Wellington is a town in the unitary authority of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire and now forms part of the new town of Telford, with which it has become contiguous. The total town population of Wellington was 25,554 in 2011 making it by far the largest of the borough towns and the third largest town in Shropshire when counted independently from Telford. However, the town centre serves a greater area of 60,000, its name is most derived from that of a Saxon settler - Weola - whose farmstead would have been located somewhere in the centre of town near The Green. A church has stood near that site for 1000 years and a priest is mentioned in the Domesday Book; the original churchyard still remains. A new church, designed by George Steuart, was built in 1789. Wellington's first market charter was granted to Giles of Erdington, lord of the manor, is dated 1244 and a market still exists today; the market had an open-sided market hall by 1680 - and much earlier - but this was dismantled c.1805.
In 1841, a market company formed to purchase the market rights from Lord Forester in 1856. Several years in 1848, the company built a town hall with the butter market below, creating a permanent covered home for traders. In 1642 King Charles I stayed overnight'in the environs of' Wellington when on his way from Newport to Shrewsbury to rally support for his cause, while here he made his'Wellington Declaration' in which he said that he would uphold the Protestant Religion, the Laws of England, the Liberty of Parliament; the second Shropshire Olympian Games, organised by celebrated Olympic revivalist Dr William Penny Brookes, were held in Wellington in May 1861. To the north-east of the town is the site of Apley Castle a fourteenth-century fortified manor house, the remains of which were converted into a stable block with the building of a grand Georgian house, itself demolished in the 1950s; the surviving stable block retains some medieval features. Dawley New Town was designated by the Government in 1963, was expanded to encompass Wellington in 1968 under the new name of Telford, named for the great engineer and first county surveyor of Shropshire, Thomas Telford.
The creation of Telford has divided opinion in Wellington since, with some celebrating the jobs and investment it brought to the area and others bemoaning the negative impact on Wellington's own economy – as well as its status and sense of identity. The development of Telford Town Centre since the 1970s has hit Wellington's retail centre hard; the local football team had its name changed from Wellington Town to Telford United. Local politics left Wellington in conflict with Wrekin District Council for many years, with claims and counter claims of neglect. In more recent years, the Council has started making heavy investment to make improvements to the town. Chief amongst these has been the redeveloped Wellington Civic and Leisure Centre near the centre of the town, which has brought together the library, town council, swimming pool and gym, along with a new register office. 200 borough council officers are located at the new complex. The area's largest employers are located in nearby areas of Telford, with Wellington itself housing hundreds of small businesses in its shops and small manufacturing units.
A range of nationwide chains have branches in Wellington but over the last thirty years, many have shunned Wellington in favour of premises in Telford Centre. Wellington is one of the area's main centres for pubs and small hotels; the Wrekin, one of Shropshire's most famous landmarks, provides Wellington with a rolling green backdrop to the south-west. Located just two miles from the centre of the town, it brings tens of thousands of walkers and cyclists to Wellington every year. Located in the town's Victorian market hall, Wellington Market operates four days a week and houses over 100 stalls. A Farmers' Market takes place on the fourth Saturday of the month, bringing together several Shropshire food producers and retailers in the market's historic home of Market Square. A short walk from the centre of the town is Sunnycroft, a Victorian villa and mini-estate now owned and run by the National Trust; the New Buck's Head football stadium, home to A. F. C. Telford United, is in Wellington. Other sporting clubs include the Wellington Cricket Club in the Birmingham League Premier Division, Wrekin Golf Club.
Wellington is home to the Belfrey Theatre an amateur venue run by the Wellington Theatre Company which puts on an annual season of plays and other shows. The area's music and theatre groups host performances throughout the year, there are craft markets at both Belmont Hall and Christ Church. In March, the town marks Charter Day, when the 1244 charter is delivered by a messenger on horseback. A jury convenes in the Market Square to appoint the town crier, ale taster and market clerk for the year ahead. During the summer, around 40 events take place in and around the town, including the historically-inspired Midsummer Fayre, the town carnival and Lions Day at Bowring Park, the Wellington Walking Festival. Sounds in The Square brings live music to the heart of the town across weekends in July and August, various concerts and fetes complete the programme. Autumn kicks off with The Wrekin Barrel Race, when teams race to carry a nine-gallon beer barrel to the top of The Wrekin hill. October sees the arrival of The Wellington Arts Festival, the UK's largest free access festival with a wide range of e
Licence to crenellate
In medieval England and the Channel Islands a licence to crenellate granted the holder permission to fortify his property. Such licences were granted by the king, by the rulers of the counties palatine within their jurisdictions, i.e. by the Bishops of Durham, the Earls of Chester, after 1351 by the Dukes of Lancaster. Licences to crenellate were issued in the 12th to 16th centuries; the earliest licences present a point of contention, for instance though authorities such as John Goodall in his book The English Castle considers a charter of 1127 to be one such licence, it was rejected as such by Philip Davis. In 1199 the administration of the country began to be systematically recorded, the majority of licences survive in the Patent Rolls. Letters patent were distributed and were a public declaration that the person named within had been granted permission by the king to build a fortification. During periods of conflict, the number of licences granted increased. Only in a small number of cases did the Crown levy fees against those applying for licences to crenellate, was only a small amount, a mark or half a mark.
