Apollo 13 (film)

Apollo 13 is a 1995 American space docudrama film directed by Ron Howard and starring Tom Hanks, Kevin Bacon, Bill Paxton, Gary Sinise, Ed Harris. The screenplay by William Broyles Jr. and Al Reinert dramatizes the aborted 1970 Apollo 13 lunar mission and is an adaptation of the book Lost Moon: The Perilous Voyage of Apollo 13 by astronaut Jim Lovell and Jeffrey Kluger. The film depicts astronauts Lovell, Jack Swigert, Fred Haise aboard Apollo 13 for America's third Moon landing mission. En route, an on-board explosion deprives their spacecraft of most of its oxygen supply and electric power, forcing NASA's flight controllers to abort the Moon landing, turning the mission into a struggle to get the three men home safely. Howard went to great lengths to create a technically accurate movie, employing NASA's technical assistance in astronaut and flight controller training for his cast, obtaining permission to film scenes aboard a reduced gravity aircraft for realistic depiction of the "weightlessness" experienced by the astronauts in space.

Released to cinemas in the United States on June 30, 1995, Apollo 13 was nominated for nine Academy Awards, including Best Picture. In total, the film grossed over $355 million worldwide during its theatrical releases; the film was positively received by critics. In July 1969, astronaut Jim Lovell hosts a house party where guests watch Neil Armstrong's televised first human steps on the Moon. Afterwards Lovell, who had orbited the Moon on Apollo 8, tells his wife Marilyn that he intends to return to the Moon to walk on its surface. Three months as Lovell conducts a VIP tour of NASA's Vertical Assembly Building, his boss Deke Slayton informs him that because of problems with Alan Shepard's crew, his crew will fly Apollo 13 instead of 14. Lovell, Ken Mattingly, Fred Haise train for their new mission. A few days before launch, Mattingly is exposed to German Measles, the flight surgeon demands his replacement with Mattingly's backup, Jack Swigert. Lovell resists breaking up his team, but relents when Slayton threatens to bump his crew to a mission.

As the launch date approaches, Marilyn has a nightmare about her husband getting killed in space, but goes to the Kennedy Space Center the night before launch to see him off. On April 11, 1970, Flight Director Gene Kranz gives the go-ahead from Houston's Mission Control Center for the Apollo 13 launch; as the Saturn V rocket climbs through the atmosphere, a second stage engine cuts off prematurely, but the craft reaches its Earth parking orbit. After the third stage fires to send Apollo 13 to the Moon, Swigert performs the maneuver to connect the command module Odyssey to the Lunar Module Aquarius and pull it away from the spent rocket. Three days into the mission, the crew makes a television transmission, which the networks decline to broadcast live. After Swigert turns on the liquid oxygen tank stirring fans as requested, one of the tanks explodes, emptying its contents into space and sending the craft tumbling; the other tank is soon found to be leaking. They attempt to stop the leak to no avail.

With the fuel cells closed, the Moon landing must be aborted, Lovell and Haise must hurriedly power up Aquarius to use as a "lifeboat" for the return home, as Swigert shuts down Odyssey before its battery power runs out. In Houston, Kranz rallies his team to come up with a plan to bring the astronauts home safely, declaring "failure is not an option". Controller John Aaron recruits Mattingly to help him invent a procedure to restart Odyssey for the landing on Earth; as Swigert and Haise watch the Moon pass beneath them, Lovell laments his lost chance of walking on its surface turns their attention to the business of getting home. With Aquarius running on minimal electrical power, the crew suffers freezing conditions, Haise contracts a urinary infection and resulting fever. Swigert suspects; when carbon dioxide approaches dangerous levels, ground control must invent a way to make the command module's square filters work in the Lunar Module's round receptacles. With the guidance systems on Aquarius shut down, the crew must make a difficult but vital course correction by manually igniting the Lunar Module's engine.

Mattingly and Aaron struggle to find a way to turn on the command module systems without drawing too much power, transmit the procedure to Swigert, who restarts Odyssey by transferring extra power from Aquarius. When the crew jettisons the service module, they are surprised to see the extent of the damage; as they release Aquarius and re-enter the Earth's atmosphere, no one is sure that Odyssey's heat shield is intact. The tense period of radio silence due to ionization blackout is longer than normal, but the astronauts report all is well and splash down in the Pacific Ocean; as helicopters bring the three men aboard the recovery ship USS Iwo Jima for a hero's welcome, Lovell's voice-over describes the subsequent investigation into the explosion, the careers of Haise, Swigert and Kranz. He wonders. Apollo Flight Crew: Tom Hanks as Apollo 13 Commander Jim Lovell: Jim Lovell stated that before his book Lost Moon was written, the movie rights were being shopped to potential buyers and that his first reaction was that Kevin Costner would be a good choice to play him.

