The bicorne or bicorn is a historical form of hat adopted in the 1790s as an item of uniform by European and American military and naval officers. It is now most associated with Napoléon Bonaparte but in practice most generals and staff officers of the Napoleonic period wore bicornes, it survived as a worn full-dress headdress until at least 1914. Descended from the tricorne, the black-coloured bicorne had a rather broad brim, with the front and the rear halves turned up and pinned together, forming a semi-circular fan shape; the hat became more triangular in shape, its two ends became more pointed, it was worn with the cockade at the right side. This kind of bicorne became known in the English language as the cocked hat, although to this day it is still known in the French language as the bicorne. Worn in the side-to-side athwart style during the 1790s, the bicorne was seen fore-and-aft in most armies and navies from about 1800 on; this change in style coincided with the flattening out of the pronounced front peak of the original headdress.
The French gendarmerie continued to wear their bicornes in the classic side-to-side fashion until about 1904 as do the Italian Carabinieri in their modern full dress. Some forms of bicorne were designed to be folded flat, so that they could be conveniently tucked under the arm when not being worn. A bicorne of this style is known as a chapeau-bras or chapeau-de-bras; the bicorne was worn until World War I as part of the full dress of officers of most of the world's navies. It survived to a more limited extent between the wars for wear by senior officers in the British, French, US, Japanese and other navies until World War II but has now disappeared in this context. In addition to its military/naval uses, the bicorne was worn during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by civilian officials in European monarchies and Japan, when required to wear uniforms on formal occasions; this practice ceased after World War I except in the context of diplomatic uniform. However British colonial governors in temperate climates and governors general in some countries of the Commonwealth continued to wear bicornes with ceremonial dress until the second half of the twentieth century.
By the twentieth century, the term cocked hat had come to be used more than not in official UK usage with reference to this shape of hat. In its most seen form at this time, the cocked hat was pinned up at two sides to form a hump-back bridge shape and was worn perpendicular to the shoulders, with the front end above the face and the back end over the nape. A cockade in the national colours might be worn at the right side and a plume might be attached to the top. Cocked hats were trimmed with gold or silver bullion lace and tassels. Naval officers wore them without further decorations, but those worn by military and civilian officials might be lavishly decorated with coloured ostrich or swan feathers. Members of the Académie française wear the habit vert at the Académie's ceremonies; the habit includes a bicorne in the cocked-hat style, each embroidered in green. Students at the École Polytechnique wear a bicorne as part of their Grand Uniforme. Female students used to wear a tricorne hat but now wear a bicorne.
The bicorne formed part of the historic black and red full dress of cadets at the French Military Medical School until this uniform was withdrawn in 1971, except for limited use on special occasions. The bicorne is still worn by the members of the Cadre Noir in full dress uniform; the uniform of the horsemen of the Spanish Riding School of Vienna includes a bicorne. Diplomatic uniforms worn on such occasions as the presentation of credentials by ambassadors included bicornes worn with feathers and gold or silver braiding; until World War II such uniforms were worn by junior embassy staff but now survive only for ambassadors in a few long-established diplomatic services such as those of Britain, Sweden and Spain. In the United Kingdom cocked hats continue to be worn by certain office-holders on special occasions: On occasions in Parliament when the Queen is represented by Lords Commissioners the Lords Commissioners wear plain black bicorne hats with their parliamentary robes. At the annual Trooping the Colour in London, the Major-General commanding the Household Division wears full dress uniform consisting of a scarlet tunic and a cocked hat with swan-feather plume.
Similar hats with distinctive upright plumes are worn by the Equerries on this and other State occasions. Senior officers holding certain royal or special appointments wear cocked hats. In most British regiments prior to 1914, certain Regimental Staff officers in full-dress uniform wore cocked hats in place of the usual regimental headdress. Since the use of full dress has been restricted to the Household Division, which maintains the tradition: quartermasters wear cocked hats with a feat
A flat cap is a rounded cap with a small stiff brim in front. The hat is known in Scotland as a bunnet in the Scots language, in Wales as a Dai cap, in New Zealand as a cheese-cutter, in the United States as a driving cap. Cloths used to make the cap include wool and cotton. Less common materials may include linen, or corduroy; the inside of the cap is lined for comfort and warmth. The style can be traced back to the 14th century in Northern England, when it was more to be called a "bonnet"; this term was replaced by "cap" before about 1700, except in Scotland, where it continues to be referred to as a bunnet in Scots. A 1571 Act of the English Parliament was enacted to stimulate domestic wool consumption and general trade, it decreed that on Sundays and holidays, all males over 6 years of age, except for the nobility and "persons of degree", were to wear woollen caps or pay a fine of three farthings per day. The Act was not repealed until 1597, though by the flat cap had become entrenched as a recognised mark of a non-noble subject, such as a burgher, a tradesman, or an apprentice.