While licences were granted to men, eleven women are mentioned in the surviving licences and four licences were granted directly to women. Of those given permission to build fortifications, most were knights rather than the upper members of the aristocracy. Most applicants were individuals, and while most people who secured licences were secular, ecclesiastic institutions were eligible: 44 licenses relate to churches and cathedrals. The term "licence to crenellate" was coined in the 19th century to describe documents that granted the holder permission to build fortifications; the reference to crenellation was chosen because most of these documents made references to battlements. There has been academic debate over the purpose of licensing; the view of military-focused historians is that licensing restricted the number of fortifications that could be used against a royal army. The modern view, proposed notably by Charles Coulson, is that in time battlements became an architectural status-symbol much sought after by the ambitious.
As he puts it, "Licences to crenellate were symbolic representations of lordly status: castellation was the architectural expression of noble rank."There are over 1,500 castles in England. According to Goodall, this undermines the assertion that builders had to seek permission from the Crown. Moreover, requests were refused. Licences indicated to the observer that the grantee had obtained "royal recognition and compliment."At Cooling Castle in Kent, a brass plaque on the outer gatehouse, an engraved charter of 1381, reads, "I am made in the help of the country." For archaeologist Matthew Johnson, the castle's defences are a sham, as there was no room for a parapet on top of the walls, the gunports of the inner gatehouse were impractical. The architecture is a boast of military importance, as is the licence; the castle's defences could, act as a deterrent against wandering bands of thieves, Davis has suggested that the function of battlements was comparable to the modern practice of householders fitting visible CCTV and burglar alarms merely dummies.
List of licences to crenellate Adulterine castles, those built without license Coulson, Charles, 1982,'Hierarchism in Conventual Crenellation' Medieval Archaeology Vol. 26 pp. 69–100 Davis, Philip, "English Licences to Crenellate: 1199-1567'", The Castle Studies Group Journal, 20: 226–245 Eales, Richard, 2003, "Royal power and castles in Norman England", in Liddiard, Robert Anglo-Norman Castles, Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer. Pp. 41–68 Goodall, John, 2011, The English Castle, London: Yale Books. ISBN 978-0-300-11058-6. Johnson, Matthew, 2002, Behind the Castle Gate: From Medieval to Renaissance, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-25887-1 Liddiard, Robert, 2005, Castles in Context: Power and Landscape, 1066 to 1500, Macclesfield: Windgather Press Ltd. ISBN 0-9545575-2-2 Coulson, Charles, 1979,'Structural Symbolism inMedieval Castle Architecture' Journal of the British Archaeological Association Vol. 132 pp. 73–90 King, D. J. C. 1983, Castellarium Anglicanum Coulson, C. 1994,'Freedom to Crenellateby Licence - An Historiographical Revision' Nottingham Medieval Studies Vol. 38 pp. 86–137 Coulson, C.
