The Knife were a Swedish electronic music duo from Gothenburg formed in 1999. The group consisted of siblings Karin and Olof Dreijer, who together run their own record company, Rabid Records; the group gained a large international following in response to their 2003 album Deep Cuts. The duo's first tour took place in 2006, along with the release of their critically acclaimed album Silent Shout, they refuse to attend awards ceremonies. They have appeared in public wearing Venetian masks. Karin released a solo album under the name Fever Ray in 2009, while Olof released several EPs as Oni Ayhun in late 2009 and early 2010; the Knife disbanded in November 2014 after releasing their acclaimed 2013 album Shaking the Habitual and completing its attendant tour. Formed in Gothenburg in 1999, amidst the deterioration of Karin's former group Honey Is Cool, the group gained stronger international recognition when José González covered their song "Heartbeats" on his 2003 album, Veneer; the cover was used by Sony in a commercial for BRAVIA television sets, released as a single in 2006.
The group commented on this in a Dagens Nyheter article, claiming that Sony paid a large sum of money to use the song. Despite the group's anti-commercial views, they justified the transaction by citing their need for money to establish a record company. Having never before performed live, the Knife went on tour in 2006, after selling out shows worldwide, a DVD of the tour was announced; the DVD was released in Sweden on 8 November 2006, is titled Silent Shout: An Audio Visual Experience. On 4 August 2009, the band announced that, in collaboration with Mt. Sims and Planningtorock, they would be writing an opera for the Danish performance group Hotel Pro Forma; the opera, titled Tomorrow, In a Year, is based on Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species. In January 2010, the band announced. In a September 2010 post on the official Fever Ray website, Karin stated that she and Olof "have started playing together again", hinting that new material may be on the way. On 18 April 2011, as part of a post on their website concerning discrimination against Romani people in Europe, the Knife announced that they were recording a new album to be released in 2012.
In December 2012, it was confirmed that their next album would be titled Shaking the Habitual and would be released on 8 April 2013. The duo posted a teaser trailer for the album on their YouTube account with the message: "Music can be so meaningless. We had to find lust. We asked our friends and lovers to help us." The album was supported by tour dates in Europe in 2013. "Full of Fire" was released as the album's lead single on 28 January 2013, for which a short film was directed by Stockholm and Berlin-based filmmaker and visual artist Marit Östberg. After announcing their plans to play at Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival in April 2014, the Knife announced plans to tour North America during that time period. On 21 August 2014, the Knife announced that the duo would disband following the final six dates of their Shaking the Habitual Show Tour from 31 October to 8 November 2014. In the duo's final interview, Karin told Dazed, "We don't have any obligations to continue, it should only and always be for fun."The Knife played their final show, entitled "Post-Colonial Gender Politics Come First, Music Comes Second", on November 8, 2014 at the Iceland Airwaves Festival in Reykjavik, Iceland.
The Knife cooperate with the media or the mainstream music scene. Until 2005, they did not perform live concerts; the group makes public appearances. The Knife won the Swedish Grammis award for Pop Group of the Year in 2003, but they boycotted the ceremony by sending two representatives of the Guerrilla Girls, with the number 50 written on their costumes, as a protest against male dominance in the music industry, their album Deep Cuts was nominated for the best record of the year, although that award went to The Cardigans. At the Grammis awards in 2007, the Knife won in all six categories that they were nominated in: Composer of the Year, Music DVD of the Year, Producer of the Year, Pop Group of the Year, Album of the Year and Artist of the Year. Again, they did not attend the award ceremony. On another occasion, they did not come to collect the award but sent a manipulated video that muffled their voices and made them look elderly. Silent Shout was named the best album of 2006 by Pitchfork; the song "We Share Our Mothers' Health" from the album was made available for free as the iTunes Store's Single of the Week in late 2006.
