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Tim Bull

Timothy Owen Bull is an Australian politician. He has been a National Party member of the Victorian Legislative Assembly since 2010, representing the electorate of Gippsland East, he served as Minister for Local Government and Minister for Aboriginal Affairs in the Napthine Ministry from March to December 2014. Bull grew up in Metung, Victoria on the Gippsland Lakes where he attended Metung Primary School and Nagle College, Bairnsdale. Bull was a newspaper editor, sports program coordinator with the Australian Sports Commission and community advocate in the area of disability services before entering parliament. Prior to entering politics Bull was a country sportsman of note, captaining the Bairnsdale Cricket Association team for a number of years and winning three BCA cricketer of the year titles, he captain coached the East Gippsland Football League interleague team and is a 100-goal kicker in a season. He kicked ten goals in two grand finals, his interests include spending time in the outdoors with his family fishing and camping, continuing to push for better disability services in rural areas, "having some fun" as co-host of a local community radio sports show.

Bull entered Victorian politics at the 2010 Victorian State election, contesting the electorate of Gippsland East for the National Party. As part of the Coalition's election victory over John Brumby's Labor government, Bull ousted the sitting member, Independent Craig Ingram, with a 20-point two-candidate preferred swing, returning the seat to the National Party. On 17 March 2014, he was made Minister for Local Government and Minister for Aboriginal Affairs in the Napthine Ministry, replacing Jeanette Powell, he served until the defeat of the Coalition government that December. Parliamentary voting record of Tim Bull at Victorian Parliament Tracker

Monaco–European Union relations

Relations between the Principality of Monaco and the European Union are conducted through France. Through that relationship Monaco directly participates in certain EU policies. Monaco is an integral part of the EU customs territory and VAT area, therefore applies most measures on excise duties and VAT; however this relationship does not extend to external trade. Preferential trade agreements between the EU and third countries apply only to goods originating from the customs territory – Monaco may not claim EU origin in this respect. Monaco is a de facto member of the Schengen area and it uses the euro as its sole currency, it uses the euro via an agreement with the EU and France and is allowed by the EU to mint its own coins. Monaco uses the euro as it had its currency tied 1:1 with the French franc; the two have concluded agreements on the application of Community legislation to pharmaceuticals, cosmetic products and medical devices. EU membership for Monaco is unlikely as, aside from its size, unlike the constitutional monarchies within the EU, the Prince of Monaco has considerable executive powers and is not a figurehead.

Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004, a move that required it to renegotiate its relations with France, which had the right to nominate various ministers. This was seen as part of a general move toward Europe. In November 2012, after the Council of the European Union had called for an evaluation of the EU's relations with the sovereign European microstates of Andorra and San Marino, which they described as "fragmented", the European Commission published a report outlining options for their further integration into the EU. Unlike Liechtenstein, a member of the European Economic Area via the European Free Trade Association and the Schengen Agreement, relations with these three states are based on a collection of agreements covering specific issues; the report examined four alternatives to the current situation: 1) a Sectoral Approach with separate agreements with each state covering an entire policy area, 2) a comprehensive, multilateral Framework Association Agreement with the three states, 3) EEA membership, 4) EU membership.

The Commission argued that the sectoral approach did not address the major issues and was still needlessly complicated, while EU membership was dismissed in the near future because "the EU institutions are not adapted to the accession of such small-sized countries." The remaining options, EEA membership and a FAA with the states, were found to be viable and were recommended by the Commission. In response, the Council requested that negotiations with the three microstates on further integration continue, that a report be prepared by the end of 2013 detailing the implications of the two viable alternatives and recommendations on how to proceed; as EEA membership is only open to EFTA or EU members, the consent of existing EFTA member states is required for the microstates to join the EEA without becoming members of the EU. In 2011, Jonas Gahr Støre, the Foreign Minister of Norway, an EFTA member state, said that EFTA/EEA membership for the microstates was not the appropriate mechanism for their integration into the internal market due to their different requirements than large countries such as Norway, suggested that a simplified association would be better suited for them.

Espen Barth Eide, Støre's successor, responded to the Commission's report in late 2012 by questioning whether the microstates have sufficient administrative capabilities to meet the obligations of EEA membership. However, he stated that Norway was open to the possibility of EFTA membership for the microstates if they decide to submit an application, that the country had not made a final decision on the matter. Pascal Schafhauser, the Counsellor of the Liechtenstein Mission to the EU, said that Liechtenstein, another EFTA member state, was willing to discuss EEA membership for the microstates provided their joining did not impede the functioning of the organization. However, he suggested that the option of direct membership in the EEA for the microstates, outside of both the EFTA and the EU, should be given consideration. On 18 November 2013 the EU Commission published their report which concluded that "the participation of the small-sized countries in the EEA is not judged to be a viable option at present due to the political and institutional reasons", but that Association Agreements were a more feasible mechanism to integrate the microstates into the internal market, preferably via a single multilateral agreement with all three states.