1995,'Battlements and the Bourgeoisie: Municipal Status and the Apparatus of Urban Defence' in Church,Stephen, Medieval Knighthood Vol. 5 pp. 119–95 Coulson, C.2003, Castles in Medieval Society, Oxford University Press. Coulson, C. Castles in the Medieval Polity -Crenellation and Defence in England and Wales
Hadley is a part of the new town of Telford in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and the ceremonial county of Shropshire, England. Hadley is about 3 miles north-west of Telford Town Centre, is in the civil parish of Hadley and Leegomery; the population of the civil parish mentioned at the 2011 census was 14,166. It neighbours Wellington, a market town part of Telford, that town's two colleges of Telford College of Arts and Technology and New College, all to the west of Hadley. Ketley is to the south of Hadley. Len Murray, Baron Murray of Epping Forest, trade union leader, was born at Hadley in 1922. On 13 September 1919, Harry Patch, who became last surviving British combat soldier of World War I married at Hadley his first wife, Ada Billington, who died in 1976. Listed buildings in Hadley and Leegomery
A manor house was the main residence of the lord of the manor. The house formed the administrative centre of a manor in the European feudal system; the term is today loosely applied to various country houses dating from the late medieval era, which housed the gentry. They were sometimes fortified, but this was intended more for show than for defence. Manor houses existed in most European countries where feudalism existed, where they were sometimes known as castles, so on; the lord of the manor may have held several properties within a county or, for example in the case of a feudal baron, spread across a kingdom, which he occupied only on occasional visits. So, the business of the manor required to be directed and controlled by regular manorial courts, which appointed manorial officials such as the bailiff, granted copyhold leases to tenants, resolved disputes between manorial tenants and administered justice in general. A large and suitable building was required within the manor for such purpose in the form of a great hall, a solar might be attached to form accommodation for the lord.
Furthermore, the produce of a small manor might be insufficient to feed a lord and his large family for a full year, thus he would spend only a few months at each manor and move on to another where stores had been laid up. This gave the opportunity for the vacated manor house to be cleaned important in the days of the cess-pit, repaired, thus such non-resident lords needed to appoint a steward or seneschal to act as their deputy in such matters and to preside at the manorial courts of his different manorial properties. The day-to-day administration was carried out by a resident official in authority at each manor, who in England was called a bailiff, or reeve. Although not built with strong fortifications as were castles, many manor-houses were fortified, which required a royal licence to crenellate, they were enclosed within walls or ditches which also included agricultural buildings. Arranged for defence against roaming bands of robbers and thieves, in days long before police, they were surrounded by a moat with a drawbridge, were equipped with gatehouses and watchtowers, but not, as for castles, with a keep, large towers or lofty curtain walls designed to withstand a siege.
The primary feature of the manor house was its great hall, to which subsidiary apartments were added as the lessening of feudal warfare permitted more peaceful domestic life. By the beginning of the 16th century, manor houses as well as small castles began to acquire the character and amenities of the residences of country gentlemen, many defensive elements were dispensed with, for example Sutton Place in Surrey, circa 1521. A late 16th-century transformation produced many of the smaller Renaissance châteaux of France and the numerous country mansions of the Elizabethan and Jacobean styles in England. Before around 1600, larger houses were fortified for true defensive purposes but as the kingdom became internally more peaceable after the Wars of the Roses, as a form of status-symbol, reflecting the position of their owners as having been worthy to receive royal licence to crenellate; the Tudor period of stability in England saw the building of the first of the unfortified great houses, for example Sutton Place in Surrey, circa 1521.
The Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII resulted in many former monastical properties being sold to the King's favourites, who converted them into private country houses, examples being Woburn Abbey, Forde Abbey, Nostell Priory and many other mansions with the suffix Abbey or Priory to their name. During the second half of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I and under her successor King James I the first mansions designed by architects not by mere masons or builders, began to make their appearance; such houses as Burghley House, Longleat House, Hatfield House are among the best known of this period and seem today to epitomise the English country house. Nearly every large medieval manor house had its own deer-park adjoining, emparked by royal licence, which served as a store of food in the form of venison. Within these licensed parks deer could not be hunted by royalty, nor by neighbouring land-owners nor by any other persons. During the 16th century many lords of manors moved their residences from their ancient manor houses situated next to the parish church and near or in the village and built a new manor house within the walls of their ancient deer-parks adjoining.
This gave them space. The suffixes given to manor houses today have little substantive meaning, many have changed over time, thus a manor house may have been known as "Heanton House" in the 18th century and in the 19th century as "Heanton Court" and as "Heanton Satchville". "Court" was a suffix which came into use in the 16th century, contemporary topographers felt the need to explain the term to their readers. Thus the Devonshire historian Tristram Risdon clarified the term at least three times in his main work, Survey of Devon: "This now lord of these lands Sir Robert Basset hath his dwelling at Heanton-Court, in this parish, an adjunct importing a manor-house in the lord's signiory". "This Nutwell Court, which signifies a mansion-house in a signiory, came to the family of Prideaux". and regarding the manor of Yarnscombe: "Their house is called "Court", which implieth a manor house, or chief dwelling in a lordship". The biographer John Prince, (1643–1723
Shropshire is a county in the West Midlands of England, bordering Wales to the west, Cheshire to the north, Staffordshire to the east, Worcestershire and Herefordshire to the south. Shropshire Council was created in 2009, a unitary authority taking over from the previous county council and five district councils; the borough of Telford and Wrekin has been a separate unitary authority since 1998 but continues to be included in the ceremonial county. The county's population and economy is centred on five towns: the county town of Shrewsbury, culturally and important and close to the centre of the county; the county has many market towns, including Whitchurch in the north, Newport northeast of Telford and Market Drayton in the northeast of the county. The Ironbridge Gorge area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, covering Ironbridge, Coalbrookdale and a part of Madeley. There are other historic industrial sites in the county, such as at Shrewsbury, Broseley and Highley, as well as the Shropshire Union Canal.