In a 2006 interview with Pitchfork Media, the Knife cited David Lynch, Aki Kaurismäki, Korean cinema, Trailer Park Boys, Donnie Darko and Doom as inspirations for their work. In addition, Karin named Sonic Youth, Kate Bush, Le Tigre and Siouxsie and the Banshees, while Olof cited techno and Southern hip hop. In 2008, Karin announced that she would release a solo album under the name Fever Ray in March 2009; the eponymous album was digitally released in advance of this date. The single "If I Had a Heart" was featured in a 2011 episode of Breaking Bad and in the 2013 film Horns, is the opening theme of the Canadian-Irish historical drama television series Vikings, is the opening of the movie Laurence Anyways by Quebec director Xavier Dolan, who used Karin's song "Keep the Streets Empty For Me" in his movie Les Amours Imaginaires. In a 2016 interview with The Fader, Karin related that she is working on more solo music, though is quoted as saying she is "unsure" if it will be under the Fever Ray moniker or notOlof p
A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o
Nicole Hummel, known professionally as Zola Jesus and as Nika Danilova, is an American singer and record producer. She has released four EPs and five full-length albums that combine electronic, industrial and goth. Hummel was born in Phoenix and raised in Merrill, Wisconsin. In various interviews she has stated that her parents are American, with combinations of Russian as well as German and Ukrainian descent. Inspired by singers and bands including Ian Curtis, Lydia Lunch, Diamanda Galás, Throbbing Gristle and Swans, she started to record at home, using keyboards, drum machines and other instruments. In 2008 she debuted with singles "Poor Sons" on "Soeur Sewer" on Sacred Bones Records. Before transferring to University of Wisconsin-Madison to study French and philosophy, she attended University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, where she began a business major, she graduated in 2010. In 2009, while still studying at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Zola Jesus recorded and released her debut full-length The Spoils.
Followed Tsar Bomba EP, New Amsterdam compilation on Sacred Bones and an untitled, limited-edition vinyl split with Burial Hex. For touring she recruited Dead Luke, bassist Lindsay Mikkola and drummer Max Elliott; the line-up changed to Shane Verwey and Nick Turco, Alex DeGroot, Nick Johnson, a drummer with metal band Jex Thoth. Zola Jesus has played with Former Ghosts. On Fever Ray's 2010 European tour, she performed as a support act and toured with The xx. In the late 2009 collaboration between Zola Jesus and Rory Kane took shape, a demo being put out on MySpace. In 2010, Zola Jesus released the Stridulum EP, inspired by Giulio Paradisi 1979 film of the same name, After the release Zola Jesus performed at the SXSW Festival, for her second time; the Valusia EP was released on Sacred Bones in 2010. LA Vampires Meets Zola Jesus EP, the collaboration with Amanda Brown of Pocahaunted, presented "a dingy, lower-than-lo-fi sound and little of what one would call traditional songwriting," according to Pitchfork review.
Zola Jesus's second full-length release was Stridulum II. Although regarded as her debut album in the UK, this album combines all six songs from the Stridulum EP with three of the four songs from the Valusia EP. Zola Jesus's third LP, her second album of new material was Conatus, released in late September 2011 via Sacred Bones; the album's 11 tracks were produced by Brian Foote and Danilova herself, including elements of cello, double bass and viola. She provided guest vocals on the song "Intro" by M83 from their 2011 album Hurry Up, We're Dreaming, she sang on "New France" by Orbital, from their 2012 album Wonky. On August 19, 2013, the set of neo-classical reworkings of previous releases from Zola Jesus in a collaboration with producer JG Thirlwell, was released. On June 18, 2014, she announced her fourth studio album, titled Taiga. On June 9, 2017, Zola Jesus announced her fifth album, released on September 8, her style has been described variously as "commanded by ominous lyrics and a sultry Goth delivery," According to the NME, Zola Jesus "wails like Kate Bush" on a music sometimes evoking Joy Division.
