Scuderia Toro Rosso
Scuderia Toro Rosso known as Toro Rosso or by its abbreviation STR and competing as Red Bull Toro Rosso Honda, is an Italian Formula One racing team. When the name "Toro Rosso" is translated to English, it is the exact same word as its sister team - Red Bull, it is one of two Formula One teams owned by Austrian beverage company Red Bull, the other being Red Bull Racing. Toro Rosso functions as a junior team to Red Bull Racing, with the aim of developing the skills of promising drivers for the senior team; the team made its racing debut in the 2006 season, moving to complete independence from its sister team in 2010. The team was established after Paul Stoddart sold his remaining interest in the Minardi team at the end of 2005 to Red Bull's owner, Dietrich Mateschitz and Minardi was renamed Toro Rosso. Mateschitz subsequently struck a 50/50 joint-ownership deal with former Formula One driver Gerhard Berger before the start of the season. In late November 2008, Red Bull regained total ownership of Toro Rosso after buying back Berger's share of the team.
From 2007 to 2013, Toro Rosso used Ferrari V8 engines, taking over the contract that their senior team broke from at the end of 2006 to switch engine builders to Renault. For 2014, Toro Rosso switched to Renault engines as well, but in 2016 returned to using Ferrari power. However, they switched back to Renault in 2017 in 2018 to Honda; the team principal is Franz Tost of BMW's motor sport division. Vitantonio Liuzzi scored the team's first point in its first season at the 2006 United States Grand Prix; the team's first and only pole position and victory were scored by Sebastian Vettel at the 2008 Italian Grand Prix. The team's set 2008 driver line-up was Sebastian Vettel, third driver for BMW Sauber in 2006 before switching to a race seat at Toro Rosso midway through the 2007 season, Sébastien Bourdais, the four-time winner of the Champ Car World Series. For the 2009 season, Sébastien Buemi took Vettel's seat when he moved to the Red Bull team, while Bourdais was dropped after the German Grand Prix, following a series of poor performances that had only scored him two points.
Jaime Alguersuari took over Bourdais' seat at the Hungarian Grand Prix, kept the seat for the remaining part of the year. Both Alguersuari and Buemi raced for the team for all of the 2011 seasons, it was announced on 14 December 2011, that Daniel Ricciardo and Jean-Éric Vergne would be the team's drivers for the 2012 season. At the 2013 Italian Grand Prix it was announced that Daniel Ricciardo had been chosen to succeed Mark Webber at Red Bull Racing. For 2014, Toro Rosso signed newcomer Daniil Kvyat. Kvyat spent one season with Toro Rosso before being promoted to Red Bull, the team elected to overhaul their line-up by signing Carlos Sainz Jr. and Max Verstappen, who in 2015 became the youngest driver in Formula One history at just 17 years and 166 days old. Minardi had competed in Formula One from 1985 to 2005. Despite having a large fan base, it had been one of the least competitive teams in the sport, never achieving a podium finish and only finishing as high as fourth in three races. Minardi owner Paul Stoddart claimed to have had 41 approaches to buy the team, but preferred to sell it to someone who could'take it further' than he could and who would maintain it in its traditional base in Italy.
Included in the terms of the deal with Red Bull GmbH was the clause that the team must keep its headquarters in Faenza, Italy until at least the 2007 season. Whilst Red Bull have abandoned the Minardi name in line with their own sponsorship and marketing plans, the use of the Italian language in the name is intended to hint at the team's Italian heritage. Red Bull changed the name of the team after taking control of the team on 1 November 2005, it was reported as'Squadra Toro Rosso' but changed because squadra in Italian depicts a'squad' like a football team, to'Scuderia Toro Rosso'. Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses, is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams, such as Ferrari. Many Minardi fans were upset by the name change to Scuderia Toro Rosso and over 15,000 signed an online petition to keep the Minardi name, but were unsuccessful. Vitantonio Liuzzi and Scott Speed were the 2006 race drivers of the STR1, with Neel Jani filling the test/third driver role.
