The Yugoslav Wars were a series of separate but related ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought in the former Yugoslavia from 1991 to 2001, which led to the breakup of the Yugoslav state. Its constituent republics declared independence, despite unresolved tensions between ethnic minorities in the new countries, fueling the wars. Most of the wars ended through peace accords, involving full international recognition of new states, but with a massive human cost and economic damage to the region; the Yugoslav People's Army sought to preserve the unity of the whole of Yugoslavia by crushing the secessionist governments, but it came under the influence of the Serbian government of Slobodan Milošević, which evoked Serbian nationalist rhetoric and was willing to use the Yugoslav cause to preserve the unity of Serbs in one state. As a result, the JNA began to lose Slovenes, Kosovar Albanians and ethnic Macedonians, became a Serb army. According to a 1994 United Nations report, the Serb side did not aim to restore Yugoslavia, but to create a "Greater Serbia" from parts of Croatia and Bosnia.
Other irredentist movements have been brought into connection with the wars, such as "Greater Albania" and "Greater Croatia". Described as Europe's deadliest conflicts since World War II, the wars were marked by many war crimes, including genocide, crimes against humanity and rape; the Bosnian genocide was the first European crime to be formally judged as genocidal in character since World War II, many key individual participants were subsequently charged with war crimes. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia was established by the UN to prosecute these crimes. According to the International Center for Transitional Justice, the Yugoslav Wars resulted in the death of 140,000 people; the Humanitarian Law Center estimates that in the conflicts in the former Yugoslav republics at least 130,000 people were killed. The war have alternatively been called: "Wars in the Balkans" (although the wars only affected the west side of the Balkans as well as areas outside it "Wars/conflicts in the former Yugoslavia" "Wars of Yugoslav Secession/Succession" "Third Balkan War": a term suggested by British journalist Misha Glenny in the title of his book, alluding to the two previous Balkan Wars fought from 1912–13.
In fact, this term has been applied by some contemporary historians to World War I, because they see it as a direct sequel to the 1912–13 Balkan wars. "Yugoslavia Civil War"/"Yugoslav Civil War"/"Yugoslavian Civil War"/"Civil War in Yugoslavia" Clear ethnic conflict between the Yugoslav peoples only became prominent in the 20th century, beginning with tensions over the constitution of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes in the early 1920s and escalating into violence between Serbs and Croats in the late 1920s after the assassination of Croatian politician Stjepan Radić. During World War II the Croatian Ustaše committed a number of atrocities against the Serbs, as did their Serbian Chetnik opponents against the Croats and Bosniaks; the Yugoslav Partisan movement was able to appeal to all groups, including Serbs and Bosniaks. In Serbia and Serb-dominated territories, violent confrontations occurred between nationalists and non-nationalists who criticized the Serbian government and the Serb political entities in Bosnia and Croatia.
Serbs who publicly opposed the nationalist political climate during the Yugoslav wars were harassed, threatened, or killed. The nation of Yugoslavia was created in the aftermath of World War I, it was composed of South Slavic Christians, though the nation had a substantial Muslim minority; this nation lasted from 1918 to 1941, when it was invaded by the Axis powers during World War II, which provided support to the Ustaše, which conducted a genocidal campaign against Serbs and Roma inside its territory and the Chetniks, who conducted their own campaign of ethnic cleansing and genocide against ethnic Croats and Bosniaks, while supporting the reinstatement of the Serbian royals. In 1945, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was established under Josip Broz Tito, who maintained a authoritarian leadership that suppressed nationalism. After Tito's death in 1980, relations among the six republics of the SFRY deteriorated. Slovenia and Croatia desired greater autonomy within the Yugoslav confederation, while Serbia sought to strengthen federal authority.
As it became clearer that there was no solution agreeable to all parties and Croatia moved toward secession. Although tensions in Yugoslavia had been mounting since the early 1980s, events in 1990 proved decisive. In the midst of economic hardship, Yugoslavia was facing rising nationalism among its various ethnic groups. By the early 1990s, there was no effective authority at the federal level; the Federal Presidency consisted of the representatives of the six republics, two provinces and the Yugoslav People's Army, the communist leadership was divided along national lines. The representatives of Vojvodina and Montenegro were replaced with loyalists of the President of Serbia, Slobodan Milošević. Serbia secured four out of eight federal presidency votes and was able to influence decision-making at the federal level, since all the other Yugoslav republics only had one vote. While Slovenia and Croatia wanted to allow a multi-party system, led by Milošević, demanded an more centralized federation and Serbia's dominant role in it.
