A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from. It is a term used in a variety of contexts, including semantics, design and software programming. A prototype is used to evaluate a new design to enhance precision by system analysts and users. Prototyping serves to provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a theoretical one. In some design workflow models, creating a prototype is the step between the formalization and the evaluation of an idea; the word prototype derives from the Greek πρωτότυπον prototypon, "primitive form", neutral of πρωτότυπος prototypos, "original, primitive", from πρῶτος protos, "first" and τύπος typos, "impression". Prototypes explore different aspects of an intended design: A Proof-of-Principle Prototype serves to verify some key functional aspects of the intended design, but does not have all the functionality of the final product. A Working Prototype represents all or nearly all of the functionality of the final product.
A Visual Prototype represents the size and appearance, but not the functionality, of the intended design. A Form Study Prototype is a preliminary type of visual prototype in which the geometric features of a design are emphasized, with less concern for color, texture, or other aspects of the final appearance. A User Experience Prototype represents enough of the appearance and function of the product that it can be used for user research. A Functional Prototype captures both function and appearance of the intended design, though it may be created with different techniques and different scale from final design. A Paper Prototype is a printed or hand-drawn representation of the user interface of a software product; such prototypes are used for early testing of a software design, can be part of a software walkthrough to confirm design decisions before more costly levels of design effort are expended. In general, the creation of prototypes will differ from creation of the final product in some fundamental ways: Material: The materials that will be used in a final product may be expensive or difficult to fabricate, so prototypes may be made from different materials than the final product.
In some cases, the final production materials may still be undergoing development themselves and not yet available for use in a prototype. Process: Mass-production processes are unsuitable for making a small number of parts, so prototypes may be made using different fabrication processes than the final product. For example, a final product that will be made by plastic injection molding will require expensive custom tooling, so a prototype for this product may be fabricated by machining or stereolithography instead. Differences in fabrication process may lead to differences in the appearance of the prototype as compared to the final product. Verification: The final product may be subject to a number of quality assurance tests to verify conformance with drawings or specifications; these tests may involve custom inspection fixtures, statistical sampling methods, other techniques appropriate for ongoing production of a large quantity of the final product. Prototypes are made with much closer individual inspection and the assumption that some adjustment or rework will be part of the fabrication process.
Prototypes may be exempted from some requirements that will apply to the final product. Engineers and prototype specialists attempt to minimize the impact of these differences on the intended role for the prototype. For example, if a visual prototype is not able to use the same materials as the final product, they will attempt to substitute materials with properties that simulate the intended final materials. Engineers and prototyping specialists seek to understand the limitations of prototypes to simulate the characteristics of their intended design, it is important to realize that by their definition, prototypes will represent some compromise from the final production design. Due to differences in materials and design fidelity, it is possible that a prototype may fail to perform acceptably whereas the production design may have been sound. A counter-intuitive idea is that prototypes may perform acceptably whereas the production design may be flawed since prototyping materials and processes may outperform their production counterparts.
In general, it can be expected that individual prototype costs will be greater than the final production costs due to inefficiencies in materials and processes. Prototypes are used to revise the design for the purposes of reducing costs through optimization and refinement, it is possible to use prototype testing to reduce the risk that a design may not perform as intended, however prototypes cannot eliminate all risk. There are pragmatic and practical limitations to the ability of a prototype to match the intended final performance of the product and some allowances and engineering judgement are required before moving forward with a production design. Building the full design is expensive and can be time-consuming when repeated several times—building the full design, figuring out what the problems are and how to solve them building another full design; as an alternative, rapid prototyping or rapid application development techniques are used for the initial prototypes, which implement part, but not all, of the complete design.