The style may have been the same as the Tudor bonnet still used in some styles of academic dress. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, when men predominantly wore some form of headgear, flat caps were worn throughout Great Britain and Ireland. Versions in finer cloth were considered to be suitable casual countryside wear for upper-class Englishmen. Flat caps were worn by fashionable young men in the 1920s. Boys of all classes in the United Kingdom wore flat caps during this period. In the United States, the caps were worn from the 1890s; the cap was at the time standard boys' wear. They were worn to school, for casual wear, with suits. Flat caps were always worn with knicker suits in the 1910s and 1920s. Both flat caps and knickerbockers declined in popularity during the 1930s; the flat cap made its way to southern Italy in the late 1800s brought by British servicemen. In Turkey, the flat cap became the main headgear for men after it became a replacement for the fez, banned by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in 1925.
One of the flat hats worn in academia is known as a bonnet or Tudor bonnet and derives directly from medieval headgear of the period of the original 1571 Act. It remains ceremonial wear by members of the academic community in many countries as the headgear of doctoral graduates, it has a soft, round crown and a stiff, flat brim. The bonnet is made of black velvet and trimmed, between crown and brim, with gold cord and tassels; some universities opt to trim their bonnets with coloured cord and tassels. Some stylistic varieties of this bonnet are: The Canterbury cap is a flat-topped, soft cloth hat with a round headband deeper at the back than at the front; the Oxford bonnet has a black ribbon between brim. The John Knox cap is a soft, square cap made from black velvet and worn by the doctors of certain Scottish universities, as well as Durham University in England, the University of Calgary, Queens' University in Canada, it is worn by the holders of higher doctorates of the University of Liverpool and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
The academic cap, however, is more used in academia. In British popular culture, the flat cap is associated with older working-class men those in Northern England, the West Country, as personified by Fred Dibnah and comic strip anti-hero Andy Capp; the flat cap's strong connection with the working class and the East End of London is illustrated by Jim Branning of the television soap opera EastEnders and Del-Boy Trotter of Only Fools and Horses. Taxicab and bus drivers are depicted wearing a flat cap, as comedically portrayed by Gareth Hale and Norman Pace's "London cabbies" television sketches. In the BBC show Peaky Blinders, characters show their membership of the Birmingham gang by sewing razor blades into the peak of their flat caps for use as a weapon. AC/DC vocalist Brian Johnson, a native of Newcastle, customarily wears a flat cap on stage and off; the flat cap can be taken to denote the upper class when affecting casualness. "A toff can be a bit of a chap as well without, as it were, losing face."In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, British public figures including David Beckham, Guy Ritchie, Richard Blackwood, the Prince of Wales wore the flat cap.
The flat cap hat is associated in North American popular culture with city newsboys, the style sometimes being called a "newsboy" or Newsboy cap, sometimes referred to as a "Kangol hat" due to conflation with the brand that makes certain styles of flat caps. The style has remained popular among groups of people in the United Kingdom and North America; the cap is sometimes associated with older men in South Korea, but has been popular among some segments of younger people, for example, in cities such as Boston and Pittsburgh with a large Irish-American population. They are associated with skinheads and the Oi! and punk subcultures. It has sometimes worn back-to-front or cocked to the side, it is very common among men and women in San Francisco, California. In Turkey, it is popular amongst men working-class; the English rugby league team Featherstone Rovers supporters' nickname is "the Flat Cappers", because supporters in years gone by attended matches wearing them as did most other teams' supporters.
