In Hinduism and Jainism, aparigraha is the virtue of non-possessiveness, non-grasping or non-greediness. Aparigrah is the opposite of parigrah, refers to keeping the desire for possessions to what is necessary or important, depending on one's life stage and context; the precept of aparigraha is a self-restraint from the type of greed and avarice where one's own material gain or happiness comes by hurting, killing or destroying other human beings, life forms or nature. Aparigraha is related to and in part a motivator of dāna, both from giver's and receiver's perspective. Aparigraha is a compound in Sanskrit, made of "a-" and "parigraha"; the prefix "a-" means "non-", so "aparigraha" is the opposite of "parigraha", so aparigraha is speech and actions that oppose and negate parigraha. Parigraha means ‘to amass’, ‘to crave’, ‘to seek’, ‘to seize’, ‘to receive or accept’ material possessions or gifts from others; the word includes the idea of doing good with the expectation of benefit or reward, not just for the sake of doing good.

Parigraha includes the results as well as the intent. The concept of aparigraha as one of the means to liberate the soul from the cycle of birth and death was first laid down by first tirthankara in Jainism, Rishabhdeva. Monier-Williams states that the word "parigraha" has roots in the Vedic texts as well, referring to fencing an altar, enclosing something, assuming or putting on a dress or receiving something. In the Brahmanas and texts, the term contextually means accepting or taking a gift, possessing, controlling something such a property, or assistance, or constraining force on others. In some texts, the root reflects the state of marriage or having a family; the virtue of aparigraha means taking what is necessary and no more. In Yoga school of Hinduism, this concept of virtue has been translated as "abstaining from accepting gifts", "not expecting, asking, or accepting inappropriate gifts from any person", "not applying for gifts which are not to be accepted"; the concept includes in its scope non-covetousness, non-possessiveness.

Taylor states, aparigraha includes the psychological state of "letting go and the releasing of control, fears" and living a content life unfettered by anxieties. Aparigraha is one of the virtues in Jainism, it is one of the five vows that both householders and ascetics must observe. This Jain vow is the principle of limiting one's desires. In Jainism, worldly wealth accumulation is considered as a potential source of rising greed, jealousy and desires. Giving up emotional attachments, sensual pleasures and material possession is a means of liberation, in Jain philosophy. Eating enough to survive is considered more noble than eating for indulgence. All consumption is more appropriate if it is essential to one's survival, inappropriate if it is a form of hoarding, show off or for ego. Non-possession and non-attachment are a form of virtue, these are recommended in stages of one's life. After ahiṃsā, Aparigraha is the second most important virtue in Jainism. In the Yoga Sūtras, aparigraha is listed as the fifth of the Yamas or code of self-restraint, after with Ahimsa, Satya and Brahmacharya.

अहिंसासत्यास्तेय ब्रह्मचर्यापरिग्रहाः यमाः ॥३०॥ Non-violence, Non-falsehood, Non-stealing, Non-cheating, Non-possessiveness are the five Yamas. Aparigraha is thus one of the five essential restraints in Hinduism, that with five essential practices are suggested for right, enlightened living. While Yoga Sutras distills the ten yamas and niyamas, these virtues appear, in various discussions, in Vedic texts, it is part of ethical theory in Hinduism. James Wood states, aparigraha is the virtue of abstaining from appropriating objects because one understands the disadvantages in "acquiring them, keeping them, losing them, being attached to them, or in harming them". Patanjali suggests that greed and coveting material wealth increases greed and possessiveness, a cycle that distracts from good reasons for activity that should motivate a person, to a state where a person seeks material wealth without effort and by harming, hurting or impoverishing someone else, or some living creature. Yoga Sutra's sutra 2.39 states,A quote explaining what John McAfee puts forth in regards to the influence of greed on human behaviors, connections between a few attachments: When we start to satisfy desires, new levels of greed or attachment can start to develop.

Coupled with asteya, parigraha can lead an individual to lie, cheat, or murder for the desired item, regardless of the outcome of their actions. Greed is the highest act of not practicing aparigraha, since greed equates to collecting things well beyond one's immediate or foreseeable future needs. Taking without effort, harming someone's position and life by reducing input, possessiveness impedes accessing public information, changing quality of relations between public service and citizens and harms valued considerations of another's kindness. A significant change is bringing about an orderly virtue, diligence into fields motivated by unhealthy competition and monetary gain, the latter made human life to be unconcerned and uninterested about the positions moved to other states and more so, switched to temporary replacement


SantApprentice is an animated television series in 50 episodes of 12 minutes and two 26 minute episodes created by Jan Van Rijsselberge and made by Alphanim in 2006. The holiday series follows the adventures of Nicolas, a young orphan boy from Sydney, a pure of heart and believes in Santa Claus as he is Santa's Apprentice. Nicolas's job is to achieve his tasks to become full-fledged Santa, it has been shown on Starz Family in the United States. As well as YTV in Canada. France, Finland, Scandinavia and some other countries in Europe as well as Latin America to continue to show this animated TV series during the holiday season. In Philippines it was aired in Christmas 2015 on ABS-CBN; as of 2018, SantApprentice is now available on Amazon Prime Video. What If It's Not Me? Nicolas' Present A Long Night He Doesn't Exist Nobody's Perfect Plumped Up for Christmas Santa's Whim Nicolas in Charge The Greatest Secret Never Happy First Hat-Bell Exam Garland Spray The Secret Door The Big Exam Stardust Blushing Beatrice And Afterwards?