This allows designers and manufacturers to and inexpensively test the parts of the design that are most to have problems, solve those problems, build the full design. This counter-intuitive idea—that the quickest way to build something is, f
The Pagani Zonda is a mid-engine sports car produced by the Italian sports car manufacturer Pagani. It debuted at the 1999 Geneva Motor Show, production ended in 2017 with the Zonda HP Barchetta and other commemorative special editions being produced until the same year. By 2018, a total of 140 cars had been built, including development mules. Both 2-door coupé and roadster variants have been produced along with a third new variant being the barchetta. Construction is of carbon fibre; the Zonda was to be named the "Fangio F1" after Formula One champion Juan Manuel Fangio, following his death in 1995, it was renamed for the Zonda wind, a regional term for a hot air current above Argentina. The Zonda C12 debuted in 1999 at the Geneva Motor Show, it was powered by a 6.0 L Mercedes-Benz M120 V12 engine having a power output of 450 PS at 5,200 rpm and 640 N⋅m of torque at 4,200 rpm mated to a 5-speed manual transmission. The C12 could accelerate to 161 km/h in 9.2 seconds. Only five cars were built with the 6.0 L engine, though the C12 was still available in 2002 when the C12 S was introduced.
One was used for crash homologation, while another was a demonstrator and show car. The remainder were delivered to customers during the next three years; the crash test and homologation car having chassis number 001 was restored by Pagani's established restoration program called "Pagani Rinascimento" and was presented to the public at the 2019 Geneva Motor Show for the Zonda's 20th anniversary. The Zonda S uses a modified version of the V12 engine used in the C12 enlarged to 7.0 L. Tuned by Mercedes-AMG, the engine has a power output of 550 PS and is mated to a newly developed 6-speed manual transmission in order to handle the high power output produced by the engine; the C12 S can accelerate to 161 km/h in 7.0 seconds. Lateral acceleration on the skidpad is 1.18 g. The C12 S can can attain a top speed of 208 mph. Introduced in 2002 the Zonda S 7.3 used a new, larger aspirated V12 engine displacing 7,291 cc designed and manufactured by Mercedes-Benz AMG having a power output of 555 PS at 5,900 rpm and 750 N⋅m of torque at 4,050 rpm.
And to better handle the power, traction control and ABS were made standard. Performance claims were unchanged from the Zonda C12 S. In 2003, Pagani presented the Zonda Roadster, a roadster version of the Zonda S 7.3. Carrying the same components as the coupé, Pagani promised no loss of performance, a claim supported by the minimal weight gain of 30 kg. A total of 40 roadsters were produced; the Zonda F debuted at the 2005 Geneva Motor Show. It was the most extensive re-engineered variant of the Zonda yet, though it shared much with its predecessors including the 7.3 L AMG V12 engine which through enhanced intake manifolds, exhaust and a revised ECU now had a power output of 602 PS at 6,150 rpm and 760 N⋅m at 4,000 rpm. The transmission was the same as the C12 S but had stronger internals and differential gears. Production of the Zonda F was limited to 25 cars, it came equipped with an extra headlight and different fog lights at the sides, new bodywork that improved the car's aerodynamics, different side mirrors.
Further enhancements over the "S" centered on optional carbon/ceramic brakes developed in conjunction with Brembo, OZ alloy wheels, Inconel exhaust system, hydroformed aluminium intake plenum, a redesigned "Z preg" weave in the crash structure to improve rigidity and reduce weight. The Zonda Roadster F debuted at the 2006 Geneva Motor Show. Exterior wise, the roadster was similar to the coupé, but with a removable carbon fibre roof and canvas side curtains, weighing just 5 kg more than the coupé. Power output of the engine increased to 650 780 N ⋅ m of torque. Production of the Roadster F was limited to 25 units; the Roadster F maintained chassis rigidity without any gain in curb weight, eschewing conventional thinking by not strengthening the sills, a process which would have needed more than 35 kg of reinforcement. Pagani instead used racing car materials, construction techniques, strengthening the firewall structure of the chassis tub together with billet alloy braces that connected the points where the roof rails would have joined.
