A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. "Documentary" has been described as a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, mode of audience reception", continually evolving and is without clear boundaries. Documentary films were called'actuality' films and were only a minute or less in length. Over time documentaries have evolved to be longer in length and to include more categories, such as educational and even'docufiction'. Documentaries are educational and used in schools to teach various principles. Social media platforms such as YouTube, have allowed documentary films to improve the ways the films are distributed and able to educate and broaden the reach of people who receive the information. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film, he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de l'histoire and La photographie animée.
Both were published in 1898 in French and among the early written works to consider the historical and documentary value of the film. Matuszewski is among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect and keep safe visual materials. In popular myth, the word documentary was coined by Scottish documentary filmmaker John Grierson in his review of Robert Flaherty's film Moana, published in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926, written by "The Moviegoer". Grierson's principles of documentary were that cinema's potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form. In this regard, Grierson's definition of documentary as "creative treatment of actuality" has gained some acceptance, with this position at variance with Soviet film-maker Dziga Vertov's provocation to present "life as it is" and "life caught unawares"; the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as "a factual film, dramatic." Others further state that a documentary stands out from the other types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion, a specific message, along with the facts it presents.
Documentary practice is the complex process of creating documentary projects. It refers to what people do with media devices, content and production strategies in order to address the creative and conceptual problems and choices that arise as they make documentaries. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of advocacy, or personal expression. Early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event, they were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. These short films were called "actuality" films. Many of the first films, such as those made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length, due to technological limitations. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons: the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment, the film showing them. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight. Using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States.
In May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and proposed them to recorded his surigical operations, they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations. Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. For scientific purposes, after 1906, Doyen combined 15 of his films into three compilations, two of which survive, the six-film series Extirpation des tumeurs encapsulées, the four-film Les Opérations sur la cavité crânienne; these and five other of Doyen's films survive. Between July 1898 and 1901, the Romanian professor Gheorghe Marinescu made several science films in his neurology clinic in Bucharest: Walking Troubles of Organic Hemiplegy, The Walking Troubles of Organic Paraplegies, A Case of Hysteric Hemiplegy Healed Through Hypnosis, The Walking Troubles of Progressive Locomotion Ataxy, Illnesses of the Muscles.
All these short films have been preserved. The professor called his works "studies with the help of the cinematograph," and published the results, along with several consecutive frames, in issues of "La Semaine Médicale" magazine from Paris, between 1899 and 1902. In 1924, Auguste Lumiere recognized the merits of Marinescu's science films: "I've seen your scientific reports about the usage of the cinematograph in studies of nervous illnesses, when I was still receiving "La Semaine Médicale," but back I had other concerns, which left me no spare time to begin biological studies. I must say I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me. Not many scientists have followed your way." Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th century. They were referred to by distributors as "scenics." Scenics were among the most popu
Anthonie "Anton" Koolhaas was a Dutch journalist and scenario writer. Anthonie Koolhaas was born on 16 November 1912 in Netherlands, he was the son of Teunis Koolhaas and Trijntje de Boer, he had two elder brothers and an elder sister. He grew up in Utrecht, he had little connection with the members of his family and he developed a rich imagination. He wrote his first play at the age of seven, he attended the hogere burgerschool in Utrecht. Between 1931 and 1935 he attended Utrecht University, studying an individual program related to journalism, he wrote the scenario of the Academy Award-nominated films Everyman and Ape and Super-Ape, both directed by Bert Haanstra. He is the father of architect Rem Koolhaas, he won the Constantijn Huygens Prize for his complete works in 1989 and the P. C. Hooft Award, a literary oeuvre award, in 1992, he died on age 80, in Amsterdam, Netherlands. De deur Stiemer en Stalma Poging tot instinct Vergeet niet de leeuwen te aaien Er zit geen spek in de val Gekke Witte Een gat in het plafond Weg met de vlinders Een schot in de lucht Een pak slaag De hond in het lege huis Een geur van heiligheid Niet doen, Sneeuwwitje Vleugels voor een rat Andermans huid Ten koste van een hagedis Corsetten voor een libel Mijn vader inspecteerde iedere avond de Nijl Noach De nagel achter het behang Blaffen zonder onraad Vanwege een tere huid Een punaise in de voet De geluiden van de eerste dag Tot waar zal ik je brengen?