The Shropshire Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty covers about a quarter of the county in the south. Shropshire is one of England's most rural and sparsely populated counties, with a population density of 136/km2; the Wrekin is one of the most famous natural landmarks in the county, though the highest hills are the Clee Hills and the Long Mynd. Wenlock Edge is another significant geological landmark. In the low-lying northwest of the county overlapping the border with Wales is the Fenn's, Whixall and Bettisfield Mosses National Nature Reserve, one of the most important and best preserved bogs in Britain; the River Severn, Great Britain's longest river, runs through the county, exiting into Worcestershire via the Severn Valley. Shropshire is landlocked and with an area of 3,487 square kilometres is England's largest inland county; the county flower is the round-leaved sundew. The area was once part of the lands of the Cornovii, which consisted of the modern day counties of Cheshire, north Staffordshire, north Herefordshire and eastern parts of Powys.
This was a tribal Celtic iron age kingdom. Their capital in pre-Roman times was a hill fort on the Wrekin. Ptolemy's 2nd century Geography names one of their towns as being Viroconium Cornoviorum, which became their capital under Roman rule and one of the largest settlements in Britain. After the Roman occupation of Britain ended in the 5th century, the Shropshire area was in the eastern part of the Welsh Kingdom of Powys, it was annexed to the Angle kingdom of Mercia by King Offa in the 8th century, at which time he built two significant dykes there to defend his territory against the Welsh or at least demarcate it. In subsequent centuries, the area suffered repeated Viking incursions, fortresses were built at Bridgnorth and Chirbury. After the Norman conquest in 1066, major estates in Shropshire were granted to Normans, including Roger de Montgomerie, who ordered significant constructions in Shrewsbury, the town of which he was Earl. Many defensive castles were built at this time across the county to defend against the Welsh and enable effective control of the region, including Ludlow Castle and Shrewsbury Castle.
The western frontier with Wales was not determined until the 14th century. In this period, a number of religious foundations were formed, the county falling at this time under the Diocese of Hereford and that of Coventry and Lichfield; some parishes in the north-west of the county in times fell under the Diocese of St. Asaph until the disestablishment of the Church in Wales in 1920, when they were ceded to the Lichfield diocese; the county was a central part of the Welsh Marches during the medieval period and was embroiled in the power struggles between powerful Marcher Lords, the Earls of March and successive monarchs. The county contains a number of significant towns, including Shrewsbury and Ludlow. Additionally, the area around Coalbrookdale in the county is seen as significant, as it is regarded as one of the birthplaces of the Industrial Revolution; the village of Edgmond, near Newport, is the location of the lowest recorded temperature in England and Wales. Shropshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle annal for 1006.
The origin of the name is the Old English Scrobbesbyrigscīr, which means "Shrewsburyshire". The name may, therefore, be derived indirectly from a personal name such as Scrope. Salop is an old name for Shropshire used as an abbreviated form for post or telegrams, it is thought to derive from the Anglo-French "Salopesberia", it is replaced by the more contemporary "Shrops" although Shropshire residents are still referred to as "Salopians". Salop however, is used as an alternative name for the county town, which shares the motto of Floreat Salopia; when a county council for the county was first established in 1889, it was called Salop County Council. Following the Local Government Act 1972, Salop became the official name of the county; the name was not well-regarded locally however, a subsequent campaign led by a local councillor, John Kenyon, succeeded in having both the county and council renamed as Shrops
Ashlar is finely dressed stone, either an individual stone, worked until squared or the structure built of it. Ashlar is the finest stone masonry unit cuboid, mentioned by Vitruvius as opus isodomum, or less trapezoidal. Cut "on all faces adjacent to those of other stones", ashlar is capable of thin joints between blocks, the visible face of the stone may be quarry-faced or feature a variety of treatments: tooled, smoothly polished or rendered with another material for decorative effect. One such decorative treatment consists of small grooves achieved by the application of a metal comb. Used only on softer stone ashlar, this decoration is known as mason's drag. Ashlar is in contrast to rubble masonry, which employs irregularly shaped stones, sometimes minimally worked or selected for similar size, or both. Ashlar is related but distinct from other stone masonry, finely dressed but not quadrilateral, such as curvilinear and polygonal masonry. Ashlar may be coursed, which involves lengthy horizontals layers of stone blocks laid in parallel, therefore with continuous horizontal joints.