At the 14th Extraordinary Congress of the League of Communists o
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Beer in Serbia
Beer is a popular beverage in Serbia. The beer was first mentioned in the 15th century during the reign of despot Stefan Lazarević, as a new drink transferred from neighboring Kingdom of Hungary, it was cooked in households, in the residence of the despot. Its popularity rose several centuries and industrial-scale production began in the mid-18th century. Serbian breweries produce 498 million litres annually. Serbia exports to neighbouring countries, such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro or Hungary, to countries where there is significant Serbian diaspora, such as the Germany, United States and Canada. Beer for home consumption is sold in 0.5-litre bottles of deposit type and 0.33-litre glass bottles, as well as cans. Most breweries began packing their product in plastic Q-pack bottles of 1.5, 2 or 2.5 litres. In bars and restaurants, beer is either served in 0.33 or 0.5L bottles, or as "draught". Serbia ranks 38th with 60 litres a year. There are three main breweries in Serbia; these are: Heineken Srbija and Carlsberg Srbija.
The remaining of market share is controlled by domestic breweries Valjevo Brewery, BIP Brewery, Jagodina Brewery and Niš Brewery and 20 other minor breweries. Most popular domestic brand is Jelen, followed by Lav; some foreign brands are distributed. Pale lager has been the traditional beer choice for Serbians, dark lager, while being popular, is produced in smaller quantities; some breweries produce kvass. DomesticApatin Brewery Čelarevo Brewery Novi Sad Brewery Zaječar Brewery BIP Brewery Valjevska Pivara Jagodina Brewery Niš Brewery ForeignApatin Brewery Čelarevo Brewery Novi Sad Brewery Started in 2003, Belgrade Beer Fest is held annually over 3–4 days at the foot of Belgrade's Kalemegdan fortress as a showcase event for various beer producers. In addition to domestic and foreign brews at affordable prices, the festival features live music performances each evening, it has grown in size and popularity. On 31 December 2005 British daily The Independent named it as one of the worldwide events to visit in 2006.
Dani Piva is a beer festival in Zrenjanin, organised by the Zrenjanin brewery. Beer and breweries by region Svet Piva Beer forum b92.net: Efes Weifert: Manji gubici za 22%, 6 July 2007
Montenegro is a country in Southeast Europe on the Adriatic Sea. It borders Herzegovina to the northwest. Montenegro has an area of 13,812 square kilometres and a population of 620,079, its capital Podgorica is one of the twenty-three municipalities in the country. Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital. During the Early Medieval period, three principalities were located on the territory of modern-day Montenegro: Duklja corresponding to the southern half. In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja from the Byzantine Empire and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty; the independent Principality of Zeta emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries, ruled by the House of Balšić between 1356 and 1421, by the House of Crnojević between 1431 and 1498, when the name Montenegro started being used for the country. After falling under Ottoman rule, Montenegro regained de facto independence in 1697 under the rule of the House of Petrović-Njegoš, first under the theocratic rule of prince-bishops, before being transformed into a secular principality in 1852.
Montenegro's de jure independence was recognised by the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, following the Montenegrin–Ottoman War. In 1905, the country became a kingdom. After World War I, it became part of Yugoslavia. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. On the basis of an independence referendum held in May 2006, Montenegro declared independence and the federation peacefully dissolved on 3 June of that year. Since 1990, the sovereign state of Montenegro has been governed by the Democratic Party of Socialists and its minor coalition partners. Classified by the World Bank as an upper middle-income country, Montenegro is a member of the UN, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, the Central European Free Trade Agreement, it is a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean.
The country's name derives from Venetian and translates as "Black Mountain", deriving from the appearance of Mount Lovćen when covered in dense evergreen forests. The native name Crna Gora came to denote the majority of contemporary Montenegro only in the 15th century, it had referred to only a small strip of land under the rule of the Paštrovići, but the name came to be used for the wider mountainous region after the Crnojević noble family took power in Upper Zeta. The aforementioned region became known as Stara Crna Gora'Old Montenegro' by the 19th century to distinguish the independent region from the neighbouring Ottoman-occupied Montenegrin territory of Brda' Highlands'. Montenegro further increased its size several times by the 20th century, as the result of wars against the Ottoman Empire, which saw the annexation of Old Herzegovina and parts of Metohija and southern Raška, its borders have changed little since losing Metohija and gaining the Bay of Kotor. After the second session of the AVNOJ during World War II in Yugoslavia, the modern state of Montenegro was founded as the Federal State of Montenegro on 15 November 1943 within the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia by the ZAVNOCGB.