However, by the time Howard acquired the director's position, Costner's name never came up in serious discussion, Hanks had been interested in doing a film based on Apollo 13. When Hanks' representative informed him that a script was being passed ar

Sun temple

A sun temple is a building used for religious or spiritual activities, such as prayer and sacrifice, dedicated to the sun or a solar deity. Such temples were built by a number different cultures and are distributed across the world including in India, Egypt and Peru; some of the temples are in ruins, undergoing excavation, preservation or restoration and a few are listed as World Heritage Sites individually or as part of a larger site, such as Konark. The Temple of the Sun in Beijing, was built in 1530 during the Ming dynasty by the Jiajing Emperor, together with new temples dedicated to the Earth and the Moon, an expansion of the Temple of Heaven; the Temple of the Sun was used by the imperial court for elaborate acts of worship involving fasting, prayers and animal sacrifices, as part of a year-long cycle of ceremonies involving all the temples. An important element was the colour red, associated with the Sun, including red utensils for food and wine offerings, red clothes for the emperor to wear during the ceremonies.

The temple is now part of a public park. In ancient Egypt, there were a number of sun temples. Among these old monuments is the Great Temple of Ramses at Abu Simbel, complexes built by the Fifth Dynasty, of which only two examples survive, that of Userkaf and of Niuserre; the Fifth Dynasty temples had three components, a main temple building at a higher elevation, accessed by a causeway, from a much smaller entrance building. In 2006, archaeologists found ruins underneath a market in Cairo, which could be the largest temple built by Ramesses II; the sun temples of the Indian subcontinent were dedicated to the Hindu deity Surya, with the most prominent among them being the Sun Temple at Modhera, built in 1026-1027, the Konark Sun Temple, at Konark in Odisha. Both are now ruins. Konark was constructed around 1250, by Narasimhadeva I of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty, was built in the shape of a large chariot with carved stone wheels and walls. Surya was an important deity in early Hinduism, but ceased to be worshiped as a principal deity around the 12th century.

In Manipuri mythology, the sun god Korouhanba is the synonym of the Hindu deity Surya. Other Surya or sun temples in the Indian subcontinent include: Martand Sun Temple, near Anantnag in Jammu and Kashmir built in 10th century Deo Surya Mandir in Deo, Bihar Ebudhou Korouhanba Temple, Patsoi, Manipur Sun temple at Katharmal, near Almora and 70 km from Nainital was built in 9th century CE by the Katyuri kings. Sun Temple at Modhera in Gujarat, built in 1027 by King Bhimdev of the Chaulukya dynasty Bhramanya Dev Temple at Unao, Balaji in Madhya Pradesh Sun Temple at Kalpi in Uttar Pradesh Soorya Narayana Temple at Maroli, Karnataka Surya Pahar Temple at Sri Surya Pahar in Assam built in 9th century Suryanar Kovil Temple at Kumbakonam in Tamil Nadu built in 1060-1118 CE Surya Narayana Temple at Arasavalli in Andhra Pradesh built in 7th century Dakshinaarka Temple at Gaya in Bihar Biranchinarayan Temple, Buguda in Buguda, Odisha. Biranchinarayan Temple, Palia, a 13th century temple in Palia, Odisha.

Multan Sun Temple known as Aditya Sun Temple, in Multan in Punjab, Pakistan was destroyed by Muslim rulers in 10th century. Navlakha Temple, Gujarat, built in the 11th century. Katarmal sun temple in Uttarakhand, built from the 10th century onwards. Adityanarayan temple, Maharashtra. Birla Sun Temple in Gwalior Sri Suryanarayana Swamy Temple, Gollalamamidada, in Andhra Pradesh built in 1920. Sun temple dharam sagar panna The following are Pre-columbian temples of Inti: Qurikancha in Cusco, was the most important temple in the Inca Empire. Muyuq Marka in Cusco, Peru. Willkawaman in Vilcashuamán, Peru. There are sun temple sites in a number of other countries: In the United States, the first temple dedicated to Surya, Shri Surya Narayan Mandir, Inc. was built in Queens, NY in 1993. A second temple was built in Florida in 2005 The Temple of the Sun in the Temple of the Cross Complex, at the Mayan site of Palenque, in southern Mexico, built sometime between 200 and 900 AD; the Temple of the Night Sun at the Mayan site of El Zotz, Guatemala abandoned in the fifth century.