Ashlar may be random, which involves stone blocks laid with deliberately discontinuous courses and therefore discontinuous joints both vertically and horizontally. In either case, it uses a joining material such as mortar to bind the blocks together, although dry ashlar construction, metal ties, other methods of assembly have been used; the dry ashlar of Inca architecture in Cusco and Machu Picchu is fine and famous. The word is attested in Middle English and derives from the Old French aisselier, from the Latin axilla, a diminutive of axis, meaning "plank". "Clene hewen ashler" occurs in medieval documents. Ashlar blocks have been used in the construction of many buildings as an alternative to brick or other materials. In classical architecture, ashlar wall surfaces were contrasted with rustication; the term is used to describe the dressed stone work of prehistoric Greece and Crete, although the dressed blocks are much larger than modern ashlar. For example, the tholos tombs of Bronze Age Mycenae use ashlar masonry in the construction of the so-called "beehive" dome.
This dome consists of finely cut ashlar blocks that decrease in size and terminate in a central capstone. These domes are constructed using the corbel arch. Ashlar masonry was heavily used in the construction of palace facades on Crete, including Knossos and Phaistos; these constructions date to the MM III-LM Ib period, ca. 1700–1450 BC. In modern European masonry the blocks are about 35 centimetres in height; when shorter than 30 centimetres, they are called small ashlar. In some Masonic groupings, which such societies term jurisdictions, ashlars are used as a symbolic metaphor for how one's personal development relates to the tenets of their lodge; as described in the explanation of the First Degree Tracing Board, in Emulation and other Masonic rituals the rough ashlar is a stone as taken directly from the quarry, allegorically represents the Freemason prior to his initiation. Ablaq Dimension stone Opus quadratum Rustication Stone cladding Stone veneer
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery; the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, collapse of centralized authority and mass migrations of tribes, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages; the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the 7th century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, an Islamic empire, after conquest by Muhammad's successors. Although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete.
The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire, Rome's direct continuation, survived in the Eastern Mediterranean and remained a major power. The empire's law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or "Code of Justinian", was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became admired in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions. Monasteries were founded; the Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th and early 9th century. It covered much of Western Europe but succumbed to the pressures of internal civil wars combined with external invasions: Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, Saracens from the south. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and the Medieval Warm Period climate change allowed crop yields to increase. Manorialism, the organisation of peasants into villages that owed rent and labour services to the nobles, feudalism, the political structure whereby knights and lower-status nobles owed military service to their overlords in return for the right to rent from lands and manors, were two of the ways society was organised in the High Middle Ages.
The Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation-states, reducing crime and violence but making the ideal of a unified Christendom more distant. Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, by the founding of universities; the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages. The Late Middle Ages was marked by difficulties and calamities including famine and war, which diminished the population of Europe. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the interstate conflict, civil strife, peasant revolts that occurred in the kingdoms. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages and beginning the early modern period.
The Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history: classical civilisation, or Antiquity. The "Middle Ages" first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or "middle season". In early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or "middle age", first recorded in 1604, media saecula, or "middle ages", first recorded in 1625; the alternative term "medieval" derives from medium aevum. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the "Six Ages" or the "Four Empires", considered their time to be the last before the end of the world; when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being "modern". In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua and to the Christian period as nova. Leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People, with a middle period "between the fall of the Roman Empire and the revival of city life sometime in late eleventh and twelfth centuries".
Tripartite periodisation became standard after the 17th-century German historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods: ancient and modern. The most given starting point for the Middle Ages is around 500, with the date of 476 first used by Bruni. Starting dates are sometimes used in the outer parts of Europe. For Europe as a whole, 1500 is considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1504, or the conquest of Granada in 1492. Historians from Romance-speaking countries tend to divide the Middle Ages into two parts: an earlier "High" and late