The windscreen was strengthened for safety reasons. These techniques enabled the Roadster to have the same weight as the coupé, 1,230 kg; the Zonda Roadster F Clubsport is a light weight version of the Zonda Roadster F. It has an extensive use of the new carbo-titanium material developed Pagani as well as having an upgraded engine, it was tested by Top Gear's The Stig along with James May and achieved a lap time around their test track of 1:17.8, beating the Bugatti Veyron 16.4 tested during the same episode, but lost in a quarter mile drag race against the Veyron by nearly 2.5 seconds. German racing driver Marc Basseng managed to lap the Zonda F Clubsport around the 20.8 kilometres Nürburgring Nordschleife in 7:24.7. The Zonda Cinque was meant to be the last iteration of the Zonda, being a road-legal version of the Zonda R. Only five were built, hence the name, with deliveries set to June 2009 for all five cars; the Zonda Cinque was developed at the request of a Pagani dealer in Hong Kong. The differences from other variants of the Zonda were the new 6-speed sequential gearbox, resulting in shifts taking less than 100 mi
The Stig is a character on the British motoring television show Top Gear. The character is a play on the anonymity of racing drivers' full-face helmets, with the running joke that nobody knows who or what is inside the Stig's racing suit; the Stig's primary role is setting lap times for cars tested on the show. He would instruct celebrity guests, off-camera, for the show's "Star in a Reasonably Priced Car" segment; the identity of the original "Black" Stig, Perry McCarthy, was exposed by a Sunday newspaper in January 2003, confirmed by McCarthy that year. The black-suited Stig was subsequently "killed off" that October in the series 3 premiere, replaced in the following episode by a new White Stig who lasted through to the end of series 15. In series 13 episode 1, the show jokingly unmasked the Stig as seven-time world champion F1 driver Michael Schumacher. In the hiatus following series 15, racing driver Ben Collins was revealed to be the Stig in a court battle over Collins' impending autobiography, titled The Man in the White Suit.
In series 16, debuting in December 2010, Collins was replaced by a second White Stig, whose identity has so far remained secret. The idea for the character was part of former host Jeremy Clarkson's and producer Andy Wilman's concept for the relaunched Top Gear show, bringing a new format to the original version of Top Gear which ceased production in 2001; the relaunched show introduced a live studio audience, the Stig, a racetrack, madcap stunts. Clarkson is credited with having come up with the original idea for the Stig. Clarkson and Wilman wanted to have a professional racing driver as part of the show's cast, but ran into difficulty finding a driver sufficiently adept at speaking on-camera. Clarkson asked Wilman why the driver needed to speak at all, they decided that the Stig's role would be silent; the name Stig derives from Wilman and Clarkson's time at Repton School, where new boys had always been called "Stig". According to the original Stig, Perry McCarthy, speaking in 2006, the producers had wanted the anonymous driver to be called "The Gimp", referring to the use of gimp suits in BDSM sexual role-playing.
After McCarthy objected, they settled upon the name Stig. McCarthy had said of the idea at the time that "I don't want to be forever remembered as the Gimp"; when introducing the Stig in the Top Gear premiere, Clarkson said, "We don't know its name, we don't know its name, nobody knows its name, we don't wanna know,'cause it's a racing driver." According to the Daily Mail in 2010, his face is never revealed on set, not the celebrity guests being trained on the reasonably priced car are allowed to learn his identity. He stays suited and with his helmet on throughout the show, arriving early and leaving late, having his own dressing room and eating privately; the studio audience has no access to him at any time. According to a 2006 article in The Sunday Times, most of the Top Gear crew did not know the Stig's identity. In 2009, another Times article reiterated that only a few production staff, the show's presenters and other BBC journalists knew the Stig's true identity. Former Stig Perry McCarthy described in 2009 how, to maintain his anonymity, he would put on the Stig's helmet while going through the Top Gear security gates, change into his racing overalls in a special room behind the gatehouse before driving into the studio areas.
He would speak as little as possible in the backstage areas, put on an accent which some mistook as French. McCarthy explained that hiding his identity while coaching the celebrities for Star in a Reasonably Priced Car proved difficult, he said that he did reveal his true identity while coaching Ross Kemp and David Soul, as he had known them and they promised that they would be silent about his role. For other drives, if celebrities asked if he was a particular person, he would just say "How did you know?", adding that more than not, the suggestion was Michael Schumacher. The Stig is never shown talking on screen, although he does talk with celebrities off-camera while training them to drive around the track. Clarkson has joked that he is "not a talkative chap"; when asked about his identity in a rare spoken interview for the show Veronica Vibes of a Dutch channel, the Stig said, "I don't remember. The Stig's muteness has extended to appearances in other media, such as the "Brain Stig" video released by the BBC on YouTube in 2009.