There are several Shinto shrines in Japan, dedicated to the sun goddess Amaterasu including:Ise Grand Shrine in Ise, Mie prefecture Amanawa Shinmei Shrine, founded in 710, in Kamakura Amanoiwato-jinja in Takachiho, Miyazaki prefectureIn the Mesa Verde National Park in Colorado, United States, there is a structure which may have been used as a sun temple by the Pueblo culture, with construction thought to have begun in 1275 AD, although it does not seem to have been completed. Chinese temple Egyptian temple Ebudhou Korouhanba Temple, Manipur Fire temple Rock temple Manipuri Sun God Korouhanba

Pope Pius XII foreign relations after World War II

The Church policies after World War II of Pope Pius XII focused on material aid to war-torn Europe, the internationalization of the Roman Catholic Church, its persecution in Eastern Europe and Vietnam, relations with the United States and the emerging European Union. After 1946, Church policies, with wars ongoing in Korea, the Mandate of Palestine and other places, continued to propagate peace and aid the afflicted in war-torn Europe. Pius XII began a process of worldwide reconstruction of war-damaged Catholic institutions, he promoted the internationalization of the Church with reforms of the Church, internationalizing the College of Cardinals in two consistories. For working women he demanded equal pay for equal work. After World War II, some 60,000,000 Catholics were under the influence of Communist regimes in Eastern Europe. Relations with the United States were cordial. Faced with a war in the Middle East, Pius called for mutual respect for and between the three major religions, Christianity and Islam.

He insisted on their free access to Holy Sites in Jerusalem. In his war-time message, Pius had called for an international order and the establishment of international organizations, he therefore welcomed the creation of such organizations after the war, appointed Papal representatives or observers to them. Pacelli supported a unification of Europe. In 1957, following the signing of the Treaty of Rome, he received the heads of government and State of the newly founded European Union, to express his gratification and give his blessings. On 6 January 1946, the encyclical Quemadmodum issued an urgent call for charity; the Pope described the misery of millions of people in war-torn areas, insisted that all persons must help. He was concerned with the millions of small children without families, food or shelter; as in the war years, the Pope offered material help. During the war, some 200,000 messages were sent via Vatican identifying displaced persons and prisoners to their respective families. Pius was an outspoken advocate of clemency for those accused of war crimes, including Ernst von Weizsäcker, ambassador to the Vatican in the last two years of the war.

The U. S. nuncio appealed to commute the sentences of several Germans convicted by the occupation authorities. The Vatican, opposed to the death penalty, asked for a blanket pardon for all those who had received death sentences after the ban on execution of war criminals was lifted in 1948. After the war, the Vatican continued its information services. Vatican Radio began a daily hour for prisoners and interned to South Africa, Belgian Congo, North Africa, India and North America; the DPs created special problems, because many thousands of them did not have any identification. Preliminary identity papers and food were distributed to long lines of persons. Identity papers were issued throughout Italy by Vatican charity officials and Red Cross representatives. Forty years controversy arose as to whether some Nazi officials benefited from these Red Cross or Vatican papers, issued in the grand chaos of 1945-1947. Most neither the Red Cross nor the Vatican had the time or resources to check individual identity claims at the time.

This situation was exploited by the controversial Alois Hudal, dismissed from his posts, the rat line, but by many persons of other persuasions, who wanted to start a new life under a new name away from friends and family. As millions of refugees without any home or place to go, wandered all over the Europe, Pius XII insisted that immigration is a natural right and duty. In 1946, he declared, that all people have a right to immigration, because the Creator himself demands access to material goods. In addition, compassion supports immigration rights. Conversely, no state which can support additional people, has a right to close its immigration doors without reason. Natural law more than mere compassion compels States to secure people a chance of immigration, because the Creator demands that the goods of this world should be at the service of all mankind. Therefore, no state whose territory is in a condition to feed more people, has the right to refuse admission to foreigners without good and acceptable reasons.

Pius dealt with the human tragedies by organizing a two-tier papal charity. Monsignore Ferdinando Baldelli, Carlo Egger and Otto Faller started on behalf of the pope the official Pontificia Commissione di Assistenza. Madre Pascalina Lehnert was asked by the Pope to direct his personal charity efforts under Monsignore Montini Pope Paul VI. To assist the pope in the many calls for his help and charity, Pascalina organized and led the Magazino, a private papal charity office, which began with 40 helpers and continued until 1959. “It started from modest beginnings and became a gigantic charity”. Lehnert organized truck caravans filled with medicine, clothing and food to prison camps and hospitals, provided first aid and shelter for bomb victims, fed the hungry population of Rome, answered emergency calls for aid to the Pope, sent care packages to France, Czechoslovakia, Germany and other countries. After the war, the calls for papal help continued in war-torn Europe: Madre Pascalina organized emergency aid to displaced persons, prisoners of war, victims of floods, many victims of the war.

Pascalina distributed hundreds of religious items to needy priests. In years, priests with large parishes received small cars or motor bikes.” The Pope was involved asking bishops from the United States, Brazil, Canada and other countries for help.” Cardinals and bishops visited Madre Pascalina, who by now w