The Munduruku known as Mundurucu or Wuy Jugu, are an indigenous people of Brazil living in the Amazon River basin. Some Mundurucu communities are part of the Coatá-Laranjal Indigenous Land, they had an estimated population in 2014 of 13,755. Traditionally the Munduruku's territory, called Mundurukânia in the 19th century, was the Tapajós river valley. In 1788, they defeated their ancient enemies the Muras. After 1803 they lived at peace with the Brazilians; the Munduruku live in southwest of the state of Pará along the Tapajós river and its tributaries in the municipalities of Santarém, Itaituba and Jacareacanga, in the east of the state of Amazonas along the Canumã River in the municipality of Nova Olinda and the municipality of Borba, in the north of the state of Mato Grosso in the Peixes River region in the municipality of Juara. They inhabit forest regions on the margins of navigable rivers, their traditional villages are in "Tapajós fields", patches of savannah within the Amazon rainforest.
The largest numbers live in the Mundurucu Indigenous Territory, with most of the villages along the Cururu River, a tributary of the Tapajós. Today the Munduruku face threats to their homelands from the dams of the Tapajós hydroelectric complex, illegal gold-panning, a new waterway construction on the Tapajós River; the reservoir of the proposed Chacorão Dam on the Tapajós river would flood 18,700 hectares of the Munduruku Indigenous Territory. The reservoir of the proposed São Luiz do Tapajós Dam on the Tapajós would flood about 7% of the Sawré Muybu Indigenous Territory. Known as the Mundurucu and Cara Preta, the Mundurucu's name for themselves is Wuy Jugu. Oral history says the name "Muduruku" comes from their enemies the Parintintin people and means "red ants," based on the historical Munduruku tactic of attacking en masse; the Mundurucu have a distinctive residence pattern. Rather than a pattern based on conjugal or affinal bonds, in the Munduruku villages, all males over the age of thirteen live in one household, all of the females live with all of the males under thirteen in another.
The Munduruku language is part of the Tupi language family. According to Gomes, "widely known by Mundurukú, the famous'head cutters' call themselves wuyjuyu'people.' Considered in the past'one of the most warlike and intelligent tribes of Brazil', this Brazilian indigenous community seeks today to'cut off the head'of enemies through dialogue, not only territorial disputes are part of this'war', but disputes over health, linguistic and cultural education and self-preservation."They are notable for their linguistic separation of "us" from "them", the pariwat. Whereas they refer to themselves as the wuujuyû, or "our people", everyone else is spoken of as the equivalent of "prey". Unlike the Pirahã, the Mundurucu have a numeracy system, albeit limited. Pierre Pica was instrumental in revealing the psychophysics and linguistic properties of the Munduruku counting system to the Western world; the Mundurucu have number words up to only five, although each word is not as definite in meaning as number words in English, the lexical limitation is no obstacle to their making calculations involving larger numbers.
Furthermore, the Mundurucu use logarithmic mapping of numbers to assess scales, a point cited as possible evidence for the notion that this kind of numbering is innate, whereas the linear mode has to be acquired by study. "Cognition and arithmetics capability: what the Mundurucus Indians can teach us", CNRS Press release October 2004 Amazon Children "Spontaneously" Understand Geometry National Geographic News, January 2006 "Mastering the Geometry of the Jungle", New York Times, 24 June 2006 "Intuitions of number-space in Amazonian Indigenous groups" CEA Press release, June 2008. Pica, P. "Theoretical implications of the study of Numbers and Numerals in Mundurucu". Philosophical Psychology. 21: 4. Doi:10.1080/09515080802285461. Pica, P, C Lemer, V Izard & Dehaene, S. "Exact and approximate arithmetic in an Amazonian Indigene Group" Science, 306, pp. 499–503. Dehaene, S. Izard, V. Spelke, E & Pica, P, "Log or linear Distinct Intuitions of the number scale in Western and Amazonian Indigene Culture" Science 320, 5880, 1217–20 Wuy Jugu artwork, National Museum of the American Indian
Indigenous peoples in Brazil
Indigenous peoples in Brazil or Indigenous Brazilians, comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who have inhabited what is now the country of Brazil since prior to the European contact around 1500. Unlike Christopher Columbus, who thought he had reached the East Indies, the Portuguese, most notably Vasco da Gama, had reached India via the Indian Ocean route when they reached Brazil; the word índios was by established to designate the people of the New World and continues to be used today in the Portuguese language to designate these people, while a person from India is called indiano in order to distinguish the two. At the time of European contact, some of the indigenous people were traditionally semi-nomadic tribes who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture. Many of the estimated 2,000 nations and tribes which existed in the 16th century suffered extinction as a consequence of the European settlement and many were assimilated into the Brazilian population; the indigenous population was killed by European diseases, declining from a pre-Columbian high of millions to some 300,000, grouped into 200 tribes.
