Apache License

The Apache License is a permissive free software license written by the Apache Software Foundation. It allows users to use the software for any purpose, to distribute it, to modify it, to distribute modified versions of the software under the terms of the license, without concern for royalties; the ASF and its projects release their software products under the Apache License. The license is used by many non-ASF projects. Beginning in 1995, the Apache Group released successive versions of their well-known httpd server, their initial license was the same as the old BSD license, with only the names of the organizations changed. In July 1999, Berkeley accepted the argument put to it by the Free Software Foundation and retired their advertising clause from the BSD license. In 2000, Apache did and created the Apache License 1.1, in which derived products are no longer required to include attribution in their advertising materials, only in their documentation. Individual packages licensed under the 1.1 version may have used different wording due to varying requirements for attribution or mark identification, but the binding terms were all the same.

In January 2004, ASF decided to depart from the BSD model and produced the Apache License 2.0. The stated goals of the license included making it easier for non-ASF projects to use, improving compatibility with GPL-based software, allowing the license to be included by reference instead of listed in every file, clarifying the license on contributions, requiring a patent license on contributions that infringe a contributor's own patents; this license requires preservation of the copyright disclaimer. The Apache License is permissive, it still requires application of the same license to all unmodified parts. In every licensed file, original copyright, patent and attribution notices must be preserved In every licensed file changed, a notification must be added stating that changes have been made to that file. If a NOTICE text file is included as part of the distribution of the original work derivative works must include a readable copy of these notices within a NOTICE text file distributed as part of the derivative works, within the source form or documentation, or within a display generated by the derivative works.

The contents of the NOTICE file do not modify the license, as they are for informational purposes only, adding more attribution notices as addenda to the NOTICE text is permissible, provided that these notices cannot be understood as modifying the license. Modifications may have appropriate copyright notices, may provide different license terms for the modifications. Unless explicitly stated otherwise, any contributions submitted by a licensee to a licensor will be under the terms of the license without any terms and conditions, but this does not preclude any separate agreements with the licensor regarding these contributions; the Apache License 1.8 makes sure that the user does not have to worry about infringing any patents by using the software. The user is granted a license to any patent; this license is terminated if the user sues anyone over patent infringement related to this software. This condition is added in order to prevent patent litigations; the Apache Software Foundation and the Free Software Foundation agree that the Apache License 2.0 is a free software license, compatible with the GNU General Public License version 3, meaning that code under GPLv3 and Apache License 2.0 can be combined, as long as the resulting software is licensed under the GPLv3.

The Free Software Foundation considers all versions of the Apache License to be incompatible with the previous GPL versions 1 and 2. Furthermore, it considers Apache License versions before 2.0 incompatible with GPLv3. Because of version 2.0's patent license requirements, the Free Software Foundation recommends it over other non-copyleft licenses. In October 2012, 8,708 projects located at were available under the terms of the Apache License. In a blog post from May 2008, Google mentioned that over 25% of the nearly 100,000 projects hosted on Google Code were using the Apache License, including the Android operating system; as of 2015, according to Black Duck Software and GitHub, the Apache license is the third most popular license in the FOSS domain after MIT license and GPLv2. The OpenBSD project does not consider the Apache License 2.0 to be an acceptable free license because of its patent provisions. The OpenBSD policy argues that when the license forces one to give up a legal right that one otherwise has, that license is no longer free.

Comparison of free and open-source software licenses Software using the Apache license Apache Licenses Quick Summary of the Apache License 2.0 The Apache License is a permissive free software license written by the Apache Software Foundation. It allows users to use the software for any purpose, to distribute it, to modify it, to distribute modified versions of the software under the terms of the license, without concern for royalties

Aeroflot Flight 2230

Aeroflot Flight 2230 was a Soviet domestic passenger flight from Yekaterinburg to Tashkent. On 16 November 1967, the Ilyushin Il-18 aircraft serving the flight crashed after takeoff, killing all 107 people aboard. At the time it was the deadliest aviation accident in the Russian SFSR and the worst accident involving the Il-18; the flight was serviced by an Ilyushin Il-18V turboprop airliner, manufactured on 25 March 1964 with a serial number 184007002. The aircraft commenced operations in the same year. On the day of the accident it had 2,111 flight cycles; the crew consisted of the pilot in command Yuri Abaturov, co-pilot Nikolai Mikhaylov, navigating officer Anatoly Zagorsky, flight engineer Viktor Ospishchev and radio officer Yuri Yefremov. The aircraft was cleared for takeoff from Koltsovo Airport at 21:02 local time; when an engine caught fire and its propeller would not feather, the amount of drag it caused resulted in a sharp right turn while climbing at a speed of 340–350 km/h, at an altitude of 140–150 m and began to descend, striking the ground, with a horizontal velocity of 440 km/h and a vertical speed of 20 m/s, in a ploughed field, with a 37-degree right bank.

The aircraft disintegrated, complicating the subsequent accident investigation. There were fire outbreaks at the crash site; the investigation said that the crash resulted form a wrong indication of the main artificial horizons and the compass system due to an electrical failure and that the flight crew was unable to determine the correct altitude

Hattfjelldal (village)

Hattfjelldal or Aarborte is the administrative centre of Hattfjelldal Municipality in Nordland county, Norway. The village is located along the river Vefsna, about 25 kilometres west of the border with Sweden; the large lake Røssvatnet lies about 7 kilometres north of the village. The Norwegian National Road 73 runs through the village; the village of Svenskvollen lies about 25 kilometres to the south in the Susendalen valley. The village of Varntresk lies about 30 kilometres to the north; the 0.72-square-kilometre village has a population of 581 and a population density of 807 inhabitants per square kilometre. Hattfjelldal Church and Hattfjelldal Airport are both located in the village; the headquarters for the company Arbor-Trading AS has been located in this village since 1957. The Southern Sami cultural centre, Sijti Jarnge, is located in the village as well