The black leather flat ca
A homburg is a hat of stiff wool felt, characterized by a single dent running down the center of the crown, a wide silk grosgrain hatband ribbon, a flat brim shaped in a "pencil curl", a ribbon-bound trim about the edge of the brim. It is in dark colours, although variations are common; the original homburg was of more generous proportions than seen in 21st-century versions. Although the homburg is considered a formal hat, it is not an equivalent alternative to the top hat for formal attire; the Homburg is worn with clothing appropriate for semi-formal occasions, as well as informal attire. The name originates from Bad Homburg in Hesse, from where it originates and was popularised in the late 19th century by King Edward VII; the Homburg was popularised in the 1890s by Edward VII after he visited Bad Homburg in Hesse and brought back a hat of this style. He was flattered when his hat style was mimicked, at times he insisted on being copied. Anthony Eden made the dark homburg so fashionable in the 1930s that it became known as "the Eden" on Savile Row.
At his 1953 inauguration, Dwight D. Eisenhower broke with tradition by wearing a black homburg instead of a top hat, he wore a homburg at his second inauguration, a hat that took three months to craft and was dubbed the "International Homburg" by hatters, since batters in ten countries participated in its manufacture. Like other formal Western male headgear, the homburg ceased to be as common in the 21st century as it once was. Al Pacino gained some renewed fame for the homburg by wearing one in the film The Godfather, for which reason the hat is sometimes called a "Godfather"; some Orthodox Jewish rabbis wear black homburgs, though this practice is in decline. The homburg was always considered to be more distinguished than the fedora. Anthony Eden hat Boss of the Plains Bowler hat Fedora Stetson Tyrolean hat Shovel hat List of headgear Cap <ref name=CBS>"Eisenhower Second Inaugural Speech". "Felt dress hats" at Hat History "Homburg Hat – Past and Future" at Gentleman's Gazette
The bowler hat known as a billycock, bob hat, bombín or derby, is a hard felt hat with a rounded crown created by the London hat-makers Thomas and William Bowler during 1849. It has traditionally been worn with semi-formal and informal attire; the bowler, a protective and durable hat style, was popular with the British and American working classes during the second half of the 19th century, with the middle and upper classes in the United Kingdom and the east coast United States. The bowler hat is said to have been designed during 1849 by the London hat-makers Thomas and William Bowler to fulfill an order placed by the company of hatters James Lock & Co. of St James's, commissioned by a customer to design a close-fitting, low-crowned hat to protect gamekeepers from low-hanging branches while on horseback at Holkham Hall, the estate of Thomas Coke, 1st Earl of Leicester in Norfolk. The keepers had worn top hats, which were knocked off and damaged; the identity of the customer is less certain, with many suggesting it was William Coke.
However research performed by a younger relation of the 1st Earl casts doubt on this story, it is now believed that the bowler was invented for Edward Coke, the younger brother of Thomas Coke, 2nd Earl of Leicester. When Edward Coke arrived in London on 17 December 1849 to collect his hat he placed it on the floor and stamped hard on it twice to test its strength; the bowler has had varying degrees of significance in British culture. They were popular among the working classes in the 19th century, from the early 20th century bowler hats were associated with businessmen working in the financial districts known as "City Gents"; the traditional wearing of bowler hats with City business attire declined during the 1970s. During modern times bowlers are not common, although the so-called City Gent remains a stereotype of Englishmen, wearing a bowler and carrying a rolled umbrella. For this reason, two bowler-hatted men were used in the logo of the British building society, Bradford & Bingley. In Scotland and Northern Ireland the bowler hat is worn traditionally by members of the main Loyalist fraternities such as the Orange Order, the Independent Loyal Orange Institution, the Royal Black Preceptory and the Apprentice Boys of Derry for their parades and annual celebrations.
The bowler, not the cowboy hat or sombrero, was the most popular hat in the American West, prompting Lucius Beebe to call it "the hat that won the West". Both cowboys and railroad workers preferred the hat because it would not blow off in strong wind while riding a horse, or when sticking one's head out the window of a speeding train, it was worn by both lawmen and outlaws, including Bat Masterson, Butch Cassidy, Black Bart, Billy the Kid. In the United States the hat came to be known as the derby, American outlaw Marion Hedgepeth was referred to as "the Derby Kid". In South America, the bowler, known as bombín in Spanish, has been worn by Quechua and Aymara women since the 1920s, when it was introduced to Bolivia by British railway workers. For many years, a factory in Italy manufactured such hats for the Bolivian market, but they are now made locally; the bowler hat became used famously by certain actors, such as Charlie Chaplin and Hardy, Curly Howard, John Cleese, by the fictional character of John Steed of The Avengers, played by Patrick Macnee.