However, the number could be much higher if the urban indigenous populations are counted in all the Brazilian cities today. A somewhat dated linguistic survey found 188 living indigenous languages with 155,000 total speakers. On January 18, 2007, FUNAI reported that it had confirmed the presence of 67 different uncontacted tribes in Brazil, up from 40 in 2005. With this addition, Brazil has now surpassed New Guinea as the country having the largest number of uncontacted peoples in the world. Brazilian indigenous people have made substantial and pervasive contributions to the world's medicine with knowledge used today by pharmaceutical corporations and cultural development—such as the domestication of tobacco and cassava. In the last IBGE census, 817,000 Brazilians classified themselves as indigenous. Questions about the original settlement of the Americas has produced a number of hypothetical models; the origins of these indigenous people are still a matter of dispute among archaeologists. Anthropological and genetic evidence indicates that most Amerindian people descended from migrant people from North Asia who entered the Americas across the Bering Strait or along the western coast of North America in at least three separate waves.
In Brazil most native tribes who were living in the land by 1500 are thought to be descended from the first Siberian wave of migrants, who are believed to have crossed the Bering Land Bridge at the end of the last Ice Age, between 13,000 and 17,000 years before the present. A migrant wave would have taken some time after initial entry to reach present-day Brazil entering the Amazon River basin from the Northwest.. An analysis of Amerindian Y-chromosome DNA indicates specific clustering of much of the South American population; the micro-satellite diversity and distributions of the Y lineage specific to South America indicates that certain Amerindian populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the region. According to an autosomal genetic study from 2012, Native Americans descend from at least three main migrant waves from East Asia. Most of it is traced back to a single ancestral population, called'First Americans'. However, those who speak Inuit languages from the Arctic inherited half of their ancestry from a second East Asian migrant wave.
And those who speak Na-dene, on the other hand, inherited a tenth of their ancestry from a third migrant wave. The initial settling of the Americas was followed by a rapid expansion southwards, by the coast, with little gene flow especially in South America. One exception to this are the Chibcha speakers, whose ancestry comes from both North and South America. Another study, focused on the mtDNA, revealed that the indigenous people of the Americas have their maternal ancestry traced back to a few founding lineages from East Asia, which would have arrived via the Bering strait. According to this study, it is probable that the ancestors of the Native Americans would have remained for a time in the region of the Bering Strait, after which there would have been a rapid movement of settling of the Americas, taking the founding lineages to South America. Linguistic studies have backed up genetic studies, with ancient patterns having been found between the languages spoken in Siberia and those spoken in the Americas.
Two 2015 autosomal DNA genetic studies confirmed the Siberian origins of the Natives of the Americas. However an ancient signal of shared ancestry with the Natives of Australia and Melanesia was detected among the Natives of the Amazon region; the migration coming out of Siberia would have happened 23,000 years ago. According to a 2016 study, focused on mtDNA lineages, "a small population entered the Americas via a coastal route around 16.0 ka, following previous isolation in eastern Beringia for ~2.4 to 9 thousand years after separation from eastern Siberian populations. Following a rapid movement throughout the Americas, limited gene flow in South America resulted in a marked phylogeographic structure of populations, which persisted through time. All of the ancient mitochondrial lineages detected in this study were absent from modern data sets, suggesting a high extinction rate. To investigate this further, we applied a novel principal components multiple logistic regression test to
Amazon rubber boom
The Amazon Rubber Boom was an important part of the economic and social history of Brazil and Amazonian regions of neighboring countries, being related to the extraction and commercialization of rubber. Centered in the Amazon Basin, the boom resulted in a large expansion of European colonization in the area, attracting immigrant workers, generating wealth, causing cultural and social transformations, wreaking havoc upon indigenous societies, it encouraged the growth of cities such as Manaus, Porto Velho, Belém, capitals within the respective Brazilian states of Amazonas, Rondônia and Pará. The rubber boom occurred between 1879 and 1912. There was heightened rubber production and associated activities from 1942 to 1945 during the Second World War. Natural rubber is an elastomer known as tree gum, India rubber, caoutchouc, which comes from the rubber tree in tropical regions. Christopher Columbus was the one of the first Europeans to bring news of this odd substance back to Europe, but he was not the only one to report it.