Clarkson has written in his newspaper column that the Stig is not permitted to talk or comment on the cars he is given to drive because "the opinions of all racing drivers are worthless," going on to explain that, because of their familiarity with cars equipped for track racing, racing drivers believe any and all road cars are on low-scale compared to racing cars. The show has compared the Stig's driving ability to others Formula One drivers; when Jeremy Clarkson said that the Stig believed that the Suzuki Liana, the show's Reasonably Priced Car at the time, could do a lap time of 1:44, former F1 driver Nigel Mansell, appearing as a guest on the programme, duly obliged by posting a time of 1:44.6. After Rubens Barrichello became the first person to beat the Stig's time, the show referred to a jealous rivalry between the Stig and Barrichello. Sebastian Vettel further beat this time by posting a time of 1:44 flat. Clarkson has mentioned that F1 drivers seem to take a different racing line on the test track than the Stig, such as on Jenson Button's drive.
A scale model is most a physical representation of an object, which maintains accurate relationships between all important aspects of the model, although absolute values of the original properties need not be preserved. This enables it to demonstrate some behavior or property of the original object without examining the original object itself; the most familiar scale models represent the physical appearance of an object in miniature, but there are many other kinds. Scale models are used in many fields including engineering, film making, military command and hobby model building. While each field may use a scale model for a different purpose, all scale models are based on the same principles and must meet the same general requirements to be functional; the detail requirements vary depending on the needs of the modeler. To be a true scale model, all relevant aspects must be modeled, such as material properties, so the model's interaction with the outside world is reliably related to the original object's interaction with the real world.
In general a scale model must be designed and built considering similitude theory. However, other requirements concerning practical issues must be considered. Similitude is the art of predicting prototype performance from scale model observations; the main requirement of similitude is all dimensionless quantities must be equal for both the scaled model and the prototype under the conditions the modeler desires to make observations. Dimensionless quantities are referred to as Pi terms, or π terms. In many fields the π terms are well established. For example, in fluid dynamics, a well known dimensionless number called the Reynolds number comes up in scale model tests with fluid in motion relative to a stationary surface. Thus, for a scale model test to be reliable, the Reynolds number, as well as all other important dimensionless quantities, must be equal for both scale model and prototype under the conditions that the modeler wants to observe. An example of the Reynolds number and its use in similitude theory satisfaction can be observed in the scale model testing of fluid flow in a horizontal pipe.
The Reynolds number for the scale model pipe must be equal to the Reynolds number of the prototype pipe for the flow measurements of the scale model to correspond to the prototype in a meaningful way. This can be written mathematically, with the subscript m referring to the scale model and subscript p referring to the prototype, as follows: R e m = ρ m v m L m μ m = ρ p v p L p μ p = R e p where v is the mean velocity of the object relative to the fluid L is a characteristic linear dimension, μ is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid ρ is the density of the fluid. Observing the equation above it is clear to see that while the Reynolds numbers must be equal for the scale model and the prototype, this can be accomplished in many different ways, for example, in this problem by altering the scale of the dynamic viscosity of the model to work with the scale of the length; this means, the scales of different quantities, for example a material's elasticity in the scale model versus the prototype, are governed by equating the dimensionless quantities and the other quantity's scaling within the dimensionless quantity to ensure the dimensionless quantity of interest is of equal magnitude for the scale model and prototype.
With the above understanding of similitude requirements, it becomes clear the scale reported in scale models refers only to the geometric scale, S L, not the scale of the parameters important to consider in the scale model design and fabrication. In general the scale of any quantity i material density or viscosity, is defined as: S i = i p i m where i p is the quantity value of the prototype i m is the quantity value of the scale modelThis relationship must be applied to all quantities of interest in the prototype, observing similitude requirements—so the scale model can be built using dimensions and materials that make scale model testing results meaningful with respect to the prototype. One method to determine the dimensionless quantities of concern for a given problem is to use dimensional analysis. Practical concerns include the cost to construct the model, available test facilities to condition and observe the model, the availability of certain materials, who will build it. Practical requirements are very diverse depending on the purpose of the scale model and they all must be considered to have a successful scale model experience.