In the 1964 film Mary Poppins, set in Edwardian London, 1910, the London banker George Banks wears a bowler. The British building society Bradford & Bingley registered more than 100 separate trademarks featuring the bowler hat, its long-running logo. In 1995 the bank purchased, for £2,000, a bowler hat which had once belonged to Stan Laurel; the bowler is part of the Droog uniform that the English character Alex wears in A Clockwork Orange to the extent that contemporary fancy dress outfits for this character reference the bowler hat. There was a chain of restaurants in Los Angeles, California known as Brown Derby; the first and most famous of these was shaped like a derby. A chain of Brown Derby restaurants in Ohio are still in business today. Many paintings by the Belgian surrealist artist René Magritte feature bowler hats; the Son of Man consists of a man in a bowler hat standing in front of a wall. The man's face is obscured by a hovering green apple. Golconda depicts "raining men" all wearing bowler hats.
Choreographer Bob Fosse incorporated bowler hats into his dance routines. This use of hats as a props, as seen in the 1972 movie Cabaret, would become one of his trademarks. Winston Churchill, Prime Minister during the 2nd World War and later; the Plug Uglies, a nineteenth-century American street gang, wore bowler hats stuffed with cloth or wool to protect their heads while fighting. John Bonham, drummer for Led Zeppelin wore a bowler hat. Charlie Chaplin wore a bowler hat as part of his'Little Tramp' costume. Edward Coke, for whom the first bowler hat was designed. Bing Crosby wears a bowler hat in the 1946 film Road to Utopia, among others. Alex, the protagonist of A Clockwork Orange, wears a bowler hat. Lou Costello of Abbott and Costello wore a bowler hat. Laurel and Hardy are known for wearing bowler hats. "Bowler Hat Guy," antagonist of the movie Meet the Robinsons, is named for his choice of hat. John Steed of The Avengers wore a variety of bowler hats throughout the series. Boy George wore a bowler hat during the 1980s.
Oddjob, Auric Goldfinger's manservant, uses his razor-edged bowler hat as a weapon In the 1964 James Bond movie Goldfinger. John D. Rockerduck possesses the distinctive character trait of e
A cartwheel hat is a wide brimmed circular or saucer-shaped design. It may be made in a variety of materials, including straw or felt and has a low crown, it may be similar to halo-brimmed hat in shape. It is worn at an angle to show off the curve of the brim, rather than being worn at the back of the head in the manner of a halo hat; the cartwheel hat became popular in the years leading up to World War I. The Milwaukee Sentinel described the new fashion in 1914: "Do not be astounded if you notice a smartly gowned woman with a hat of huge proportions... The new large hats are broad brimmed and have low crowns, which are not discernible when the hat is worn, hence they resemble cartwheels tilted at a becoming angle"; these early versions might be covered in taffeta or silk. The cartwheel hat appeared in films and fashion during the 1930s – an American newspaper described the latest Paris fashion for straight and curled-brim cartwheel designs in 1934; the correspondent described crowns so shallow that hats had to be secured with a rubber band above or below the hair, which must be "perfectly coiffed" as it was revealed by the hat.
In 1936, an Australian newspaper report about racegoers at Brisbane's Ascot racing meeting noted the abundance of: "wide-brimmed shady hats of the cartwheel type". The following year, The Observer described: "cartwheel hats with exceedingly low crowns and brims which slope slightly downwards" noting that London milliner Aage Thaarup was showing versions for Ascot in straw and lemon-yellow felt. One of the most influential showcases of the potential of the style was the 1939 film Gone with the Wind, in which Vivien Leigh wore a huge cartwheel with green ribbons designed by celebrity milliner Mr. John. While a Hattie Carnegie cartwheel design appeared on the cover of American Vogue in 1938, the style is most associated with the period after World War II austerity and make-do-and-mend was over. By 1945, new cartwheel styles were being offered with open crowns. Four years Rita Hayworth wore a variation on the cartwheel made of sheer material to match the pleated Jacques Fath dress for her'low key' wedding to Aly Khan – an event that generated huge interest and replica designs of her outfit.