Snowed Under! Memory of Christmas Santa's Fiancée The Infernal Goatskin The Mobile The Old Magician All Those Little Details Father Christmas Santa Playa Club A Real Family The Present Monster Santa's Surprise Ghost of Christmas The Unwanted Present The Lost Bear Grandma Nicole The First Toy A Test! What Test? The Meteorite The Reindeers' Secret So Lucky! Real Toys Metal Granny They've Changed Santa! Elf Certificate The Test of the Mammoth The Melvinelf Practical Joker Santa's Fan O Christmas Tree A Present for Margaret The Day Before Christmas Christmas Peeve French article on Wikipedia SantApprentice on IMDb Series profile at Gaumont. Show Info at Big Cartoon Database

Garuda Municipality

Garuda is a Municipality in Rautahat District in the Narayani Zone of south-eastern Nepal. It is a newly created municipality by merging 7 former Village development committees namely Garuda Bairiya, Basbiti Jingadiya, Jayanagar and Pothiyahi. One of the biggest sugar mill of Nepal, "Shree Ram Sugar Mills", is situated here. Garuda Municipality lies in plain of Terai region of Nepal; the land, here is humus containing. The Garuda Municipality has a tropical climate; the mean annual rainfall at the Garuda Municipality was 2,214 mm between 1995 and 2006. More than 80% of the total annual rainfall occurs during the monsoon season from June to September. Average temperatures ranged from 8.08 °C in January to 34.91 °C in June. In the past, the inner and outer Terai were a formidable barrier between Nepal and potential invaders from India because marshes and forests were infested by anopheline mosquitos that transmitted virulent strains of malaria during the hot spring and rainy summer monsoon. There are several differences between the climate on the eastern edge of the Terai at Biratnagar in Nepal and on the western edge of the Terai at Nepaljung in Nepal to that of Garuda Municipality in Nepal although they lies in same plain of Terai.

Moving inland and away from monsoon sources in the Bay of Bengal, the climate becomes more continental with a greater difference between summer and winter. In the far western Terai, five degrees latitude further north, the coldest months' average is 3 °C cooler. Total rainfall markedly diminishes from east to west; the monsoon arrives is much less intense and ends sooner. However, winters are wetter in the in Nepal near the central edge although both lies in Terai. Moving inland and away from monsoon sources in the Bay of Bengal, the climate becomes more continental with a greater difference between summer and winter. In the far western Terai, five degrees latitude further north, the coldest months' average is 3 °C cooler. Total rainfall markedly diminishes from east to west; the monsoon arrives is much less intense and ends sooner. However, winters are wetter in the west; the campus offers some bachelor courses like Bachelor of Bachelor of Arts, etc.. This school offers education up to 12th class and follow the curriculum of Government School of Nepal.

This is one of a regional system of Nepal Police School in Nepal. This school offers education up to 12th class and follow the curriculum of Government School of Nepal, it is the mid of Gaur-Chandranigahpur Highway which starts from Gaur and joins to East-West Highway in Chandrapur connecting this place to all major cities of Nepal. It is 20 km south of Chandrapur; the transport facility is reliable. All the buses starting from Gaur and heading towards capital of Nepal and other major cities like Birgunj, Pokhara, Nepalgunj, etc. stop here as a next hub of passengers. The nearest domestic airport, Simara Airport, is in Simra while nearest International airport, Nijgadh International Airport, is under construction in Nijgadh. One can reach to all major cities of India using Indian Railways available at Bairgania via Gaur. Nepal Telecom and Ncell have good network coverage. Ncell has a 3G network since a long time here but now Nepal Telecom has a 3G network. There are some Internet service providers available.

This place gained its fortune. After the highway construction and infrastructures followed around these areas. In 1994 A. D. Shree Ram Sugar Mill was erected in Garuda. With the establishment of the sugar industry, farmers had opportunity to open business with the factory, they sold it to the factory in their backyard. The factory opened sources of business in this place. Today the place is the fastest growing market of Rautahat district with every business, it is the center of business in the area with few banks, five-six petrol pumps, hundreds of Grocery stores, handful of Shopping centers, small granary and Eating-oil mills, shoes factory, several restaurants and Area police station. More than 50% of the people are involved in farming and some other engaged in Business or other traditional works, it is the first eye care center in Rautahat district, Nepal. There are several dispensaries/pharmacies where physicians/medical doctors visit to check up local patients. Nandini Chalchitra Bhawan is the cinema hall available in this place.

To promote local culture Garuda has some FM radio stations like Radio Madhesh Jana Aawaj FM, Radio Madhesh Masla FM, etc