De laatste goendroen Een kind in de toren Een pak slaag Nieuwe maan Raadpleeg de meerval Een aanzienlijke vertraging Liefdes tredmolen en andere dierenverhalen Alle dierenverhalen De Dijk is Dicht Everyman The Voice of the Water Ape and Super-Ape When The Poppies Bloom Again Mr. Slotter's Jubilee Juliana in Seventy Turbulent Years Anton Koolhaas on IMDb
Albert'Bert' Haanstra was a Dutch film director of films and documentaries. His documentary Glass won the Academy Award for Documentary Short Subject in 1959, his feature film Fanfare was the most visited Dutch film at the time, has since only been surpassed by Turkish Delight. Albert Haanstra was born on 31 May 1916 in Espelo, a small village near Holten, in the Netherlands, his father was Folkert Haanstra, a schoolteacher, his mother Jansje Schuiveling. Haanstra grew up in the village of Goor. Haanstra's father retired early as a schoolteacher and started his lifelong dream of becoming a painter. Haanstra himself, after realizing teaching didn't interest him, became a painter himself and started experimenting with photography. Through his fascination, Haanstra became friends with a local cinema owner who would let him see movies for free from the projection room, where Haanstra's desire to dabble in cinema would grow, he was accepted into Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences but would subsequently turn it down as he felt that the long years of study would be nothing in comparison to real life experience.
During his employment as a press photographer, Haanstra experimented in staged photography, where he would create his first film, Catfish. Haanstra became a professional Dutch documentary film maker in 1947, he won international acclaim with his short documentary Spiegel van Holland, for which he received the Grand Prix du court métrage at the Cannes Film Festival of 1951. During the fifties he made six films for Shell, among others The Rival World on insects spreading deadly diseases and how to fight them. In 1958 his documentary Glass, a filming improvisation made in a glass factory, won an Academy Award for Best Documentary Short Subject, he directed several fiction films. Fanfare, a comedy situated in a small Dutch village, is still the Netherlands' second most popular film only surpassed by Paul Verhoevens Turkish Delight. Abroad however, Fanfare was hardly noticed, but it was entered into the 1959 Cannes Film Festival and the 1st Moscow International Film Festival. After Fanfare, he continued his artistry in directing another short film called, Zoo.
It was released on the 14th of December, 1962. A film which compared the behavior of animals and humans through his always appreciated humoristic fashion; as always, Haanstra continued to experiment with his cinematic techniques. In Zoo he experimented with hidden camera filming to capture he true nature of both beast. In 1963, Zoo was nominated for the BAFTA Film Award in Holland for Best Short Film. In several shorts and in long documentaries like Alleman / The Human Dutch and Stem van het water / The Voice of the Water Haansta reflected on The Netherlands and its inhabitants. All these films made him one of the most popular filmmakers in the history of Dutch cinema; the documentary Alleman was seen in the cinema by 20 percent of the total Dutch population. In the seventies and eighties Haanstra addressed a new subject, he made several films about animals. In the long documentary Bij de beesten af / Ape and Super-Ape, for which he collaborated with Frans de Waal and Jane Goodall, among others, he compared the behavior of animals and human beings.
In total Haanstra received close to a hundred awards. Haanstra was Officer in the Order of Orange-Nassau. Haanstra died on 23 October 1997 at the age of 81 in a nursing home in the town of Hilversum in the Netherlands, he died of Alzheimer's disease. After his death the Oeuvre Award, a prestigious Dutch prize for film, was renamed the Bert Haanstra Oeuvre Award. Jo Daems, Teder testament, de films van Bert Haanstra Hans Schoots, Bert Haanstra - Filmer van Nederland Bert Haanstra Bert Haanstra on IMDb Bert Haanstra at AllMovie
Alexander Scourby was an American film and voice actor known for his deep and resonant voice. He is best known for his film role as the ruthless mob boss Mike Lagana in Fritz Lang's The Big Heat, is particularly well-remembered in the English-speaking world for his landmark recordings of the entire King James Version audio Bible, which have been released in numerous editions, he recorded the entire Revised Standard Version of the Bible. Scourby recorded 422 audiobooks for the blind. Alexander Scourby was born in Brooklyn, New York on November 13, 1913, to Constantine Nicholas Scourby, a successful restaurateur, wholesale baker and sometime investor in independent motion-pictures, Betsy Scourby, a homemaker, both of whom were immigrants from Greece. Reared in Brooklyn, Scourby was a member of a Boy Scout troop and became a cadet with the 101st National Guard Cavalry Regiment, he attended public and private schools in Brooklyn, spending summer vacations in New Jersey, Upstate New York, at a cousin's home in Massachusetts.