Around 1736, a French astronomer recalled how Amerindians used rubber to waterproof shoes and cloaks. He brought several samples of rubber back to France. Rubber was used as an eraser by scientist Joseph Priestley in England, it was not until the 1800s that practical uses of rubber were developed and the demand for rubber began. A rubber factory that made rubber garters for women opened in Paris, France, in the year 1803. However, the material still had disadvantages: at room temperature, it was sticky. At higher temperatures, the rubber became softer and stickier, while at lower temperatures it became hard and rigid; the South Amerindians first discovered rubber. The Amerindians in the Amazon rainforest developed ways to extract rubber from the rubber tree, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family. A white liquid called latex is extracted from the stem of the rubber tree, contains rubber particles dispersed in an aqueous serum; the rubber, which constitutes about 35% of the latex, is chemically cis-1,4-polyisoprene.
Latex is a neutral substance, with a pH of 7.0 to 7.2. However, when it is exposed to the air for 12 to 24 hours, its pH falls and it spontaneously coagulates to form a solid mass of rubber. Rubber produced in this fashion has disadvantages. For example, exposure to air causes it to mix with various materials, perceptible and can cause rot, as well as a temperature-dependent stickiness. Industrial treatment was developed to remove the impurities and vulcanize the rubber, a process that eliminated its undesirable qualities; this process gives it superior mechanical properties, causes it to lose its sticky character, become stable - resistant to solvents and variations in temperature. The rubber boom and the associated need for a large workforce had a significant negative effect on the indigenous population across Brazil, Peru and Colombia; as rubber plantations grew, labor shortages increased. The owners of the plantations or rubber barons were rich, but those who collected the rubber made little as a large amount of rubber was needed to be profitable.
The rubber barons forced them to tap rubber out of the trees. One plantation started with 50,000 Indians but, when discovered, only 8,000 were still alive. Slavery and systematic brutality were widespread, in some areas, 90% of the Indian population was wiped out; these rubber plantations were part of the Brazilian rubber market, which declined as rubber plantations in Southeast Asia became more effective. Roger Casement, an Irishman traveling the Putumayo region of Peru as a British consul during 1910–1911 documented the abuse, slavery and use of stocks for torture against the native Indians: "The crimes charged against many men now in the employ of the Peruvian Amazon Company are of the most atrocious kind, including murder and constant flogging." According to Wade Davis, author of One River: "The horrendous atrocities that were unleashed on the Indian people of the Amazon during the height of the rubber boom were like nothing, seen since the first days of the Spanish Conquest."Rubber had catastrophic effects in parts of Upper Amazonia, but its impact should not be exaggerated nor extrapolated to the whole region.
The Putumayo was a horrific case. Many nearby rubber regions were not ruled by physical violence, but by the voluntary compliance implicit in patron-peon relations; some native peoples benefited financially from their dealings with the white merchants. Others stayed away from the main rivers; because tappers worked in near complete isolation, they were not burdened by overseers and timetables. In Brazil tappers could, did, adulterate rubber cargoes, by adding sand and flour to the rubber "balls", before sending them downriver. Flight into the thicket was a successful survival strategy and, because Indians were engaged in credit relations, it was a common practice to vanish and work for other patrons, leaving debts unpaid. For the first four and a half centuries following the discovery of the New World, the native populations of the Amazon Basin lived in isolation; the area was vast and impenetrable, no gold or precious stones had been found there, as neither colonial Brazil nor imperial Brazil was able to create incentives for development in the region.