For Q magazine, her "haunting vocals and swirling, electronic atmospherics are located midway between Florence Welch and Siouxsie and the Banshees." She has been compared to Lisa Gerrard of Dead Can Dance and Elizabeth Fraser of the Cocteau Twins. For a time, Zola Jesus lived in Washington. In 2017, she relocated to her hometown of Merrill and built a home on her family's property. Nika Danilova – vocals, electronics Alex DeGroot – guitar Louise Woodward – violin The Spoils Stridulum II Conatus Taiga Okovi Zola Jesus – official site Zola Jesus discography at Discogs L. A. Record interview Too Cool To Die interview
Nashville Scene is an alternative newsweekly in Nashville, Tennessee. It was founded in 1989, became a part of Village Voice Media in 1999, joined the ranks of sixteen other publications after a merger of Village Voice Media with New Times Media early in 2006; the paper was acquired by SouthComm Communications in 2009. Since May 2018, it has been owned by the Freeman Webb Company; the publication reports and opines on music, arts and local and state politics in Nashville. The Nashville Scene once was a "throw away" sales advertising vehicle owned by Gordon Inman of Brentwood, TN. In 1989, after years as a national newspaper sales representative based in New York, Albie Delfavero recognized the need of his hometown, Nashville, to have an alternative weekly paper; the "alternative paper" format made news in cities across the country on the east coast. The industry itself made news, took journalistic risk, provided arts criticism, "happenings," and did not mince words re local and national politics.
Delfavero enlisted Bruce Dobie, political reporter for Nashville's soon to be "late" daily, The Nashville Banner, to become editor. The both of them, with an array of investors, bought the "Scene" from Inman and transformed it from a driveway throw-away to a long respected voice in Nashville's civic and political community. In 1999 "The City Press," as their corporation was dubbed in 1989, merged with The Village Voice. In 1999, Del Favero and Dobie formed a group of investors and purchased Stern Publishing, then-owner of the Village Voice and five other alternative newsweeklies across the nation, they named the new corporation Village Voice Media. Village Voice publisher David Schneiderman one of the investors, became chief executive officer of the new venture. In late 2004, both Del Favero and Dobie resigned their positions as publisher and editor of the Scene; the editor role was taken on by the Scene's then-news editor Liz Garrigan. Chris Ferrell was hired by Village Voice Media to assume the role of publisher at the beginning of 2005.
In January 2006, Village Voice Media was acquired by New Times Media and kept the Village Voice Media name. On September 27, 2007, Ferrell announced his resignation as publisher of the Nashville Scene and, two weeks was replaced by long-time Scene retail sales account executive Mike Smith, who took the title of associate publisher in line with the post-merger title structuring of Village Voice Media. On May 6, 2008, Garrigan announced her resignation as editor on the Nashville Scene blog Pith in the Wind, she characterized her departure as "anti-climactic" and "not a protest resignation, a corporate cost-cutting measure or a veiled firing." She added that she had imposed a five-year expiration date for herself as editor, would be cutting that short because she felt she had accomplished what she set out to accomplish. Garrigan's last day as Scene editor was slated for June 30, 2008. On August 19, 2009, former Nashville Scene publisher Ferrell announced that his Nashville-based media company, SouthComm Communications, was acquiring Nashville Scene from Village Voice Media.
SouthComm was formed in late 2007 and spent much of its first two years acquiring media properties in Alpharetta, Ga. Nashville, Tenn. and Louisville, Ky. Southcomm owned the Nashville Post. Kotz was not retained as editor. Jim Ridley, who served as senior writer under Garrigan and managing editor under Kotz, was named editor, his tenure began with the September 2009 issue. On May 7, 2015, news editor Steve Cavendish announced that Daryl Cagle would contribute a weekly cartoon called "Metropolitan Planning Commission Funnies," focusing on city planning issues like umbilical houses, downtown cranes, Music Row demolitions and pop-up subdivisions. "Nashville is growing like a weed, though officials talk about planning, they just approve every stupid proposal." Cagle wrote on his blog. "I'll try pushing the limits on how rude I can be to local public servants – hey, it's an altie-weekly, I should be able to get nasty." On April 9, 2016, Scene editor-in-chief Jim Ridley died at the age of 50 after suffering a cardiac event while at work.
