Apollo–Soyuz Test Project

The Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, conducted in July 1975, was the first joint U. S.–Soviet space flight. It was a symbol of the policy of détente; the ASTP involved the docking of an Apollo command and service module and the Soviet Soyuz 19 capsule. The unnumbered Apollo vehicle was left over from the canceled Apollo missions and the last Apollo command and service module to fly; this mission ceremoniously marked the end of the Space Race that had begun in 1957 with the Sputnik 1 launch. The mission included both joint and separate scientific experiments, including an engineered eclipse of the Sun by Apollo to allow Soyuz to take photographs of the solar corona; the pre-flight work provided useful engineering experience for future joint US–Russian space flights, such as the Shuttle–Mir Program and the International Space Station. ASTP was the last crewed US space mission until the first Space Shuttle flight in April 1981; the purpose and catalyst of the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project was the policy of détente between the two Cold War superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union.

Prior to this mission, tensions remained high between the two world superpowers while the United States was engaged in the Vietnam War. Meanwhile, the Soviet press was critical of the Apollo space missions, printing "the armed intrusion of the United States and Saigon puppets into Laos is a shameless trampling underfoot of international law" over a photograph of the Apollo 14 launch in 1971. Although Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev made the Soviet Union's policy of détente official in his 1956 doctrine of peaceful coexistence at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the two nations seemed to be in perpetual conflict. After John Glenn's 1962 orbital flight, an exchange of letters between President John F. Kennedy and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev led to a series of discussions led by NASA Deputy Administrator Hugh Dryden and Soviet scientist Anatoli Blagonravov, their 1962 talks led to the Dryden-Blagonravov agreement, formalized in October of that year, the same time the two countries were in the midst of the Cuban Missile Crisis.

The agreement was formally announced at the United Nations on December 5, 1962. It called for cooperation on the exchange of data from weather satellites, a study of the Earth's magnetic field, joint tracking of the U. S. Echo II balloon satellite.. As the competition between the two nation's crewed space programs heated up, efforts to further cooperation at that point came to an end. Due to tense relations, space cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union was unlikely in the early 1970s. On June 7, 1971, the USSR had launched the first piloted orbital space station, Salyut 1. Meanwhile, the United States had launched the Apollo 14 mission several months prior, the third space mission to land humans on the Moon; each side gave the other little coverage of their achievements. Both sides had severe criticisms of the other side's engineering. Soviet spacecraft were designed with automation in mind. By contrast, the Apollo spacecraft was designed to be operated by humans and required trained astronauts in order to operate.

The Soviet Union criticized the Apollo spacecraft as being "extremely complex and dangerous". The Americans had their own concerns about Soviet spacecraft. Christopher C. Kraft, director of the Johnson Space Center, criticized the design of the Soyuz: "We in NASA rely on redundant components—if an instrument fails during flight, our crews switch to another in an attempt to continue the mission; each Soyuz component, however, is designed for a specific function. The Apollo vehicle relied on astronaut piloting to a much greater extent than did the Soyuz machine". American and Soviet engineers settled their differences for a possible docking of American and Soviet spacecraft in meetings between June and December 1971 in Houston and Moscow, including Bill Creasy's design of the Androgynous Peripheral Attach System between the two ships that would allow either to be active or passive during docking. With the close of the Vietnam War, relations between the United States and the USSR began to improve, as did the prognosis for a potential cooperative space mission.

The Apollo–Soyuz Test Project was made possible by the thaw in these relations, the project itself endeavored to amplify and solidify the improving relations between the United States and the Soviet Union. According to Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, "The Soviet and American spacemen will go up into outer space for the first major joint scientific experiment in the history of mankind, they know that from outer space our planet looks more beautiful. It is big enough for us to live peacefully on it, but it is too small to be threatened by nuclear war". Thus, both sides recognized ASTP as a political act of peace. In October 1970, Soviet Academy of Sciences president Mstislav Keldysh responded to NASA Administrator Thomas O. Paine's letter proposing a cooperative space mission, there was subsequently a meeting to discuss technical details. At a meeting in January 1971, U. S. President Richard Nixon's Foreign Policy Adviser Henry Kissinger enthusiastically espoused plans for the mission, expressed these views to NASA administrator George M. Low: "As long as you stick to space, do anything you w