The regional economy was based on use of diverse natural resources in the region, but development was concentrated in coastal areas. The Industrial Revolution in Europe led to demand for uses that
The Ticuna are an indigenous people of Brazil and Peru. They are the most numerous tribe in the Brazilian Amazon; the Ticuna were a tribe that lived far away from the rivers and whose expansion was kept in check by neighboring peoples. Their historical lack of access to waterways and their practice of endogamy has led to the Ticuna being culturally and genetically distinct from other Amazonian tribes; the first contact with outsiders occurred on the colonization of Brazil when a Portuguese fleet exploring the Amazon came into contact with the Ticuna. Sustained contact with the Portuguese and other outsiders began in 1649. Since the Ticuna lived inland compared to other tribes they were less affected by the diseases and violence caused by colonialism, hence why the Ticuna today have the largest population of any Amazonian peoples; however the Ticuna still suffered especially in the rubber cultivation that began in the late 19th century where many Ticuna were used for slave labor. Ticuna as a Brazilian tribe has faced violence from loggers and rubber-tappers entering their lands around the Solimões River.
Four Ticuna people were murdered, 19 were wounded, ten had disappeared in the 1988 Helmet Massacre. By the 1990s, Brazil formally recognized the Ticunas' right to their lands. Ticuna people speak the Ticuna language, identified as a language isolate, although it might be related to the extinct Yuri language thus forming the hypothetical Ticuna–Yuri grouping; the Ticuna language was once thought to be an Arawakan language, but his has now been discredited as more the Ticuna have adopted many linguistic features due to long history of interaction with Arawakan-speaking tribes. It is written in the Latin script. Ticuna people practiced Shamanism, although with the influence of Christian missionaries since contact Shamans have become rare in all but the most isolated communities. Ta'e was the Ticuna creator god who guarded the earth, while Yo'i and Ip were mythical heroes in Ticuna folklore which helped fight off demons. Depending on different estimates some say that the Ticuana practice ethnic religion, while other estimates say that 30% to 90% are Christian.
The Ticuna practice a coming-of-age ceremony for girls when they reach puberty called a Pelazon. After the girl's first menstruation her whole body is painted black with the clan symbol drawn on her head. All their hair is pulled out and they wear a dress custom made from eagle feathers and snail shells; the girl must continuously jump over a fire. After four days the girl is eligible for marriage. Ticuana men and women must marry outside their own clans according to customs. Nowadays the ritual is less intense as it was historically. Today most Ticuna people dress in western clothing and only wear their traditional garments made out of tree bark and practice their ceremonies on special occasions or for tourists. Most Ticuna nowadays are fluent in Portuguese or Spanish depending on the country that they live in, use Spanish and Portuguese names. Poverty and lack of education are persistent problems in most Ticuna communities, leading to government and NGO efforts to increase educational and academic opportunities.
In December 1986 the General Organization of Bilingual Ticuna Teachers was founded in order to provide Ticuna children with quality bilingual education and more opportunities. In 1998 there were only around 7,400 ethnic Ticuna children enrolled in elementary school, by 2005 the number has more than doubles to 16,100. Another goal of the OGPTB was the gradual replacement of non-Indigenous teaches with Ticuna ones for Ticuna students as to better provide bilingual education. By 2005 over half of the teachers where ethnic Ticuna. So effect the OGPTB program has been that it is now being expanded and copied to better serve the educational needs of other indigenous people in Brazil and Colombia; the Ticuna are coming under increasing influence of evangelization and proselytism by Christian missionaries, which has negative and positive changes on the Ticuna way of life. Catholic, Baptist and Evangelical missionaries are all active among the Ticuna. Nimuendaju, Curt. "The Tukuna". University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology.
45. Retrieved 2018-01-27. Sullivan, James Lamkin. "The impact of education on Ticuna Indian culture: an historical and ethnographic field study". North Texas State University. Retrieved 2018-01-27. "Amazon’s Remaining Ticuna Indians Ban Tourists," Talking About Colombia Ticuna mask for girl's puberty ceremony, National Museum of the American Indian
North Region, Brazil
The North Region of Brazil is the largest Region of Brazil, corresponding to 45.27% of the national territory. It is the least inhabited of the country, contributes with a minor percentage in the national GDP and population, it comprises the states of Acre, Amapá, Pará, Rondônia and Tocantins. Its demographic density is the lowest in Brazil considering all the regions of the country, with only 3.8 inhabitants per km2. Most of the population is centered in urban areas. Belém International Airport and Manaus International Airport connect the North Region with many Brazilian cities and operate some international flights; the North is home to the Federal University of Amazonas and Federal University of Pará. The first inhabitants of the North Region, as in the rest of Brazil, were the Native Brazilians, who shared a diverse number of tribes and villages, from the pre-Columbian period until the arrival of the European people; the Spaniards, among them Francisco de Orellana, organized exploratory expeditions by the Amazon river to know the region.