Liuzzi had raced part-time for Red Bull Racing in 2005, while Speed entered F1 following the Red Bull Driver Search in the United States. Jani was the test driver for Sauber Petronas in 2004; the 2006 chassis was a modified version of the 2005 Red Bull Racing RB1. Some teams felt that this infringed the Concorde Agreement as each team is expected to design their own car. Toro Rosso claim that this design was produced during 2004 by Jaguar Racing, Red Bull's predecessor, that the intellectual rights had belonged to the Ford Motor Company, Jaguar Racing's parent company before passing to Toro Rosso; the team used Minardi's contracted supply of rev limited and air restricted Cosworth 3.0l V10 engines. This concession had been granted to assist less well funded teams by avoiding the cost of sourcing a new supply of V8 engines as required by the 2006 regulations; the continuation of this arrangement after the Red Bull takeover caused friction with other teams, in particular Super Aguri and Midland who felt that the engine conferred too much of an advantage.
They contended that the concession to allow the team use a V10 engine was based on Minardi's poor financial situation, should not have continued to apply after the team achieved a different financial footing. As the season progressed, the Toro Rossos began to struggle in qualifying as their competitors developed their new V8
1977 Brazilian Grand Prix
The 1977 Brazilian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Interlagos on January 23, 1977. James Hunt took pole again with Carlos Reutemann second and Mario Andretti third on the grid. Home hero Carlos Pace took the lead at the start, with Hunt dropping behind Reutemann as well but soon Hunt was back behind Pace and attacking. There was contact, Hunt took the lead whereas Pace had to pit for repairs. Hunt led Reutemann until he was passed by Reutemann. Hunt pitted for new tyres, rejoined fourth and soon passed Niki Lauda in the Ferrari and John Watson to reclaim second. Reutemann marched on to victory, Hunt was second and Lauda third after Watson crashed out. Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
Mercedes-Benz in Formula One
Mercedes-Benz, through its subsidiary Mercedes-Benz Grand Prix Limited, is involved in Formula One as a constructor under the name of Mercedes-AMG Petronas Motorsport. The team is based in Brackley, United Kingdom, using a German licence. Mercedes-Benz competed in the pre-war European Championship winning three titles and debuted in Formula One in 1954, running a team for two years; the team is known by their nickname, the "Silver Arrows". After winning their first race at the 1954 French Grand Prix, driver Juan Manuel Fangio won another three Grands Prix to win the 1954 Drivers' Championship and repeated this success in 1955. Despite winning two Drivers' Championships, Mercedes-Benz withdrew from motor racing in response to the 1955 Le Mans disaster and did not return to Formula One until rejoining as an engine supplier in association with Ilmor, a British independent high-performance autosport engineering company acquired by Mercedes, in 1994. In addition to its factory team, Mercedes supplies engines to Racing Point and Williams.
The manufacturer has collected more than 160 wins as engine supplier and is ranked fourth in Formula One history. Six Constructors' and ten Drivers' Championships have been won with Mercedes-Benz engines. Mercedes has become one of the most successful teams in recent Formula One history, having achieved consecutive Drivers' and Constructors' Championships from 2014 to 2018. In 2014, Mercedes managed 11 one-two finishes beating McLaren's 1988 record of 10; the record was extended the following year with 12 one-two finishes. Mercedes collected 16 victories in 2014 and 2015 apiece breaking McLaren and Ferrari's record of 15. In 2016, they extended this record with 19 wins. Mercedes-Benz competed in Grand Prix motor racing in the 1930s, when the Silver Arrows dominated the races alongside rivals Auto Union. Both teams were funded by the Nazi regime, winning all European Grand Prix Championships after 1934, of which Rudolf Caracciola won three for Mercedes-Benz. In 1954, Mercedes-Benz returned to what was now known as Formula One under the leadership of Alfred Neubauer, using the technologically advanced Mercedes-Benz W196.
The car was run in both the conventional open-wheeled configuration and a streamlined form, which featured covered wheels and wider bodywork. Juan Manuel Fangio, the 1951 champion, transferred mid-season from Maserati to Mercedes-Benz for their debut at the French Grand Prix on 4 July 1954; the team had immediate success and recorded a 1–2 victory with Fangio and Karl Kling, as well as the fastest lap. Fangio went on winning the championship; the success continued into the 1955 season, with Mercedes-Benz developing the W196 throughout the year. Mercedes-Benz again dominated the season, with Fangio taking four races, his new teammate Stirling Moss winning the British Grand Prix. Fangio and Moss finished second in that year's championship; the 1955 disaster at the 24 Hours of Le Mans on 11 June, which killed Mercedes-Benz sportscar driver Pierre Levegh and more than 80 spectators led to the cancellations of the French, German and Swiss Grands Prix. At the end of the season, the team withdrew including Formula One.