In December 2014 the Council of the European Union approved negotiations being launched on such an agreement, they began in March 2015. France–Monaco relations Microstates and the European Union

Marco Brighi

Marco Brighi is an Italian footballer who plays for S. P. La Fiorita as a central midfielder. After beginning his career with Rimini, Brighi was signed by Juventus in the summer of 2002, he was loaned to Serie C1 and Serie C2 clubs before being signed permanently by Bellaria Igea Marina. In the 2010–11 season, Marco Brighi played for A. C. Rimini 1912; the team's predecessor, Rimini Calcio, didn't register the team for the new season in Serie Lega Pro Prima Divisione, so the new team, refounded as A. C. Rimini 1912, restarted to play in the Serie D division; the club's new president, Biagio Amati, created the new team with players of high level, Marco Brighi was chosen to be the captain of this team. Marco is one of four brother. MARCO BRIGHI Profile at Marco Brighi at Soccerway

Pedigree chart

A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance of phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next, most humans, show dogs, race horses. The word pedigree is a corruption of the Anglo-Norman French pé de grue or "crane's foot", either because the typical lines and split lines resemble the thin leg and foot of a crane or because such a mark was used to denote succession in pedigree charts. A pedigree results in the presentation of family information in the form of an readable chart. Pedigrees use a standardized set of symbols, squares represent circles represent females. Pedigree construction is a family history, details about an earlier generation may be uncertain as memories fade. If the sex of the person is unknown a diamond is used. Someone with the phenotype in question is represented by a filled-in symbol. Heterozygotes, when identifiable, are indicated by a shade dot inside a symbol or a half-filled symbol. Relationships in a pedigree are shown as a series of lines.

Parents are connected by a horizontal line and a vertical line leads to their offspring. The offspring are connected by a horizontal sibship line and listed in birth order from left to right. If the offspring are twins they will be connected by a triangle. If an offspring dies its symbol will be crossed by a line. If the offspring is still born or aborted it is represented by a small triangle; each generation is identified by a Roman numeral, each individual within the same generation is identified by an Arabic numeral. Analysis of the pedigree using the principles of Mendelian inheritance can determine whether a trait has a dominant or recessive pattern of inheritance. Pedigrees are constructed after a family member afflicted with a genetic disorder has been identified; this individual, known as the proband, is indicated on the pedigree by an arrow. These changes may occur monthly. In England and Wales pedigrees are recorded in the College of Arms, which has records going back to the Middle Ages, including pedigrees collected during roving inquiries by its heralds during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

The purpose of these heraldic visitations was to regulate the use of coats of arms. Those who claimed the right to bear arms had to provide proof either of a grant of arms to them by the College, or of descent from an ancestor entitled to arms, it was for this reason. Pedigrees continue to be registered at the College of Arms and kept up to date on a voluntary basis but they are not accessible to the general public without payment of a fee. More visible, are the pedigrees recorded in published works, such as Burke's Peerage and Burke's Landed Gentry in the United Kingdom and, in continental Europe by the Almanach de Gotha. A pedigree may be used to establish the probability of a child having a particular disorder or condition, it may be used to discover where the genes in question are located, to determine whether a trait is dominant or recessive. When a pedigree shows a condition appearing in a 50:50 ratio between men and women it is considered autosomal; when the condition predominantly affects males in the pedigree it is considered x-linked.

Some examples of dominant traits include: male baldness and dwarfism. Some examples of recessive traits include: small eyes, little body hair, tall stature. In the practice of selective breeding of animals in animal fancy and livestock, including horses, pedigree charts are used to track the ancestry of animals and assist in the planning of suitable breeding programs to enhance desirable traits. Breed registries are formed and are dedicated to the accurate tracking of pedigrees and maintaining accurate records of birth and identifying characteristics of each registered animal. Ahnentafel Cousin chart Family tree Genealogical numbering systems Genogram Foundation bloodstock Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood

Pennsylvania's 17th congressional district

Pennsylvania's 17th congressional district is represented by Democrat Conor Lamb. The district encompasses all of Beaver County and most of western and northern Allegheny County, as well as a portion of southwestern Butler County; the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania ruled that the map violated the state constitution and redrew it in February 2018. What was the 17th district, anchored in Northeast Pennsylvania, was modified to become the 8th district, the old 12th district became the 17th, for the 2018 elections and representation thereafter; because congressional districts are reconfigured and renumbered every 10 years, the following chart displays each time Pennsylvania's districts were changed. Berks County: Townships of Alsace, Bethel, Earl, Heidelberg, Maidencreek, Muhlenberg, North Heidelberg, Ontelaunee, Perry, Richmond, Ruscombmanor, Tulpehocken, Upper Bern, Upper Tulpehocken, Windsor. Dauphin County: all Lebanon County: all Perry County: Townships of Buffalo, Juniata, Oliver, Spring, Tuscarora and Wheatfield.

The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Congressional redistricting in Pennsylvania Daily Kos election results by Congressional District Pennsylvania’s Election Results are Better Explained at the Congressional Level