After long journeys alongside Francisco de Orellana, Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés wrote a letter addressed to Cardinal Pedro Bembo in Venice, extolling the fauna and flora existing in the region at the time of the expedition. The XVII century marked the arrival of the Portuguese people, where they built military strongholds to defend the region against the invasion of other peoples, in 1616, causing in the foundation of Belém do Pará; the richness of the Amazon Rainforest has become interesting for the Portuguese Crown. With the Portuguese explorers, the Catholic missionaries came to the region, in order to catechize the natives; the natives were assembled by missionaries in villages, called missions, many of which gave birth to several cities, such as Borba and Óbidos. In order to work on rubber extraction, Brazilians from other states from the Northeast Region, moved to the region. Many Japanese families came to work in the agricultural colonies. During the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, military governments implemented a major plan to integrate the region with other regions of Brazil, including the construction of several highways, the installation of industries and the creation of the Free Economic Zone of Manaus.
The territorial division into countries does not coincide with the indigenous occupation of the geographical space. From the beginning of the colonization from the 17th century to the present day, the inhabitants of Amazônia dedicated themselves to extractive and mercantilist activities, inserting between 1840 and 1910 the monopoly of rubber in Amazonas and Acre. All this process of colonization has brought about changes such as the reduction of the indigenous population, the increase of the Caboclo identity, the mixing of whites and indigenous people, the reduction of species of plants and animals and other consequences. After World War II, the Brazilian Amazon became part of the national development process; the creation of the National Institute of Amazonian Research in 1952, the establishment of regional development agencies such as the Superintendency of Development for the Amazon in 1966 and the Free Economic Zone of Manaus in 1967 began to contribute to the settlement of region and in the execution of projects focused on the region.
The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world. Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, tropical forests in the Americas are more species rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia; as the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity. More than 1/3 of all species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest; the region is home to about 2.5 million insect species, tens of thousands of plants, some 2000 birds and mammals species. To date, at least 40,000 plant species, 3,000 fish, 1,294 birds, 427 mammals, 428 amphibians, 378 reptiles have been scientifically classified in the region. Scientists have described between 128,843 invertebrate species in Brazil alone; the diversity of plant species is the highest on earth with some experts estimating that one square kilometre may contain over 75,000 types of trees and 150,000 species of higher plants.
One square kilometre of Amazon rainforest can contain about 90,790 tonnes of living plants. This constitutes the largest collection of living plants and animal species in the world. One in five of all the birds in the world live in the rainforests of the Amazon. To date, an estimated 438,000 species of plants of economic and social interest have been registered in the region with many more remaining to be discovered or catalogued; some latitudes can create a region with humid climates. The existence of heat and the enormous liquid mass favor evaporation make the region a humid area. Dominated by an equatorial climate, the region presents high temperatures throughout the year, a low thermal amplitude, with the exception of some areas of the states of Amazonas, Rondônia and Acre, where the phenomenon of "friagem" occurs, due to La Niña's activity, allowing cold air masses coming from the South Atlantic Ocean to penetrate the states of the South Region of the country, pass through the Central-West region and reach the Amazonian states, causing falling temperature.
The Amazonian heat provides an area of low latitude. Occurring in winter, the effect of "fr
The Parintintin are an indigenous people who live in Brazil in the Madeira River basin. They refer to themselves as Cabahyba, Kagwahiva’nga, or Kagwahiva, which means "our people." As of 2010, the Parintintin have a population of around 418 and live in three villages on two indigenous territories: TI Ipixuna 215,362 hectares, TI Nove de Janeiro 228,777 hectares. The Parintintin language is a dialect of the Tenharim language, which belongs to the Tupi-Guarani language family, it is written in the Latin script. Parintintin people are argicultalists and gatherers, their social structure is based on two moieties that are exogamous and named for different types of birds. They are a patrilineal society. Following contact with Brazilians in 1946, a population of 4,000 at the time was reduced to 120 after Brazil's second rubber boom and the construction of the Trans-Amazon highway in 1970. Further colonization of the Amazon basin led to the spread of diseases that the Parintintin were not prepared for.
