kanta redirected the attention to the promising site. The excavations were dropped afterwards. With the permission of the Greek ephory the site is since 2012 under investigation again by a multi-year interdisciplinary research programme of the University of Heidelberg, under the direction von Prof. Dr. Diamantis Panagiotopoulos; the aim is to further investigate the site and its immediate landscape with both archaeological and scientific methods. Within this project experts of the geographical Institute of Heidelberg, supervised by Prof. Dr. Olaf Bubenzer, examine the Koumasa-Area with Terrestrial-Laser-Scanning. In cooperation with the Ben Gurion University of the Negev micromorphological specialists, supervised by Prof. Dr. Yuval Goren, contribute as a third part to the interdisciplinary project. Pottery is of the Early Minoan IIA Koumasa style.

Clay and stone vases Seals Figurines Tools 3 Silver Daggers Swindale, Ian. "Koumasa" Retrieved 13 January 2006 Xanthoudides, Stéphanos, The Vaulted Tombs of Mesara, 1924. Herrero, Borja Legarra, The Secret Lives of the Early and Middle Minoan Tholos Cemeteries: Koumasa and Platanos, in: J. Murphy - Ph. Betancourt, Prehistoric Greece. Regional and Diacronic Studies on Mortuary Systems, 2011

Prince Dimitri of Yugoslavia

Prince Dimitrije "Dimitri" of Yugoslavia known as Dimitri Karageorgevich or Dimitri Karađorđević, is founder and creative director of the jewelry firm bearing his name, Prince Dimitri Company. He was senior vice president of the jewelry department of the Sotheby's auction house, he was named to the International Best Dressed List's Hall of Fame in 1994. Prince Dimitri was raised in Versailles, attending boarding schools in Switzerland, he graduated from the University of Paris with a degree in business law. He moved to New York City in 1983. Pursuing a career on Wall Street, he decided to move into the field of jewelry, he was offered a position in Sotheby's jewelry department rising to senior vice president. During his 15 years with Sotheby's, he became an appraiser and studied gemology. Prince Dimitri began designing jewelry in 1999, with a collection of gemstone cufflinks, sold at Bergdorf Goodman and Saks Fifth Avenue, he designed a line of women's jewelry for Barneys New York and Neiman Marcus.

In 2002, he moved to the Phillips de Pury & Luxembourg auction house to head their jewelry department. In 2007, he and business partner Todd Morley founded the Prince Dimitri Company, which opened a salon in Manhattan, his jewelry has been sold at auction by Christie's. Prince Dimitri and Prince Michael of Yugoslavia are the first set of twins born to Prince Alexander of Yugoslavia and his first wife, Princess Maria Pia of Savoy, the eldest daughter of Umberto II of Italy in 1958. Maria Pia had a second set of twins, Prince Sergius and Princess Helene of Yugoslavia in 1963, they have a younger half-brother, Prince Dushan of Yugoslavia, from their father's second marriage to Princess Barbara of Liechtenstein. Prince Dimitri belongs to the cadet branch of the Royal House of Yugoslavia, descending from Prince Regent-Prince Paul of Yugoslavia, he is a third cousin of Crown Prince of Yugoslavia. His maternal grandmother was Princess Marie José of Belgium, whose father was Albert I, King of the Belgians.

His paternal grandmother was Princess Olga of Denmark. His paternal great-grandfather was Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark, an avid oil painter and son of George I, King of the Hellenes, his paternal great-great grandfather was the Grand Duke Vladimir of Russia, patron of the avant-garde, who spurred the creation of the Ballets Russes. From here, Prince Dimitri’s lineage of creativity can be followed, as can his curiosity and love for fine gems and jewelry, it was his paternal grandmother who related firsthand the magnificence of the jewelry collection of her mother and grandmothers. His great-grandmother Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia had inherited all of the diamonds belonging to her mother, Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia, a collection renowned the world over for its lavish, exquisite breadth. Prince Dimitri is a first cousin of Emanuele Filiberto, Prince of Venice, the son and heir of the pretender to the throne of Italy, first cousin of the actress Catherine Oxenberg.

Through Prince Dimitri's parents he is related to every royal family in Europe, making him over 1000th in the line of succession to the British throne. 18 June 1958 – present: His Royal Highness Prince Dimitri of Yugoslavia. House of Karađorđević: Knight Grand Cordon of the Royal Order of the Crown House of Savoy: Knight Grand Cordon of the Royal Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus Entry on Dimitri at Genealogy of the Royal House of Karageorgevich of Yugoslavia at Coat of Arms of HRH Prince Dimitrije Karageorgevich

Peter Koslowski

Peter Koslowski was a Professor of Philosophy Philosophy of Management and Organisation and History of Modern Philosophy, at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. He was born in Göttingen, Germany, in 1952, studied at University of Tübingen, University of Munich, Virginia Tech, he earned his Doctorate in Philosophy in 1979 and his Master's degree in Economics 1980. 1985-87 Professor and Director, Institute for the Studium fundamentale, Witten/Herdecke University. Adjunct Professor of Philosophy and Political Economy 1987-2004 1987-2001 Founding Director, Forschungsinstitut für Philosophie Hannover 1996-2001 Founding Director of its Centrum für Ethische Ökonomie und Wirtschaftskultur. Indianapolis, USA 2003-2004 Fellow, International Center for Economic Research, Italy 2004-date Professor of Philosophy, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands 1980-date Chair, CIVITAS. Society for the Promotion of Science and Art, Munich. Herzen Russian State University St. Petersburg and Russian State University of Commerce Moscow 2001 Recipient of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Bundesverdienstkreuz Koslowski has written numerous books and co-authored/edited many more - listed on his CV.