After DF Yugoslavia became the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, the Federal State of Montenegro was renamed to the People's Republic of Montenegro on 29 November 1945. In 1963, the FPRY was renamed to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and coincidentally, the People's Republic of Montenegro was renamed to the Socialist Republic of Montenegro; as the breakup of Yugoslavia occurred, the SRCG was renamed to the Republic of Montenegro on 27 April 1992 within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia by removing the adjective "socialist" from the republic's title. Since 22 October 2007, a year after its independence, the name of the country became known as Montenegro; the ISO Alpha-2 code for Montenegro is ME and the Alpha-3 Code is MNE. In the 9th century, three Slavic principalities were located on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja corresponding to the southern half, the west, Rascia, the north. Duklja gained its independence from the Byzantine Roman Empire in 1042. Over the next few decades, it expanded its territory to neighbouring Rascia and Bosnia, became recognised as a kingdom.
Its power started declining at the beginning of the 12th century. After King Bodin's death, several civil wars ensued. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son and his grandson Constantine Bodin. By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro came under the rule of the Balšić noble family the Crnojević noble family, by the 15th century, Zeta was more referred to as Crna Gora; as the nobility fought for the throne, the kingdom was weakened, by 1186, it was conquered by Stefan Nemanja and incorporated into the Serbian realm as a province named Zeta. After the Serbian Empire collapsed in the second half of the 14th century, the most powerful Zetan family, the Balšićs, became sovereigns of Zeta. In 1421, Zeta was a
A drink is a liquid intended for human consumption. In addition to their basic function of satisfying thirst, drinks play important roles in human culture. Common types of drinks include plain drinking water, coffee, hot chocolate and soft drinks. In addition, alcoholic drinks such as wine and liquor, which contain the drug ethanol, have been part of human culture for more than 8,000 years. Non-alcoholic drinks signify drinks that would contain alcohol, such as beer and wine, but are made with less than.5 percent alcohol by volume. The category includes drinks that have undergone an alcohol removal process such as non-alcoholic beers and de-alcoholized wines; when the human body becomes dehydrated, it experiences thirst. This craving of fluids results in an instinctive need to drink. Thirst is regulated by the hypothalamus in response to subtle changes in the body's electrolyte levels, as a result of changes in the volume of blood circulating; the complete elimination of drinks, that is, from the body will result in death faster than the removal of any other substance.
Water and milk have been basic drinks throughout history. As water is essential for life, it has been the carrier of many diseases; as society developed, new techniques were discovered to create the drinks from the plants that were available in different areas. The earliest archaeological evidence of wine production yet found has been at sites in Georgia and Iran. Beer may have been known in Neolithic Europe as far back as 3000 BCE, was brewed on a domestic scale; the invention of beer has been argued to be responsible for humanity's ability to develop technology and build civilization. Tea originated in Yunnan, China during the Shang Dynasty as a medicinal drink. Drinking has been a large part of socialising throughout the centuries. In Ancient Greece, a social gathering for the purpose of drinking was known as a symposium, where watered down wine would be drunk; the purpose of these gatherings could be anything from serious discussions to direct indulgence. In Ancient Rome, a similar concept of a convivium took place regularly.
Many early societies considered alcohol a gift from the gods, leading to the creation of gods such as Dionysus. Other religions forbid, discourage, or restrict the drinking of alcoholic drinks for various reasons. In some regions with a dominant religion the production and consumption of alcoholic drinks is forbidden to everybody, regardless of religion. Toasting is a method of wishing good will by taking a drink. Another tradition is that of the loving cup, at weddings or other celebrations such as sports victories a group will share a drink in a large receptacle, shared by everyone until empty. In East Africa and Yemen, coffee was used in native religious ceremonies; as these ceremonies conflicted with the beliefs of the Christian church, the Ethiopian Church banned the secular consumption of coffee until the reign of Emperor Menelik II. The drink was banned in Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe. A drink is a form of liquid, prepared for human consumption.