As an example an aerospace company needs to test a new wing shape. Acco
Goodwood Festival of Speed
The Goodwood Festival of Speed is an annual hill climb featuring historic motor racing vehicles held in the grounds of Goodwood House, West Sussex, England in late June or early July. In the early years of the Festival, tens of thousands attended over the weekend. A record crowd of 158,000 attended in 2003, before an advance-ticket-only admission policy came into force; the Goodwood Festival of Speed was founded in 1993 by Lord March in order to bring motor racing back to the Goodwood estate — a location steeped in British motor racing history. Shortly after taking over the estate in the early 1990s, Lord March wanted to bring back motor racing to Goodwood Circuit, but did not have the necessary permit to host a race there. Therefore, he instead hosted it on his own grounds. With a small selection of entrants made up of invited historic vehicles, the first event that took place on Sunday 13 June proved to be a success, taking in a crowd of 25,000 despite a date clash with the 24 Hours of Le Mans that year.
After the first event's date clash, Lord March would ensure that the event would never be allowed to clash with either Le Mans or Formula One races. In 1994, Saturday was added. In 1996, Friday was added. In 2010, the Moving Motor Show was added on the Thursday; the event is classified as a hill climb, visitors are accorded close access to that part of the track. The track has an elevation change of 92.7 metres, for an average gradient of 4.9%. The record time for the hillclimb was set in 1999 when Nick Heidfeld drove a McLaren MP4/13 Formula One car up the hill in 41.6 seconds. For safety reasons Formula One cars are no longer allowed to do official timed runs, will focus on demonstrations that are spectacular rather than fast. In 2016, to commemorate the 40 year anniversary of James Hunt winning the F1 World Championship, McLaren commissioned a P1 GTR which ran up the hill driven by Bruno Senna. From 2000 to 2004 this was a downhill race for gravity-powered cars. Starting from just below the hill-climb finish line, to a finish line in front of the house.
It included entries from Cosworth and other top companies. With some famous riders/drivers piloting them, including Barry Sheene. However, there were frequent accidents. Despite an official cap on the cost of cars, the unofficial costs were becoming too high, so it did not return in 2005. However, it did return in 2013. Companies such as Bentley and McLaren competed. From 2005 to present there has been a demonstration area for the rally cars at the top of the hill. In 2005, the track through the forest was widened, the rally cars ran down through the forest, turned on the tarmac section just outside the wood, returned up the same track; this meant. In 2006, a full forest stage was introduced, designed by Hannu Mikkola this was a complete circuit, with a separate start and finish line at the top of the wood; this allowed the cars to start at timed intervals. Since its inception Southern Car Club have been entrusted with the organization of the rally stage, held under an MSA permit. Since 2000, there has been a Michelin Supercar Run, for road-going supercars.
Since 2014 cars could opt to do a timed run. It is now common for specialty car manufacturers to show off their latest sports model, including newly released mass-produced sports models and working concept models. Since 1995 this is an auto show, it is a similar format to the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance. Entry is by invitation, this provides some leeway as to which type of vehicle can enter resulting in a more varied event than usual Concours d'Elegance. Unlike most concours shows, the Cartier Style et Luxe is judged by a panel of selected judges consisting of celebrities from all around the world to car designers. Since 2010, the Moving Motor Show, was added. In response to the cancellation of the British International Motor Show aimed for buyers of new cars, allowing them a chance to test the cars on the course. Following its success, it was announced the MMS would return in 2011; the 2010 event included the running of the new McLaren MP4-12C. The official website lists the Festival of speed dates as the Friday to Sunday, but the weekend tickets for the Festival include a moving motor show ticket.