The Ethics of Banking. Conclusions from the Financial Crisis. German original: Ethik der Banken. Folgerungen aus der Finanzkrise, Chinese translation forthcoming. Principles of Ethical Economy. German original: Prinzipien der Ethischen Ökonomie, Chinese, Russian translations. Ethics of Capitalism, with a Comment by James M. Buchanan, in: Ethics of Capitalism and Critique of Sociobiology. Two Essays. German original: Ethik des Kapitalismus. Mit einem Kommentar von James M. Buchanan, Spanish, Japanese, Korean translations. Die postmoderne Kultur. Philosophien der Offenbarung. Antiker Gnostizismus, Franz von Baader, Schelling, 2001, 2nd ed. 2003. Der Mythos der Moderne. Die dichterische Philosophie Ernst Jüngers, 1991. Russian translation). Vaterland Europa. Wirtschaft als Kultur. Politik und Ökonomie bei Aristoteles. Gesellschaft und Staat. Ein unvermeidlicher Dualismus. Staat und Gesellschaft bei Kant (State and Society in Kant. Nachruf auf den Marxismus-Leninismus; as Editor: Friedrich Gentz: The Origin and Principles of the American Revolution, Compared with the Origin and Principles of the French Revolution and with an Introduction by Peter Koslowski, translated by John Quincy Adams, Chinese translation forthcoming.

Free edition available online: Elements of a Philosophy of Management. The Discovery of Historicity in German Idealism and Historism. A Discourse of the World Religions, 5 Vols. Vol. 1: God, the Origin of the World, the Image of the Human in the World Religions, Vol. 2: The Origin and Overcoming of Evil and Suffering, Vol. 3: Nature and Technology in the World Religions, Vol. 4: Progress and Completion of History and Life after Death of the Human Person in the World Religions, 2001–2002. Gnosis und Theodizee. Eine Studie über den leidenden Gott des Gnostizismus (Gnosticis

Kara Kockelman

Kara Kockelman is an American civil and transportation engineer, the Dewitt Greer Professor at the University of Texas at Austin the Clare Boothe Luce Professor of Civil Engineering, a published author. Kockelman’s work focuses on transportation, includes planning for future implementation of shared and autonomous vehicle systems as well as policies like credit-based congestion pricing and urban growth boundaries. Kockelman graduated in Palo Alto, California, she attended the University of California, where she received her BS in civil engineering in 1991. She earned her MS in civil engineering in 1996, along with her MCP in city and regional planning. In 1998, she received her PhD in civil engineering from UC Berkeley. Kockelman accepted the position of Clare Boothe Luce Assistant Professor of civil engineering at the University of Texas at Austin in the fall of 1998, before advancing to Associate Professor in 2004. By 2009, she had become a full-time tenured professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.

Dr. Kockelman is a professor of Transportation Engineering at the University of Texas, Austin, she is an expert in transportation and emerging technologies, focusing on city infrastructure and automated vehicles. She is a champion for thoughtful applications of connected and automated vehicles, believing they can save thousands of lives increase productivity, save billions or trillions of dollars. Kockleman's work focuses on finding the best technology to save lives and money in the transportation sector, her work uses modeling to predict the ways that new vehicle technologies could affect populations in the future, based on varying scenarios like policy changes, economic situations, technology costs. She and her colleagues study differences in ownership of automated vehicles, such as private ownership, shared vehicles, taxi services. Kockelman's publication record consists of more than 140 refereed publications, covering a wide variety of subjects, nearly all of which involve transportation-related data analysis.

According to Google Scholar, her papers have been referenced over 8,500 times in scholarly publications. She is a member of multiple standing committees of the Transportation Research Board. Kockelman has had papers published in multiple academic transportation journals, such as Transportation, Journal of Urban Planning and Development, Transportation Research, Transportation Research Record and the Journal of the Transportation Research Forum. Much of Dr. Kockelman's work has appeared in mediums outside of academia, ranging from radio programs like Texas Public Radio to magazines such as Newsweek. In 1991, Kockelman was awarded U. C. Berkeley's University medal, recognizing her as "Most Distinguished Graduate" of her 5,300-person graduating class. In 2002, MIT's Technology Review magazine identified Kockelman as one of the world's "Top 100 Innovators Under 35", followed by the Council of University Transportation Center awarding her its inaugural "Young Faculty Award" in the same year. In 2010, Kockelman received the Walter L. Huber Civil Engineering Research Prize from the American Society of Civil Engineers.

In 2014, ASCE awarded her the James Laurie Prize in transportation engineering. In August 2014, Kockelman received a Google Research Award to pursue research on the topic "Anticipating & Mitigating the Latent Demand Effects of Self Driving Vehicles: A Role for Data-Driven Modeling & Credit-Based Congestion Pricing."