He had been with the paper as its film critic since 1989. Former news editor Steve Cavendish came back as the Scene's editor in July 2016. SouthComm enacted editorial layoffs a year and Cavendish was among those cut. Longtime staffer D. Patrick Rodgers — who served as music editor and managing editor — was named the Scene's editor in November 2017. In May 2018, the Nashville Scene and the Nashville Post were purchased by the Freeman Webb Company, a company co-founded by Bill Freeman and Jimmy Webb which owns and manages "more than 16,000 apartment units and 1 million square feet of office space" in Tennessee, Missouri and Mississippi. Official website
Hiss Spun is the fifth studio album by American singer-songwriter Chelsea Wolfe, released on September 22, 2017, by Sargent House. The album was recorded in Massachusetts, at the studio of Converge guitarist Kurt Ballou. Produced by Wolfe and Ben Chisholm, the album features guitar contributions from Troy Van Leeuwen of Queens of the Stone Age and a guest appearance from Aaron Turner of Isis. Hiss Spun received positive reviews from music critics, peaked at No. 146 on the Billboard 200, becoming her second consecutive album to enter the chart. In an interview for Noisey, Wolfe explained that the album's topics deal with her confronting various health issues: "I deal with extreme anxiety that gets exacerbated by bouts of insomnia I’m trying to find ways to calm down… That has manifested into addiction at times I carried a lot of that into this record on'16 Psyche' and'Spun'."Wolfe disclosed that the album had been about coming to terms with issues both familial and personal. In the interview, she stated that "there were some things I hadn't dealt with before, from the dark past of my family, to relationships I'd had, to my own health, some of the songs became a personal exorcism and some of them were written in dedication to the hardships that others have faced."
Wolfe announced Hiss Spun on June 14, 2017, coinciding with the release of "16 Psyche" as the first single from the album. NPR released an article reviewing the song and previewing the album, whereupon writer Paula Mejia wrote, "The impetus for Hiss Spun stemmed from a reckoning with family history, personal life and other elements that have long shadowed Wolfe, the resulting escapist music functions as a kind of exorcism, an expunging of the soul, but what "16 Psyche" goes to show is that despite what's going on in our own worlds and the one at large, the discovery of new ones — whether they're made of fire or ice or metal — is a worthy pursuit, one worth fighting for."On July 5, Wolfe released a trailer for the album and announced dates for a North American tour with Youth Code in support of the album."Vex" was the second track to be released from the album. Wolfe unveiled the song on July 27, revealing the contributions by Van Turner. In a letter published by The Fader on August 2, Wolfe described the process she went through to create the song: "'Vex' began as a black metal song, with a pummeling blast beat Ben and I stripped it back to a more industrial electronic sound.
Once we were in the studio, Jess Gowrie's drums and Troy Van Leeuwen's guitar parts began to shepherd it back toward its heavy origins... I knew from the beginning that I wanted Aaron Turner's voice somewhere on this album, could hear him in my head on'Vex'. I had recorded my vocals for the song but decided to send it to Aaron without them on; the first time we played it back with both vocal parts they fit together in a compelling way."A promotional video was released for "16 Psyche" on August 14, accompanied by the Noisey interview. Wolfe revealed two more albums tracks shortly before its release, with both "The Culling" and "Offering" being made available online on September 7. Hiss Spun received universal acclaim from music critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, the album received an average score of 81, based on 16 reviews. Journalist Sam Shepherd praised the album in his review for MusicOMH, noting: "While Wolfe's incredible vocals are the main draw, her long term collaborator Ben Chisholm deserves significant recognition too.
Not only does his fuzzed-to-fuck bass make these songs feel genuinely threatening, his manipulation of sound and creation of washes and collages provides unsettling backgrounds for Wolfe to weave her magic over. Without him, the oppressive atmospherics of the album wouldn't be nearly as effective." The Skinny's Adam Turner-Heffer wrote, "Ballou's signature crushing heaviness may have become a cliché in some circles, but paired with Wolfe's beautiful voice and brilliant writing, it's a match made in heaven." AllMusic critic Heather Phares wrote, "Both fierce and fragile, Hiss Spun presents an artist in compelling control of the entire scope of her expression." Emma Madden of Drowned in Sound said, "Though Hiss Spun won't end up as the best of her career, it may well be Wolfe's best so far."Pitchfork's Saby Reyes-Kulkarni stated that with Hiss Spun, Wolfe "dives headfirst into sludge metal and creates a unique space where sweetness can be heavy and contact is always uncomfortable". Luke Cartledge of The Line of Best Fit rated the album 8.5 out of 10, remarking, "Wolfe has never shied away from the heavy, the metallic, but this is her first record to embrace the extremities offered by doom and experimental metal".