By spring 1950, the cartwheel hat was being tipped in Life alongside pleated dresses as the: "new silhouette". The hat designs featured were by Mr. John. A month Life noted: "The recent tendency to go bareheaded has been reversed because the new season's narrow silhouette looks better when balanced with a hat." The article singled out the cartwheel in a new "unseasonal" coral velvet. The cartwheel became closely associated with New Look fashions. Dior's Y-line collection of autumn 1955 showcased cartwheel hats, paired with pearls, princess-line dresses and stoles. While the size and shape of hats could be extreme, such designs were made not just for day but evening wear. High-profile wearers of the style included Queen Elizabeth who wore a straw cartwheel shape on her tour of Australia the year after her coronation – although her hat was less extreme than some of the Dior models; the cartwheel hat has continued as a favourite showstopper for weddings and events – with designers such as Philip Somerville, Graham Smith and Frederick Fox including them in their millinery ranges.
There have been notable revivals in high fashion. He featured cartwheel shapes in neon orange and shocking pink in 2002. Halo hat Mushroom hat Cartwheel hat at University of North Texas archive New South Wales museum collection, black cartwheel design, c. 1950 Getty image of 1946 cartwheel hat and evening gown British Pathé film showing cartwheel models, 1950 Stephen Jones contemporary cartwheel hat in Ryerson Fashion Research Collection
A half hat is a millinery design in which the hat covers part of the head. The design is close-fitting, in the manner of the cloche, frames the head stopping just above the ears, it may be similar to a halo hat in the way that it frames the face and can be worn straight or at an angle. The half-hat is said to have been created by the French-born and US-based milliner Lilly Daché, who won an award for the design in 1941; the half hat became popular in the post-war period in the 1950s. This was a design considered suitable for day and evening wear, some designs included details such as sequins and veils. Designs were stiffened to create a halo shape – a 1952 design from Ascot Millinery was made of decorated straw with an inner lining of velvet. While many designs stopped a little way beyond the crown of the head, there was a fashion for more bonnet-like shapes to half hats. Writing in The Guardian in 1952, fashion correspondent Phyllis Heathcote reported on the off-the-brow trend emerging from Paris, noting: "the majority of the hats are still small soft, much alike, except – and this is important – that whereas last season and the one before the tendency was to an arched line over the front of the head, leaving the back uncovered, this season the movement tends to uncover the front and cover the back".
Heathcote noted the practicality of this shape, describing it as a design that could be folded up and stowed in a handbag or pocket. Such was its popularity in the United States – when embellished – that a 1957 report in The Times on American hat fashions said: "The hat norm, godlike for Hera, is regal for American womanhood...the half-hat jewelled, is plainly a diadem, sometimes secured by jewelled springs behind the head". This was a hat design. A 1955 wedding reported in The Times describes the bride wearing: "a beige lace dress of ballerina length with a high upturned collar and a half-hat to match trimmed with fine light-brown feathers"; the half hat could be shaped close to frame the skull in the manner of the Juliet cap and some variations were known as the cape hat. Another variation is sometimes informally known as the'cracked egg hat' or'eggshell hat', due to its curved and irregular shape and is said to have been popularised by Givenchy and introduced by Dior. A design of this style worn by Queen Elizabeth during a 1954 tour of Australia had the addition of a pom-pom.
Halo hat Bicycle clip hat Juliet cap Biretta Beret Dutch cap Cap Gallery of half and'cracked egg' hat styles on Pinterest Givenchy half hat at the Metropolitan Museum of Art collection, c. 1952 Marcel Fromenti fashion drawing of Balmain half-hat at the Victoria & Albert Museum, c. 1954 British Pathé film showing 1953 Rose Vernier hats, including half hat designs
A draped turban or turban hat is a millinery design in which fabric is draped to create headwear moulded to the head. Sometimes it may be stiffened or padded, although simpler versions may just comprise wound fabric, knotted or stitched, it may include feather or other details to add height. It covers most or all of the hair. In fashion, the draped turban has a history dating back to at least the late 18th century, had revivals in most decades of the 20th century. Notably, it rose to popularity in the 1910s as a symbol of eastern glamour, while in the 1940s it was worn by everyone from Hollywood stars to land girls. In the 1960s and 1970s, it was revived by designers including Biba in the UK and Halston in the US – and worn by royalty and hippies alike. More new designs began appearing on the fashion catwalks and in the second Sex and the City movie. While earlier portraits show examples of the turban in women's dress – notably Vermeer's 1665 portrait Girl with a Pearl Earring – the draped turban is first recorded as a widespread fashion in Britain in the late 18th century, rising to greater popularity during the Regency era.