Dismissed from Polytechnic Prep School, he finished his secondary education at Brooklyn Manual Training High School which he described as "an ordinary high school that had an awful lot of shop." Scourby was a co-editor of the magazine and yearbook, he envisioned a career in writing, though he came to realize that writing was, for him, "absolutely the most painful thing in the world" and that he "could never meet a deadline," whereas he found the reading aloud of plays easy and enjoyable. Encouraged by some of his teachers, he began to turn his attention to acting, he made his stage debut with the high school's dramatic society, as the juvenile in Augustin MacHugh's The Meanest Man in the World. Upon graduation from high school in 1931, not yet having abandoned the prospect of a writing career, entered West Virginia University at Morgantown to study journalism. During his first semester he joined the campus drama group and played a minor role in A. A. Milne's comedy Mr. Pim Passes By. In February 1932, as he was beginning his second semester, his father died, he left the university to help run the family's pie bakery in Brooklyn.
A month after Scourby returned to Brooklyn, he was accepted as an apprentice at Eva Le Gallienne's Civic Repertory Theatre on 14th Street in downtown Manhattan. At the Civic Repertory he was taught dancing and make-up, was given his first professional role, a walk-on in Liliom. In 1933, Scourby and other Civic Repertory apprentices joined together to form the Apprentice Theatre, which presented plays at the New School for Social Research in New York City during the 1933-34 season, his first role on Broadway was that of the player king in Leslie Howard's production of Hamlet, which opened at the Imperial Theatre on November 10, 1936 and went on tour after thirty-nine performances. Returning to New York—and unemployment—in the spring of 1937, Scourby was introduced to the American Foundation for the Blind's Talking Book program by Wesley Addy, a member of the Hamlet cast and Scourby's roommate on the tour, recording plays for the foundation. After a successful audition in the spring of 1937, Scourby was cast in a small part in a recording of Antony and Cleopatra.
During the following summer he was, the player king in a production of Hamlet in Dennis, Massachusetts that featured Eva Le Gallienne. When he returned to audition for the American Foundation for the Blind in the year he was told that the company of actors was "filled" but that he might record a novel if he wished. "That was the beginning of it," he recalled years adding, "The recordings for the blind are my greatest achievement. Most of the things I look back at in the theater were either insignificant parts in great plays or good parts in terrible plays. So it doesn't amount to anything. Whereas I have recorded some great books; the greatest one being the Bible."Scourby is credited as Hamlet's father the King on the 19 September 1936 CBS radio program "Columbia Workshop" directed by Orson Welles, by the early 1940s he was playing running parts in five of the serial melodramas, popularly known as soap operas, including Against the Storm, in which he replaced Arnold Moss for two years. He narrated Andre Kostelanetz' musical show for a year.
At the request of sponsors, his voice was heard on many dramatic shows, including NBC's Sunday program The Eternal Light. On Superman, his was the voice of the title character's father in the one program devoted to the character's origins. During World War II, Scourby's broadcasts were beamed abroad in Greek and English for the Office of War Information. At the time, a writer in Variety described the quality of Scourby's voice as "the kind of resonance associated by listeners with big time radio." Scourby kept his hand in the theater by doing summer stock and a wide variety of other seasonal productions. In Maurice Evans' production of Hamlet, which opened at the St. James Theatre in New York on October 12, 1938 and ran for ninety-six performances, Scourby played Rosencrantz. In the same season he appeared with Evans in Henry IV, Part 1 as the Earl of Westmoreland; the following year, he toured with Evans in Richard II as one of the hirelings of the king. He returned to Broadway years in late 1946, replacing Ruth Chatterton as the narrator in Ben Hecht's A Flag Is Born, a one-act, dramatic pageant in which Marlon Brando had one of his early stage roles.
