Petrus Apianus known as Peter Apian, Peter Bennewitz, Peter Bienewitz was a German humanist, known for his works in mathematics and cartography. His work on "cosmography", the field that dealt with the earth and its position in the universe and presented in his most famous works, Astronomicum Caesareum and Cosmographicus liber which were influential in his time with the numerous editions in multiple languages being published until 1609; the lunar crater asteroid 19139 Apian are named in his honour. Apianus was born as Peter Bienewitz in Leisnig in Saxony; the family was well off, belonging to the middle-class citizenry of Leisnig. Apianus was educated at the Latin school in Rochlitz. From 1516 to 1519 he studied at the University of Leipzig. In 1519, Apianus moved to Vienna and continued his studies at the University of Vienna, considered one of the leading universities in geography and mathematics at the time and where Georg Tannstetter taught; when the plague broke out in Vienna in 1521, he completed his studies with a B.
A. and moved to Regensburg and to Landshut. At Landshut, he produced his Cosmographicus liber, a respected work on astronomy and navigation, to see at least 30 reprints in 14 languages and that remained popular until the end of the 16th century. Editions were produced by Gemma Frisius. In 1527, Peter Apianus was called to the University of Ingolstadt as a printer, his print shop started small. Among the first books he printed were the writings of Martin Luther's antagonist; this print shop was active between 1543 and 1540 and became well known for its high-quality editions of geographic and cartographic works. It is thought; the printer's logo included the motto Industria superat vires in Greek and Latin around the figure of a boy. Through his work, Apianus became a favourite of emperor Charles V, who had praised Cosmographicus liber at the Imperial Diet of 1530 and granted him a printing monopoly in 1532 and 1534. In 1535, the emperor granted him the right to display a coat of arms. In 1540, Apianus printed the Astronomicum Caesareum, dedicated to Charles V. Charles promised him a royal sum,1 appointed him his court mathematician, made him a Reichsritter and in 1544 an Imperial Count Palatine.
All this furthered Apianus's reputation as an eminent scientist. Astronomicum Caesareum is noted for its visual appeal. Printed and bound decoratively, with about 100 known copies, it included several volvelles that allowed users to calculate dates, the positions of constellations and so on. Apianus noted. Thirty-five octagonal paper cut instruments were included with woodcuts that are thought to have been made by Hans Brosamer who may have trained under Lucas Cranach, Sr. in Wittemberg. It incorporated star and constellation names from the work of the Arab astronomer Azophi. Apianus is remembered for publishing the only known depiction of the Bedouin constellations in 1533. On this map Ursa Minor is an old woman and three maidens, Draco is four camels and Cepheus was illustrated as a shepherd with sheep and dog. Despite many calls from other universities, including Leipzig, Padua, Tübingen, Vienna, Apianus remained in Ingolstadt until his death. Although he neglected his teaching duties, the university evidently was proud to host such an esteemed scientist.
Apianus's work included in mathematics—in 1527 he published a variation of Pascal's triangle, in 1534 a table of sines— as well as astronomy. In 1531, he noted that a comet's tail always point away from the sun. Girolamo Fracastoro detected this in 1531, but Apianus's publication was the first to include graphics, he designed sundials, published manuals for astronomical instruments and crafted volvelles, measuring instruments useful for calculating time and distance for astronomical and astrological applications. Apianus married the daughter of a councilman of Landshut, Katharina Mosner, in 1526, they would have 14 children together, five girls and nine sons, one of whom was Philipp Apian, who, in addition to his own research, preserved the legacy of his father. Cosmographicus liber, Landshut 1524. Ein newe und wolgegründete underweisung aller Kauffmanns Rechnung in dreyen Büchern, mit schönen Regeln und fragstücken begriffen, Ingolstadt 1527. A handbook of commercial arithmetic. Cosmographiae introductio, cum quibusdam Geometriae ac Astronomiae principiis ad eam rem necessariis, Ingolstadt 1529.
Ein kurtzer bericht der Observation unnd urtels des jüngst erschinnen Cometen... Ingolstadt 1532. On his comet observations. Quadrans Apiani astronomicus, Ingolstadt 1532. On quadrants. Horoscopion Apiani... Ingolstadt 1533. On sundials. Instrument Buch... Ingolstadt 1533. A scientific book on astronomical instruments in German. Instrumentum primi mobilis, Nuremberg 1534. On trigonometry, contains sine tables. Astronomicum Caesareum, Ingolstadt 1540. ^1 Whether Apian received the promised money is uncertain. Kish, George. "Apian, Peter". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 178–179. ISBN 0-684-10114-9. Röttel, K
Philipp Apian was a German mathematician and medic. The son of Petrus Apianus, he is known as the cartographer of Bavaria, he was born in Ingolstadt as Philipp Bienewitz. At age eleven, the son of mathematician and cartographer Peter Apian started to study mathematics at the University of Ingolstadt. Aged 18, he studied in Burgundy and Bourges. Returning in 1552 he became a professor; as a Protestant he had to leave in 1569 due to the counter reformation. At the University of Tübingen he lectured for 14 years until he lost this position in 1583 for refusing to negate Calvinism, he died in Tübingen. In 1554, Duke Albrecht of Bavaria ordered Apian to create a map of Bavaria for the Bairische Chronik of Johannes Aventinus written 1526 to 1533. Over the course of seven years, Apian travelled through Oberbayern and Niederbayern, Archbishopric Salzburg and Bishopric Eichstätt. After two years work, a 5 x 5 meter sized map in scale 1:45.000 was finished, to be coloured by Bartel Refinger. The map, in the residence's library since 1563, was destroyed by a fire in 1782.