The fashion may have been inspired by growing interest in, knowledge of, the Ottoman Empire and Turkey. The writings of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu on Turkey are said to have been an influence. There are several portraits of her in turban style headgear and the turban was sometimes known as the turk or chiffonet; the style of turban was simple, in keeping with the drape of gowns of the time, but as its popularity developed it tended to follow the fashion in hair and became progressively larger as hairstyles became more elaborate. Turbans might be lavishly decorated with plumes for balls and functions, but for daywear – as satirised in a 1796 James Gillray cartoon, High Change in Bond Street; the fashion remained during the early decades of the 19th century, with examples of Paris and London fashions from the 1830s showing ornate turban headdresses topped with tall plumes. Paul Poiret, the so-called'Sultan de la mode', included the turban in his revival of'oriental' styles in the early 1910s; as part of his research Poiret visited the Victoria and Albert Museum in order to study its collection of antique Indian turbans, declaring "I admired unwaveringly the diversity of their so logical and so elegant forms."Turbans continued gaining in popularity from the early 1920s.
Some of this may have been due to the increasing availability of the motor car, since the close-fitting design helped to protect the hair and head from the elements. A 1923 fashion report in The Times described the arrival of neat leather caps and new turban designs, adding that the turban is: "seen in many embroidered and swathed varieties, some of which are built on'beret', others on Russian designs, turning right off the face, some on close-fitting lines." Its popularity survived the decade, a 1929 newspaper report on the autumn Paris fashions noted that the cloche hat had given way to the Basque beret and the turban trimmed with ribbon bows. Designs were made of silk, felt or velvet and could be finished with additional details such as feathers or brooches. In 1937, the turban hat was tipped as one of the "smartest models in the new millinery", with new designs being shown in heavier fabrics such as velvet. In London, The Times reported on a Paris ensemble of astrakhan fur coat with velvet dress and draped velvet turban to match.
The following year, it featured a high draped turban with attached veil as being among the latest bridal fashions. The hat remained popular in Europe throughout wartime – it may have been helped by the fact that women were working in manual jobs in factories and farms, it was a design that could be created with minimal sewing skills and helped to conceal the hair when access to hairdressers and water, might be limited. Simple patterns for draped turbans had been published from the 1920s; the Ministry of Information in the UK showcased a turban as part of a series of photographs to promote possibilities for wartime chic during a period when utility clothing and rationing were interrupting the traditional fashion industry. While DIY turbans were easy to construct – a wartime British Pathé film demonstrated how to make a selection of designs with a couple of knotted scarves as part of its Ways and Means series – many materials used for making hats were excluded from the worst rationing strictures during the war, this may help to explain the rise in whimsical hat styles for those who could afford them.
While the fashion for the turban was borne of necessity in Europe, it became chic when it appeared on the heads of Hollywood icons. The French milliner Madame Paulette is credited with reviving the turban and claimed to have been inspired by the designs she saw on French girls cycling the streets of Paris during the war, she went on to create hats worn by Marlene Dietrich and Greta Garbo. She would create designs for fashion houses such as Chanel and Ungaro Madame Agnès, who had trained under Caroline Reboux, was designing turbans and a black fabric creation with ornate padded top-piece and scarf draping carried under the chin is part of the museum collection of the FIDM in Paris. While Lana Turner created an iconic image of femme fatale in turban in The Postman Always Rings Twice, the growing US popularity of South American stars such as Carmen Miranda raised the profile of the draped turban as glamour wear – Miranda wore hers in a variety of extreme permutations in her films. Versions of the draped turban started to gain in popularity again from the mid 1950s.