The preparation can include a number of different steps, some prior to transport, others prior to consumption. Water is the chief constituent in all drinks, the primary ingredient in most. Water is purified prior to drinking. Methods for purification include the addition of chemicals, such as chlorination; the importance of purified water is highlighted by the World Health Organization, who point out 94% of deaths from diarrhea – the third biggest cause of infectious death worldwide at 1.8 million annually – could be prevented by improving the quality of the victim's environment safe water. Pasteurisation is the process of heating a liquid for a period of time at a specified temperature immediately cooling; the process reduces the growth of micro-organisms within the liquid, thereby increasing the time before spoilage. It is used on milk, which prior to pasteurisation is infected with pathogenic bacteria and therefore is more than any other part of the common diet in the developed world to cause illness.
The process of extracting juice from fruits and vegetables can take a number of forms. Simple crushing of most fruits will provide a significant amount of liquid, though a more intense pressure can be applied to get the maximum amount of juice from the fruit. Both crushing and pressing are processes used in the production of wine. Infusion is the process of extracting flavours from plant material by allowing the material to remain suspended within water; this process can be used to prepare coffee. The name is derived from the word "percolate" which means to cause to pass through a permeable substance for extracting a soluble constituent. In the case of coffee-brewing the solvent is water, the permeable substance is the coffee grounds, the soluble constituents are the chemical compounds that give coffee its color, taste and stimulating properties. Carbonation is the process such as water. Fermentation is a metabolic process. Fermentation has been used by humans for the production of drinks since the Neolithic age.
In winemaking, grape juice is combined with yeast in an anaerobic environment to allow the fermentation. The amount of sugar in the wine and the length of time given for fermentation determine the alcohol level and the sweetness of the wine; when brewing beer, there are four primary ingre
Guča Trumpet Festival
The Guča Trumpet Festival known as the Dragačevski Sabor, is an annual brass band festival held in the town of Guča, near the city of Čačak, in the Dragačevo region of western Serbia. Guča is a three-hour bus ride from Belgrade. 600,000 visitors make their way to the town of 2,000 inhabitants every year, both from Serbia and abroad. Elimination heats only a few dozen bands qualify to compete. Guča's official festival has three parts, Friday's opening concert, Saturday night's celebrations and Sunday's competition; the Friday's concerts are held at the entrance to the official Guča Festival building. This event features previous winners, each band getting to play three tunes while folk dancers, all kitted out in bright knitting patterns, dance kolos and oros in front of a hyped-up audience. An English party site, ThisIsTheLife.com, has named Guča the best festival in the world. Said Miles Davis, a Guča Festival visitor: In 2010 the organizers issued invitations to Russia and U. S. Dmitry Medvedev and Barack Obama, Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, to attend the 50th anniversary event.
Though today considered a typical traditional instrument in Serbian folk music, trumpet entered folk music in full only at the beginning of the 20th century. Records show that trumpeters were part of the Serbian army of prince Stefan Vojislav, which defeated the Byzantines in the Battle of Bar on the Rumija mountain in 1042. Together with the drummers, they are mentioned being in the armies of prince Lazar Hrebeljanović and his successors, despots Stefan Lazarević and Đurađ Branković in the 14th and 15th century. In all that period, trumpet was only used as a military instrument; as Serbia was liberated from the Ottomans after the Second Serbian Uprising in 1815, Serbian prince Miloš Obrenović formed the band at his court in Kragujevac. As the new state was still under heavy Ottoman influence, the band played oriental music, it was headed by the popular violin and zurna player, Mustafa. He was titled oberlautar or in Serbian, bukadžija, which means the "noise maker". In order to westernize the state, prince Miloš dismissed Mustafa in 1831 and invited Josif Šlezinger, a musician and composer from Sombor, to form the first military orchestra, with the European instruments, so the trumpet was returned to the orchestras.
The trumpet became popular in the villages of Serbia during the late 19th century. Author Momo Kapor wrote: "In Serbia, who from old times new about gusle, shepherd flutes and dvojnice, the trumpets were accepted after the Serbo-Turkish wars in the late 19th century, when the company and regimental trumpeters returned to their villages, bringing with them their hit, dented and bullet pierced trumpets". After the World War I it became to most popular folk instrument, suppressing the dominant gaida and violin; the amateur players were taught by the former professional military trumpeters, like Momir Miletić, Momir Subotić and Dojčilo Đukić. The village orchestras were disbanded during the World War II, but after 1945 they were renewed. In time, three schools of brass music developed: eastern and western; the idea for the festival came from the reporter of Politika, Blagoje Radivojević. He was correspondent from Čačak where in 1961 he noticed a band of trumpeters, playing the farewell to the brigade of the Youth work actions at Čačak's railway station.