Smaller Bairische Landtafeln based on the map were ordered by Philipp Apian in 1566 from Jost Amman as 24 tables of scale 1:144.000. This second version was issued in 1568, it was considered the official map of Bavaria until the 19th century. It is said that the accuracy was not surpassed until 19th century, that Napoléon Bonaparte used them when invading Bavaria. Abraham Ortelius published them as ex tabula Philippi Apiani. Hans Wolff: Philipp Apian und die Kartographie der Renaissance 237 Seiten, Weißenhorn 1989, ISBN 3-87437-282-0 Ralf Kern: Wissenschaftliche Instrumente in ihrer Zeit. Vol. 1. Cologne, 2010. Pp 320–333. Bairische Landtafeln, 1568, at commons Philipp Apian in the German National Library catalogue/ ADB Peter and Philipp Apian
Bavaria the Free State of Bavaria, is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner. With an area of 70,550.19 square kilometres, Bavaria is the largest German state by land area comprising a fifth of the total land area of Germany. With 13 million inhabitants, it is Germany's second-most-populous state after North Rhine-Westphalia. Bavaria's main cities are Nuremberg; the history of Bavaria includes its earliest settlement by Iron Age Celtic tribes, followed by the conquests of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BC, when the territory was incorporated into the provinces of Raetia and Noricum. It became a stem duchy in the 6th century AD following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire, became an independent kingdom, joined the Prussian-led German Empire while retaining its title of kingdom, became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year 555. In the 17th century AD, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918. In 1946, the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War. Bavaria has a unique culture because of the state's Catholic majority and conservative traditions. Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes a language, architecture, festivals such as Oktoberfest and elements of Alpine symbolism; the state has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, giving it a status as a rather wealthy German region. Modern Bavaria includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia; the Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps inhabited by Celts, part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum. The Bavarians spoke Old High German, unlike other Germanic groups, they did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century; these peoples may have included the Celtic Boii, some remaining Romans, Allemanni, Thuringians, Scirians, Heruli.
The name "Bavarian" means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources circa 520. A 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BC. From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria, ending with Tassilo III, deposed by Charlemagne. Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555, their daughter, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.
After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy, his son, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in 714, married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed from neighboring Alemannia. Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface, tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo, he was defeated near Augsburg in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748. Saint Boniface completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Tassilo III succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria.
He ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After 781, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and deposed him in 788; the deposition was not legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback; the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, he died a monk; as all of his family were forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and
Munich is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria, the second most populous German federal state. With a population of around 1.5 million, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, as well as the 12th-largest city in the European Union. The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people. Straddling the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany. Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna; the city is a global centre of art, technology, publishing, innovation, education and tourism and enjoys a high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany and third worldwide according to the 2018 Mercer survey, being rated the world's most liveable city by the Monocle's Quality of Life Survey 2018. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, as of 2015.
Munich is a major international center of engineering, science and research, exemplified by the presence of two research universities, a multitude of scientific institutions in the city and its surroundings, world class technology and science museums like the Deutsches Museum and BMW Museum.. Munich houses many multinational companies and its economy is based on high tech, the service sector and creative industries, as well as IT, biotechnology and electronics among many others; the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning "by the monks". It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order, who ran a monastery at the place, to become the Old Town of Munich. Munich was first mentioned in 1158. Catholic Munich resisted the Reformation and was a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years' War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes. Once Bavaria was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, it became a major European centre of arts, architecture and science.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the ruling house of Wittelsbach, which had governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived socialist republic was declared. In the 1920s, Munich became home to several political factions, among them the NSDAP; the first attempt of the Nazi movement to take over the German government in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch was stopped by the Bavarian police in Munich with gunfire. After the Nazis' rise to power, Munich was declared their "Capital of the Movement". During World War II, Munich was bombed and more than 50% of the entire city and up to 90% of the historic centre were destroyed. After the end of postwar American occupation in 1949, there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of Wirtschaftswunder, or "economic miracle". Unlike many other German cities which were bombed, Munich restored most of its traditional cityscape and hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics; the 1980s brought strong economic growth, high-tech industries and scientific institutions, population growth.