The Parintintin face possible downstream impacts from the Madeira Hydroelectric Complex. List of indigenous peoples in Brazil Instituto Socioambiental Parintintin Flickr set of TI Nove de Janeiro International Rivers
Amazonas (Brazilian state)
Amazonas is a state of Brazil, located in the North Region in the northwestern corner of the country. It is the largest Brazilian state by area and the 9th largest country subdivision in the world, is greater than the areas of Uruguay and Chile combined. Located in the Southern Hemisphere, it is the third largest country subdivision in the Southern Hemisphere after the Australian states of Western Australia and Queensland, it would be the sixteenth largest country in land area larger than Mongolia. It is larger than the whole of the Northeast Region of Brazil with its nine states. Amazonas is 90% the size of the U. S. is equivalent to 2.25 times the area of Texas. Neighbouring states are Roraima, Pará, Mato Grosso, Rondônia, Acre, it borders the nations of Peru and Venezuela. This includes the Departments of Amazonas, Vaupés and Guainía in Colombia, as well as the Amazonas state in Venezuela, the Loreto Region in Peru. Amazonas is named after the Amazon River, was part of the Spanish Empire's Viceroyalty of Peru, a region called Spanish Guyana.
It was settled by the Portuguese moving northwest from Brazil in the early 18th century and incorporated into the Portuguese empire after the Treaty of Madrid in 1750. It became a state under the First Brazilian Republic in 1889. Most of the state is tropical jungle; the capital and largest city is Manaus, a modern city of 2.1 million inhabitants in the middle of the jungle on the Amazon River 1,500 km upstream from the Atlantic Ocean. Nearly half the state's population lives in the city; the name was given to the Amazon River that runs through the state by the Spaniard Francisco de Orellana in 1541. Claiming to have come across a warlike tribe of Indians, with whom he fought, he likened them to the Amazons of Greek mythology, giving them the same name of Río de las Amazonas. See also: Timeline of Amazon history and History of Amazonas See Also History of South America#Amazon and Amazon Rainforest#HistoryAt one time the Amazon River flowed westward as part of a proto-Congo river system from the interior of present-day Africa when the continents were joined as part of western Gondwana.
Fifteen million years ago, the Andes were formed by the collision of the South American Plate with the Nazca Plate plate. The rise of the Andes and the linkage of the Brazilian and Guyana bedrock shields, blocked the river and caused the Amazon to become a vast inland sea; this inland sea became a massive swampy, freshwater lake and the marine inhabitants adapted to life in freshwater. For example, over 20 species of stingray, most related to those found in the Pacific Ocean, can be found today in the fresh waters of the Amazon. About ten million years ago, waters worked through the sandstone to the west and the Amazon began to flow eastward. At this time the Amazon rainforest was born. During the Ice Age, sea levels dropped and the great Amazon lake drained and became a river. Three million years the ocean level receded enough to expose the Central American isthmus and allow mass migration of mammal species between the Americas; the Ice Ages caused tropical rainforest around the world to retreat.
Although debated, it is believed that much of the Amazon reverted to montane forest. Savanna divided patches of rainforest into "islands" and separated existing species for periods long enough to allow genetic differentiation; when the ice ages ended, the forest was again joined, the species that were once one, had diverged enough to be designated as separate species, adding to the tremendous diversity of the region. About 6,000 years ago, sea levels rose about 130 meters, once again causing the river to be inundated like a long, giant freshwater lake; the pre-Columbian Amazonas was inhabited by seminomadic peoples whose livelihood mixed occasional agriculture with a fishing and hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Because of Christopher Columbus' misunderstanding of the continent at which he had arrived, the native population were and are denominated "índios" by the Portuguese. Two thousand Indian tribes lived in the region in the sixteenth century amounting to some millions of people, but phenomena such as disease and assimilation to Brazilian culture caused their numbers to fall to three hundred thousand, two hundred tribes, by the end of the twentieth century.
Certain uncontacted tribes still exist in the region. In the colonial time, the territory which today belongs to the State of Amazonas, was a combination of treaties, expeditions and military occupations. Scarce but recorded claims and indigenous uprisings in the region, were made by the Spanish Empire through the Treaty of Tordesillas and after the Portuguese Empire by the First Treaty of San Ildefonso; the State includes territory from failed attempts at colonization by the European powers, such as England and the Dutch empire. The first Spanish expedition was by Francisco de Orellana in conjunction with Catholic priest Gaspar de Carvajal, who documented the expedition, he reported a conflict against indigenous women which led to the current name of the river, to the current name of the region and the state. The second Spanish expedition was by