He suggested to the local administration in the Lučani municipality, to add the trumpeters, as the "special musical heritage of this part of Serbia", to the existing festival "Dragačevo through sing and dance". The suggestion evolved into the separate trumpet festival. Radivojević, with the help of author Branko V. Radičević, unsuccessfully urged many individuals and organizations in order to gain the support for the project, until they made contact with one of highest authorities in Serbia at the time, a politician and former intelligence officer Slobodan Penezić Krcun, he allowed it, but warned them: "all right, but I don't want to hear about any Serbian nationalism there". The inaugural festival was held on 16 October 1961 in the churchyard of the Church of St. Michael and St. Gabriel in Guča, with 4 orchestras from the neighboring villages competing; the winner was Desimir Perišić, who is, as of 2017, still the only local musician who won the competition. He was nicknamed "Dragačevo's Harry James".
On 10 August 2010 a monument to Perišić was dedicated on the new roundabout at the entrance into Guča from Lučani direction. Author of the entire project was Olivera Jolović, while the 3 m tall statue is work of Velimir Karavelić. At the first festival, each band had to play five songs. Two obligatory were Sa Ovčara i Kablara and Bledi mesec zagrlio zvezdu danicu, plus two kolos and a march by choice; the festival gained a wider popularity since 1970. That year, it was described as a "different, village Serbia, open for all well-meaning people, no matter where they come from". Today, apart from the regular brass orchestras, the competition includes the children and youth orchestras. By 2017, it grew into the largest trumpet festival, third ethno-festival and one of the 15 largest festivals in the world. In Serbia, it gained a reputation of an unofficial state celebration, it was a modest
Staropramen Brewery is the second largest brewery in the Czech Republic, is situated in the Smíchov district of Prague. It was founded in 1869 and the brand name Staropramen meaning “old spring”, was registered in 1911, it is owned by Molson Coors and its products are exported to 37 different countries in Europe and North America. Staropramen Brewery's history begins in 1869 when shares for a "Joint Stock Brewery in Smíchov" were offered for sale; the brewery building was completed and beer first brewed in 1871. The Ostravar Brewery opened in 1898 followed a year by the Braník brewery. Due to competition from other Prague breweries, the brand name Staropramen, which translates as “old spring", was registered in 1911. After the First World War, all three breweries saw a period of sustained growth, by the 1930s Staropramen was the largest brewery in Czechoslovakia. With socialism after the Second World War, all Czechoslovakian breweries were nationalised, including Staropramen. After socialism ended in 1989, the brewery, along with the Braník and Měšťan breweries, became in 1992 part of the Prague Breweries group, which by 1996 came under control of the Bass company.
Bass brought Ostravar into the group in 1997 in 2000 sold its brewing operations to Interbrew, which merged with AmBev in 2004 to form Inbev. Staropramen has seen steady growth and is the Czech Republic's second largest beer producer with a 15.3% share of the domestic market. In mid October 2009, private equity fund CVC Capital Partners bought all of Anheuser–Busch InBev's holdings in Central Europe for €2.23 billion. They renamed the operations StarBev. In April 2012, Molson Coors bought StarBev. Staropramen Smíchov – a pale draught beer with 4.0% ABV. Staropramen Jedenáctka – pale lager, contains 4.7% ABV. Staropramen Ležák – pale lager and flagship of the brand, contains 5.0% ABV. Staropramen Černý – a dark dunkel with 4.4% ABV. Staropramen Nefiltr Pšeničný – an unfiltered wheat pale lager with 5.0% ABV. Staropramen Nealko – a low-alcohol beer with max. 0.5% ABV. Staropramen Extra Chmelená – an extra bitter pale lager, contains 5.2% ABV. Staropramen Déčko – pale beer with reduced sugar content, 4.0% ABV.
Staropramen Granát – a semi-dark lager with 4,8% ABV. The company produces beers under the Ostravar, Braník and Velvet brands. Staropramen beers are produced under licence in several other European countries, including Serbia and Romania. In September 2015, it was reported in Swedish media that Carlsberg Group had ordered a recall of Staropramen draft beer from 680 Swedish pubs, after the beer caused bleeding and blisters in the mouth for two people. According to Henric Byström at Carlsberg, two complaints had been received where the containers of draft beer had contained a corrosive cleaning agent instead of beer. Beer in the Czech Republic Czech site International site