The city is home to major corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE. Munich is home to many universities and theatres, its numerous architectural attractions, sports events and its annual Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism. Munich is one of the fastest growing cities in Germany, it is a top-ranked destination for expatriate location. Munich hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background; the first known settlement in the area was of Benedictine monks on the Salt road. The foundation date is not considered the year 1158, the date the city was first mentioned in a document; the document was signed in Augsburg. By the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a toll bridge over the river Isar next to the monk settlement and on the salt route, but as part of the archaeological excavations at Marienhof in advance of the expansion of the S-Bahn from 2012 shards of vessels from the eleventh century were found, which prove again that the settlement Munich must be older than their first documentary mention from 1158.
In 1175 Munich received city fortification. In 1180 with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria, Munich was handed to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, when the Duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Munich became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria. Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328, he strengthened the city's position by granting it the salt monopoly, thus assuring it of additional income. In the late 15th century, Munich underwent a revival of gothic arts: the Old Town Hall was enlarged, Munich's largest gothic church – the Frauenkirche – now a cathedral, was constructed in only 20 years, starting in 1468; when Bavaria was reunited in 1506, Munich became its capital. The arts and politics became influenced by the court. During the 16th century, Munich was a centre of the German counter reformation, of renaissance arts. Duke Wilhelm V commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche, which became a centre for the counter-reform
Ingolstadt is a city in Bavaria, Germany, on the banks of the River Danube, in the centre of Bavaria. In 2016, it had 133,638 citizens, it is part of the Munich Metropolitan Region. The Illuminati, an Age of Enlightenment secret society, was founded in Ingolstadt in the late 18th century. Ingolstadt is a setting in the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, where the scientist Victor Frankenstein creates his monster, it is the site of the headquarters of the German automobile manufacturer Audi, defence aircraft manufacturer Airbus, electronic stores Media Markt and Saturn. Ingolstadt Central Station has been connected to Nuremberg by a high-speed rail link since May 2006. Ingolstadt has a second passenger station at Ingolstadt Nord. Covering an urban area of 133.35 square kilometres, Ingolstadt is geographically Bavaria's fourth-largest city after Munich and Augsburg. At its largest point the city is about 18 km from east from north to south about 15 km; the city boundary has a length of 70 km. The city boundary is about 14 km away from the geographic centre of Bavaria in Kipfenberg.
The old town is 374 metres above sea level and the highest point, located in the district of Pettenhofen, is 410.87 m. The lowest point of the Schutter confluence with the Danube is at 362 m above sea level. Ingolstadt uses Central European Time as throughout Germany; the city is expanding at the southern banks of the Danube in a wide flat bowl. The Ingolstadt basin borders the Jura foothills, located south and is to the north of the Donau-Isar-Hügelland. In the southwest is the Donaumoos while in the east the lowland forests of the Danube reach into the urban area, it is the second largest hardwood floodplain on the Danube. The Sandrach, the former Southern main branch of the Danube forms the Southern city border. In the north, the Schutter flows through from the west reaching the Danube near to the Altstadt. Ingolstadt was first mentioned in a document of Charlemagne on 6 February 806 as "Ingoldes stat", the place of Ingold. Circa 1250, Ingolstadt was granted city status. Ingolstadt was the capital of the Duchy of Bavaria-Ingolstadt between 1392 and 1447.
Ingolstadt was united with Bavaria-Landshut. Louis VII, Duke of Bavaria ordered the building of the New Castle, whose form was influenced by French Gothic architecture. In 1472 Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria founded the University of Ingolstadt which became the Ludwig-Maximilians-University. In 1800 it was moved to Landshut and in 1826 to Munich; the University of Ingolstadt was an important defender of the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation era, led by such notable scholars as Johann Eck. Ingolstadt is where William IV, Duke of Bavaria wrote and signed the Bavarian Reinheitsgebot in 1516. In the Battle of Ingolstadt in May 1525, the Black Company – a unit of Franconian farmers and knights fighting on the side of the peasants during the German Peasants' War – took their last stand at Ingolstadt against the Swabian League, all being defeated and killed. On 30 April 1632, the German field marshal Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly died at Ingolstadt during a Swedish siege of the city; the field marshal had been badly wounded in a previous engagement with the Swedes under King Gustavus Adolphus.