So it's not part of the Festival of Speed, but it is a part of the Festival of Speed weekend. Other popular attractions at the event are the real life replicas of the Wacky Races cars, which serves to provide lunchtime entertainment for the crowds, the airshows, which include the RAF Tornado and Red Arrows, in 2004 and 2005 a low-flying Boeing 747. From the festival's beginning, poster art had been illustrated by renowned motor racing artist Peter Hearsey until his retirement in 2015. In 2016, the poster art was designed by Klaus Wagger, who rose to prominence as a racing artist when he won a competition to design the official poster for Mille Miglia in 2000. In recent years, they have put on the GAS Arena who showcase extreme stunts such as Freestyle Motorcross, BMX and Trial bike Riding In 2018 f
A sports car, or sportscar, is a small two-seater automobile designed for spirited performance and nimble handling. The term "sports car" was used in The Times, London in 1919. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, USA's first known use of the term was in 1928. Sports cars started to become popular during the 1920s. Sports cars may be spartan or luxurious. Sports cars are aerodynamically shaped, have a lower center of gravity than standard models. Steering and suspension are designed for precise control at high speeds. Traditionally sports cars were open roadsters, but closed coupés started to become popular during the 1930s, the distinction between a sports car and a grand tourer is not absolute. Attributing the definition of'sports car' to any particular model can be controversial or the subject of debate among enthusiasts. Authors and experts have contributed their own ideas to capture a definition. A car may be a sporting automobile without being a sports car. Performance modifications of regular, production cars, such as sport compacts, sports sedans, muscle cars, pony cars and hot hatches are not considered sports cars, yet share traits common to sports cars.
Certain models can "appeal to both muscle car and sports car enthusiasts, two camps that acknowledged each other's existences." Some models are called "sports cars" for marketing purposes to take advantage of greater marketplace acceptance and for promotional purposes. High-performance cars of various configurations are grouped as Sports and Grand tourer cars or just as performance cars; the drivetrain and engine layout influences the handling characteristics of an automobile, is crucially important in the design of a sports car. The front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is common to sports cars of any era and has survived longer in sports cars than in mainstream automobiles. Examples include the Caterham 7, Mazda MX-5, the Chevrolet Corvette. More many such sports cars have a front mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout, with the centre of mass of the engine between the front axle and the firewall. In search of improved handling and weight distribution, other layouts are sometimes used; the rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is found only in sports cars—the motor is centre-mounted in the chassis, powers only the rear wheels.
Some high-performance sports car manufacturers, such as Ferrari and Lamborghini have preferred this layout. Porsche is one of the few remaining manufacturers using the rear-wheel-drive layout; the motor's distributed weight across the wheels, in a Porsche 911, provides excellent traction, but the significant mass behind the rear wheels makes it more prone to oversteer in some situations. Porsche has continuously refined the design and in recent years added electronic stability control to counteract these inherent design shortcomings; the front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout layout, the most common in sport compacts and hot hatches, modern production cars in general, is not used for sports cars. This layout is advantageous for small, lower power sports cars, as it avoids the extra weight, increased transmission power loss, packaging problems of a long driveshaft and longitudinal engine of FR vehicles. However, its conservative handling effect understeer, the fact that many drivers believe rear wheel drive is a more desirable layout for a sports car count against it.
The Fiat Barchetta, Saab Sonett, Berkeley cars are sports cars with this layout. Before the 1980s few sports cars used four-wheel drive, which had traditionally added a lot of weight. With its improvement in traction in adverse weather conditions, four-wheel drive is no longer uncommon in high-powered sports cars, e.g. Porsche and the Bugatti Veyron. Traditional sports cars were two-seat roadsters. Although the first sports cars were derived from fast tourers, early sporting regulations demanded four seats, two seats became common from about the mid-1920s. Modern sports cars may have small back seats that are really only suitable for luggage or small children. Over the years, some manufacturers of sports cars have sought to increase the practicality of their vehicles by increasing the seating room. One method is to place the driver's seat in the center of the car, which allows two full-sized passenger seats on each side and behind the driver; the arrangement was considered for the Lamborghini Miura, but abandoned as impractical because of the difficulty for the driver to enter/exit the vehicle.
McLaren used the design in their F1. Another British manufacturer, TVR, took a different approach in their Cerbera model; the interior was designed in such a way that the dashboard on the passenger side swept toward the front of the car, which allowed the passenger to sit farther forward than the driver. This gave the rear seat passenger extra room and made the arrangement suitable for three adult passengers and one child seated behind the driver; some Matra sports cars had three seats squeezed next to each other. The definition of a sports car is not precise, but from the earliest first automobiles "people have found ways to make them go faster, round corners better, look more beautiful" than the ordinary models inspiring an "emotional relationship" with a car, fun to drive and use for the sake of driving; the basis for the sports car is traced to the early 20th century touring cars a