The play was produced by the American League at the Alvin Theatre. On De
Penguins are a group of aquatic flightless birds. They live exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere, with only one species, the Galapagos penguin, found north of the equator. Adapted for life in the water, penguins have countershaded dark and white plumage, their wings have evolved into flippers. Most penguins feed on krill, fish and other forms of sea life which they catch while swimming underwater, they spend half of their lives on land and the other half in the sea. Although all penguin species are native to the Southern Hemisphere, they are not found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a few species of penguin live so far south. Several species are found in the temperate zone, one species, the Galápagos penguin, lives near the equator; the largest living species is the emperor penguin: on average, adults are about 1.1 m tall and weigh 35 kg. The smallest penguin species is the little blue penguin known as the fairy penguin, which stands around 40 cm tall and weighs 1 kg.
Among extant penguins, larger penguins inhabit colder regions, while smaller penguins are found in temperate or tropical climates. Some prehistoric species attained enormous sizes, becoming as heavy as an adult human; these were not restricted to Antarctic regions. The word penguin first appears in the 16th century as a synonym for great auk; when European explorers discovered what are today known as penguins in the Southern Hemisphere, they noticed their similar appearance to the great auk of the Northern Hemisphere, named them after this bird, although they are not related. The etymology of the word penguin is still debated; the English word is not of French, Breton or Spanish origin, but first appears in English or Dutch. Some dictionaries suggest a derivation from Welsh pen, "head" and gwyn, "white", including the Oxford English Dictionary, the American Heritage Dictionary, the Century Dictionary and Merriam-Webster, on the basis that the name was applied to the great auk, either because it was found on White Head Island in Newfoundland, or because it had white circles around its eyes.
An alternative etymology links the word to Latin pinguis, which means "fat" or "oil". Support for this etymology can be found in the alternative Germanic word for penguin, fettgans or "fat-goose", the related Dutch word vetgans. Adult male penguins are called cocks, females hens; the number of extant penguin species is debated. Depending on which authority is followed, penguin biodiversity varies between 17 and 20 living species, all in the subfamily Spheniscinae; some sources consider the white-flippered penguin a separate Eudyptula species, while others treat it as a subspecies of the little penguin. It is still unclear whether the royal penguin is a colour morph of the macaroni penguin; the status of the rockhopper penguins is unclear. Updated after Marples, Acosta Hospitaleche, Ksepka et al.. Subfamily Spheniscinae – modern penguins Aptenodytes – great penguins King penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus Emperor penguin, Aptenodytes forsteri Pygoscelis – brush-tailed penguins Adélie penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae Chinstrap penguin, Pygoscelis antarctica Gentoo penguin, Pygoscelis papua Eudyptula – little penguins Little blue penguin, Eudyptula minor Australian little penguin, Eudyptula novaehollandiae White-flippered penguin, Eudyptula albosignata Spheniscus – banded penguins Magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus Humboldt penguin, Spheniscus humboldti Galapagos penguin, Spheniscus mendiculus African penguin, Spheniscus demersus Megadyptes Yellow-eyed penguin, Megadyptes antipodes †Waitaha penguin, Megadyptes waitaha Eudyptes – crested penguins Fiordland penguin, Eudyptes pachyrynchus Snares penguin, Eudyptes robustus Erect-crested penguin, Eudyptes sclateri Southern rockhopper penguin, Eudyptes chrysocome Eastern rockhopper penguin, Eudyptes filholi Northern rockhopper penguin, Eudyptes moseleyi Royal penguin, Eudyptes schlegeli Macaroni penguin, Eudyptes chrysolophus †Chatham penguin, Eudyptes chathamensis Order Sphenisciformes Basal and unresolved taxa Anthropodyptes Arthrodytes Aprosdokitos Hospitaleche, Reguero & Santillana 2017 Crossvallia Ichthyopteryx Wiman 1905 Inguza Kaiika Fordyce & Tomas 2011 Korora Nucleornis Orthopteryx Wiman 1905 Palaeoapterodytes Pseudaptenodytes Tasidyptes Van Tets & O’Connor 1983 nomen dubium Tereingaornis Tonniornis Wimanornis Spheniscidae Waimanu Jones, Ando & Fordyce 2006 Kumimanu Mayr, 2017 Delphinornis Wiman 1905 Marambiornis Myrcha e
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,200,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctica, on average, is the coldest and windiest continent, has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Most of Antarctica is a polar desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm along the coast and far less inland; the temperature in Antarctica has reached −89.2 °C, though the average for the third quarter is −63 °C. Anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at research stations scattered across the continent. Organisms native to Antarctica include many types of algae, fungi, plants and certain animals, such as mites, penguins and tardigrades.