Ingolstadt proved to be the first fortress in Germany that held out for the entire length of the Swedish siege, the Swedes withdrew. The remains of Gustavus Adolphus' horse can be seen in the City Museum; the horse was shot from under the king by one of the cannons inside the fortress, a cannon known as "The Fig". When the Swedes withdrew, the city preserved the remains of the king's horse putting the form on display, it has remained thus for 400 years. In 1748, Adam Weishaupt, the founder of the Order of Illuminati, was born in Ingolstadt. After the French invasion in 1799 the fortress was demolished and the university was relocated to Landshut. A fortress city, Ingolstadt is enclosed by a medieval defensive wall; the Bavarian fortress now holds the museum of the Bavarian army. During World War I, future French president Charles de Gaulle was detained there as a prisoner of war. A sappers' drill ground lies next to the river, two military air bases are located nearby, one used for testing aircraft.
The long military tradition of the city is reflected in today's cultural life. Former "off-limit" military training areas have been converted into well-used public parks. Adolf Scherzer composed the "Bayerischen Defiliermarsch". Mary Shelley's Frankenstein was set at the Ingolstädter Alte Anatomie, now a museum for medical history. Marieluise Fleißer set her play Pioneers in Ingolstadt in the city. In 1945, the car manufacturer Auto Union first arrived in the city; the company's original factories in Chemnitz and Zwickau were shattered during the war, were seized by the Russians as reparations. Auto Union executives started a spare parts operation in Ingolstadt in the immediate post war period, with a view to relocating the entire company to the region. With the help of Marshall Plan aid, Auto Union was formally re-founded in Ingolstadt in 1949 evolving into the modern-era Audi company, after it was taken over by Volkswagen in 1964. Today, Audi now dominates the economy of the city; as one of five ducal residences of medieval Bavaria — besides Landshut, Munich and Burgha
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools. In its current meaning, it refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study. Before the 20th century, the system of gymnasiums was a widespread feature of educational system throughout many countries of central, north and south Europe; the word "γυμνάσιον" was first used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual education of young men. The latter meaning of a place of intellectual education persisted in many European languages, whereas in English the meaning of a place for physical education was retained instead, more familiarly in the shortened form gym; the gymnasium is a secondary school. They are thus meant for the more academically minded students, who are sifted out at about the age of 10–13.
In addition to the usual curriculum, students of a gymnasium study Latin and Ancient Greek. Some gymnasiums provide general education; the four traditional branches are: humanities education modern languages mathematical-scientific education economical and social-scientific education Curricula differ from school to school but include language, informatics, chemistry, geography, music, philosophy, civics/citizenship, social sciences, several foreign languages. Schools concentrate not only on academic subjects, but on producing well-rounded individuals, so physical education and religion or ethics are compulsory in non-denominational schools which are prevalent. For example, the German constitution guarantees the separation of church and state, so although religion or ethics classes are compulsory, students may choose to study a specific religion or none at all. Today, a number of other areas of specialization exist, such as gymnasiums specializing in economics, technology or domestic sciences.
In some countries, there is a notion of progymnasium, equivalent to beginning classes of the full gymnasium, with the rights to continue education in a gymnasium. Here, the prefix pro- is equivalent to pre-, indicating that this curriculum precedes normal gymnasium studies. In the German-speaking, the Central-European, the Nordic, the Benelux and the Baltic countries, this meaning for "gymnasium", a secondary school preparing the student for higher education at a university, has been the same at least since the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century; the term was derived from the classical Greek word "gymnasion", applied to an exercising ground in ancient Athens. Here teachers gathered and gave instruction between the hours devoted to physical exercises and sports, thus the term became associated with and came to mean an institution of learning; this use of the term did not prevail among the Romans, but was revived during the Renaissance in Italy, from there passed into the Netherlands and Germany during the 15th century.
In 1538, Johannes Sturm founded at Strasbourg the school which became the model of the modern German gymnasium. In 1812, a Prussian regulation ordered that all schools which had the right to send their students to the university should bear the name of gymnasia. By the 20th century, this practice was followed in the entire Austrian-Hungarian and Russian Empires. In the modern era, many countries which have gymnasiums were once part of these three empires. In Albania a gymnasium education takes three years following a compulsory nine-year elementary education and ending with a final aptitude test called Albanian: Matura Shtetërore; the final test is standardized at the state level and serves as an entrance qualification for universities. These can be either private; the subjects taught are mathematics, Albanian language, one to three foreign languages, geography, computer science, the natural sciences, history of art, philosophy, physical education and the social sciences. The gymnasium is viewed as a destination for the best performing students and as the type of school that serves to prepare students for university, while other students go to technical/vocational schools.
Therefore, gymnasiums base their admittance criteria on an entrance exam, elementary school grades or some combination of the two. In Austria the Gymnasium has two stages, from the age of 11 to 14, from 15 to 18, concluding with Matura. Three types existed; the Humanistisches Gymnasium focuses on Latin. The Neusprachliches Gymnasium puts its focus on spoken languages; the usual combination is English and Latin. The Realgymnasium puts its focus on science. In the last couple of decades more autonomy was granted to schools and various types were developed, focusing on sports, music or economics, for example. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, gymnázium is a typ