Web Processing Service

The OGC Web Processing Service Interface Standard provides rules for standardizing inputs and outputs for invoking geospatial processing services, such as polygon overlay, as a web service. The WPS standard defines how a client can request the execution of a process, how the output from the process is handled, it defines an interface that facilitates the publishing of geospatial processes and clients’ discovery of and binding to those processes. The data required by the WPS can be delivered across a network or they can be available at the server. WPS can describe any calculation including all of its inputs and outputs, trigger its execution as a web service. WPS supports simultaneous exposure of processes via HTTP GET, HTTP POST, SOAP, thus allowing the client to choose the most appropriate interface mechanism; the specific processes served up by a WPS implementation are defined by the owner of that implementation. Although WPS was designed to work with spatially referenced data, it can be used with any kind of data.

WPS makes it possible to publish and bind to processes in a standardized and thus interoperable fashion. Theoretically, it is transport/platform neutral, but in practice it has only been specified for HTTP. WPS defines three operations: GetCapabilities returns service-level metadata DescribeProcess returns a description of a process including its inputs and outputs Execute returns the output of a processWPS operations are invoked by submitting XML or URL-encoded requests to an Online Resource URL; when requesting an Execute operation the HTTP request identifies the inputs, the name of process to be executed, the form of output to be provided. WPS has the following properties: Inputs can be web-accessible URLs or embedded in the request. Outputs can be embedded in the response. For a single output such as a GIF image, WPS can return the output directly, without any XML wrapper, it supports multiple output formats. It supports long-running processes, it supports SOAP and WSDL. A WPS is not invoked directly.

More it is invoked by a client application that provides the user with interactive controls. This client application may not be web-based. WPS version 2.0 was released in 2015. Previous version 1.0.0 was released to the public in June 2007. Version 0.4.0 was released as an OGC Request for Public Comment in 2005 and implemented by several early adopters. WPS Simple Web Feature Service Web Map Service OpenGIS Web Processing Service Standard, Version 1.0.0 WPS resources at OSGeo Evaluation of WPS 0.4.0 OGC WPS Interoperability Experiment press release OGC WPS Request for Public Comments deegree Open source Java implementation with example processes WPSint Open source Java implementation of WPS 0.4.0 PyWPS Open source Python implementation of WPS 1.0.0 ZOO Project WPS implementation of WPS 1.0.0 WPS. NET Open source. NET implementation of WPS 1.0.0 QGIS WPS client OGC-Services. NET - Free List of OGC Services OpenLayers Contains WPS Parser

Jukebox Jury

Jukebox Jury was an hour-long television series hosted by disc jockey Peter Potter which aired in the 1953-1954 season on ABC, was syndicated in 1959. The program began in 1948 in Los Angeles, California on KTSL Channel 2, which became the CBS Television station KNXT in 1951 and is now KCBS-TV. Five years Jukebox Jury went national for one season; the show has been compared to a radio program replete with commercial endorsements and movie previews. The jury on the program consisted of six young lesser-known film stars or minor recording artists who judged the latest releases from the record companies. Among the "jurors" were Barry Sullivan, Maureen O'Sullivan, Jane Powell. Mike Connors appeared on an early KNXT episode under the name "Touch" Connors. Once the program was added to the network schedule, many who appeared as jurors to yell "Hit" or "Miss" at each song selection were or well-known entertainers, having included: Steve Allen, Walter Brennan, Elinor Donahue, Zsa Zsa Gabor, Dean Martin, Steve McQueen, Jayne Meadows, Johnny Mercer, Sal Mineo, Leslie Nielsen, Debbie Reynolds, Mamie Van Doren, Robert Wagner, Natalie Wood.

Dick Clark used this listen-and-comment technique from persons in his audience on a reduced scale with his long-running Philadelphia-based ABC series, American Bandstand. Jukebox Jury aired Sundays at 9:30pm ET, preceding Billy Graham's Hour of Decision spiritual program; the program was somewhat similar to NBC's half-hour Judge for Yourself, starring Fred Allen and Dennis James, which aired in the 1953-54 season. 1953-54 United States network television schedule