Josh Goller of Slant Magazine noted that "though it may be her second consecutive album to lean on metal, Hiss Spun deftly incorporates a diverse range of sounds." Exclaim!'s Matt Yuyitung stated that "listening to Hiss Spun is a punishing affair, but it's a rewarding one too. It's the sound of an artist not afraid to dig deep and that challenges the listener to do so as well."In a more mixed review, Alex McLevy from The A. V. Club stated that "Hiss Spun is a full-on sludge-metal extravaganza, never content to go slow and heavy when it could be going slower and heavier; the bombast is overwhelming, while there's an admirable zeal to her drive for making every second as intense as possible, it begins to get numbing." All tracks written by Chelsea Wolfe. Credits adapted from the liner notes of Hiss Spun
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
An audio engineer helps to produce a recording or a live performance and adjusting sound sources using equalization and audio effects, mixing and reinforcement of sound. Audio engineers work on the "...technical aspect of recording—the placing of microphones, pre-amp knobs, the setting of levels. The physical recording of any project is done by an engineer... the nuts and bolts." It's a creative hobby and profession where musical instruments and technology are used to produce sound for film, television and video games. Audio engineers set up, sound check and do live sound mixing using a mixing console and a sound reinforcement system for music concerts, sports games and corporate events. Alternatively, audio engineer can refer to a scientist or professional engineer who holds an engineering degree and who designs and builds audio or musical technology working under terms such as acoustical engineering, electronic/electrical engineering or signal processing. Research and development audio engineers invent new technologies and techniques, to enhance the process and art of audio engineering.
They might design acoustical simulations of rooms, shape algorithms for audio signal processing, specify the requirements for public address systems, carry out research on audible sound for video game console manufacturers, other advanced fields of audio engineering. They might be referred to as acoustic engineers. Audio engineers working in research and development may come from backgrounds such as acoustics, computer science, broadcast engineering, acoustical engineering, electrical engineering and electronics. Audio engineering courses at university or college fall into two rough categories: training in the creative use of audio as a sound engineer, training in science or engineering topics, which allows students to apply these concepts while pursuing a career developing audio technologies. Audio training courses give you a good knowledge of technologies and their application to recording studio and sound reinforcement systems, but do not have sufficient mathematical and scientific content to allow you to get a job in research and development in the audio and acoustic industry.
Audio engineers in research and development possess a bachelor's degree, master's degree or higher qualification in acoustics, computer science or another engineering discipline. They might work in acoustic consultancy. Alternatively they might work in audio companies, or other industries that need audio expertise, or carry out research in a university; some positions, such as faculty require a Doctor of Philosophy. In Germany a Toningenieur is an audio engineer who designs and repairs audio systems; the listed subdisciplines are based on PACS coding used by the Acoustical Society of America with some revision. Audio engineers develop audio signal processing algorithms to allow the electronic manipulation of audio signals; these can be processed at the heart of much audio production such as reverberation, Auto-Tune or perceptual coding. Alternatively, the algorithms might carry out echo cancellation on Skype, or identify and categorize audio tracks through Music Information Retrieval. Architectural acoustics is the engineering of achieving a good sound within a room.
For audio engineers, architectural acoustics can be about achieving good speech intelligibility in a stadium or enhancing the quality of music in a theatre. Architectural Acoustic design is done by acoustic consultants. Electroacoustics is concerned with the design of headphones, loudspeakers, sound reproduction systems and recording technologies. Examples of electroacoustic design include portable electronic devices, sound systems in architectural acoustics, surround sound and wave field synthesis in movie theater and vehicle audio. Musical acoustics is concerned with describing the science of music. In audio engineering, this includes the design of electronic instruments such as synthesizers. Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of. At the heart of audio engineering are listeners who are the final arbitrator as to whether an audio design is successful, such as whether a binaural recording sounds immersive; the production, computer processing and perception of speech is an important part of audio engineering.
Ensuring speech is transmitted intelligibly and with high quality. A variety of terms are used to describe audio engineers who install or operate sound recording, sound reinforcement, or sound broadcasting equipment, including large and small format consoles. Terms such as "audio technician," "sound technician," "audio engineer," "audio technologist," "recording engineer," "sound mixer" and "sound engineer" can be ambiguous; such terms can refer to a person working in music production.