Vegetation, where it occurs, is tundra. Antarctica is noted as the last region on Earth in recorded history to be discovered, unseen until 1820 when the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny sighted the Fimbul ice shelf; the continent, remained neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of accessible resources, isolation. In 1895, the first confirmed. Antarctica is a de facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic Treaty System that have consulting status. Twelve countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, thirty-eight have signed it since then; the treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific research, protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations; the name Antarctica is the romanised version of the Greek compound word ἀνταρκτική, feminine of ἀνταρκτικός, meaning "opposite to the Arctic", "opposite to the north".
Aristotle wrote in his book Meteorology about an Antarctic region in c. 350 BC Marinus of Tyre used the name in his unpreserved world map from the 2nd century CE. The Roman authors Hyginus and Apuleius used for the South Pole the romanised Greek name polus antarcticus, from which derived the Old French pole antartike attested in 1270, from there the Middle English pol antartik in a 1391 technical treatise by Geoffrey Chaucer. Before acquiring its present geographical connotations, the term was used for other locations that could be defined as "opposite to the north". For example, the short-lived French colony established in Brazil in the 16th century was called "France Antarctique"; the first formal use of the name "Antarctica" as a continental name in the 1890s is attributed to the Scottish cartographer John George Bartholomew. The long-imagined south polar continent was called Terra Australis, sometimes shortened to'Australia' as seen in a woodcut illustration titled Sphere of the winds, contained in an astrological textbook published in Frankfurt in 1545.
Although the longer Latin phrase was better known, the shortened name Australia was used in Europe's scholarly circles. In the nineteenth century, the colonial authorities in Sydney removed the Dutch name from New Holland. Instead of inventing a new name to replace it, they took the name Australia from the south polar continent, leaving it nameless for some eighty years. During that period, geographers had to make do with clumsy phrases such as "the Antarctic Continent", they searched for a more poetic replacement, suggesting various names such as Antipodea. Antarctica was adopted in the 1890s. Antarctica has no indigenous population, there is no evidence that it was seen by humans until the 19th century. However, in February 1775, during his second voyage, Captain Cook called the existence of such a polar continent "probable" and in another copy of his journal he wrote:" believe it and it's more than probable that we have seen a part of it". However, belief in the existence of a Terra Australis—a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Europe and North Africa—had prevailed since the times of Ptolemy in the 1st century AD.
In the late 17th century, after explorers had found that South America and Australia were not part of the fabled "Antarctica", geographers believed that the continent was much larger than its actual size. Integral to the story of the origin of Antarctica's name is that it was not named Terra Australis—this name was given to Australia instead, because of the misconception that no significant landmass could exist further south. Explorer Matthew Flinders, in particular, has been credited with popularising the transfer of the name Terra Australis to Australia, he justified the titling of his book A Voyage to Terra Australis by writing in the introduction: There is no probability, that any other detached body of land, of nearly equal extent, will be found in a more southern latitude.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; the continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 recognised sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition; the majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa's average population is the youngest amongst all the continents. Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa central Eastern Africa, is accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade, as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens, found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
Africa encompasses numerous climate areas. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonised all of Africa. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean; this name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers. The name had been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers; the same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which included the coastal part of modern Libya.
The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land. The Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine Empire's Exarchatus Africae preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy, indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa; as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge. Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa": The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya. Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. Suggests "Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning "sunny".
Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace." Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed linking the Latin word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean "rainy wind". Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir." Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi called "Afrikus son of Abrahah" who subdued Ifriqiya. Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation as early as 7 million years ago.
Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to 3.9–3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei and Homo ergaster have been discovered. After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was populated by groups of hunter-gatherers; these first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent eith