The Mercedes name returned to Formula One for the 2010 season after their owners, Daimler AG, bought a minority stake in the Brawn GP team with Aabar Investments purchasing 30% on 16 November 2009, with Ross Brawn continuing his duties as team principal and the team retaining its base and workforce in Brackley, close to the Mercedes-Benz Formula One engine plant in Brixworth. Following the purchase of the team, as well as a sponsorship deal with Petronas, the team was rebranded as Mercedes GP Petronas Formula One Team; the team has a complex history. BAR, who had formed a partnership with Honda became Honda Racing F1 Team in 2006 when BAT withdrew from the sport, it again changed hands in 2008, when Honda withdrew, was purchased by the team's management, naming it Brawn GP after team principal Ross Brawn. Brawn used engines from Mercedes-Benz High Performance Engines, despite running on a low budget, Jenson Button won six of the first seven races and the 2009 Drivers' Championship, while Brawn won the Constructors' Championship.
It was the first time in the sport's sixty-year history that a team won both titles in its maiden season. The team hired German drivers Nico Rosberg, seven-time world champion Michael Schumacher, who returned to Formula One after a three-year absence, Nick Heidfeld as the test and reserve driver. Of Brawn's 2009 drivers, Jenson Button signed for McLaren, whilst Rubens Barrichello moved to Rosberg's former seat with Williams team for 2010. With the acquisition of Brawn, the team ended its involvement with McLaren, parent company Daimler AG sold back the 40% shareholding in the McLaren Group, while continuing to supply engines to the team; the team's performance during 2010 was not so competitive as under Brawn, with the team behind the leading three teams of Ferrari, McLaren, Red Bull. Their best results came from Rosberg finishing on the podium three times, scoring third places at Sepang and Silverstone. Rosberg finished in seventh place, but Schumacher had a disappointing return, being beaten by his teammate and finishing the season without a single race win, pole position, or fastest lap for the first time since his début season in 1991.
He was involved in a controversy in Hungary aft
Scuderia Ferrari S.p. A. is the racing division of luxury Italian auto manufacturer Ferrari and the racing team that competes in Formula One racing. The team is nicknamed "The Prancing Horse", with reference to their logo, it is the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team, having competed in every world championship since the 1950 Formula One season. The team was founded by Enzo Ferrari to race cars produced by Alfa Romeo, though by 1947 Ferrari had begun building its own cars. Among its important achievements outside Formula One are winning the World Sportscar Championship, 24 Hours of Le Mans, 24 Hours of Spa, 24 Hours of Daytona, 12 Hours of Sebring, Bathurst 12 Hour, races for Grand tourer cars and racing on road courses of the Targa Florio, the Mille Miglia and the Carrera Panamericana; as a constructor, Ferrari has a record 16 Constructors' Championships, the last of, won in 2008. Alberto Ascari, Juan Manuel Fangio, Mike Hawthorn, Phil Hill, John Surtees, Niki Lauda, Jody Scheckter, Michael Schumacher and Kimi Räikkönen have won a record 15 Drivers' Championships for the team.
Since Räikkönen's title in 2007 the team narrowly lost out on the 2008 drivers' title with Felipe Massa and the 2010 and 2012 drivers' titles with Fernando Alonso. Michael Schumacher is the team's most successful driver. Joining the team in 1996 and departing in 2006 he won five drivers' titles and 72 Grands Prix for the team, his titles came consecutively between 2000 and 2004, the team won consecutive constructors' title from 1999 until the end of 2004. Sebastian Vettel and Charles Leclerc are the two main race drivers; the team is known for its passionate support base known as the tifosi. The Italian Grand Prix at Monza is regarded as the team's home race; the Scuderia Ferrari team was founded by Enzo Ferrari on 16 November 1929 and became the racing team of Alfa Romeo and racing Alfa Romeo cars. In 1938, Alfa Romeo management made the decision to re-enter racing under its own name, establishing the Alfa Corse organisation, which absorbed what had been Scuderia Ferrari. Enzo Ferrari disagreed with this change in policy and was dismissed by Alfa in 1939.
The terms of his leaving forbade him from motorsport for a period of four years. In 1939, Ferrari started work on a racecar of his own, the Tipo 815; the 815s, designed by Alberto Massimino, were thus the first Ferrari cars. World War II put a temporary end to racing, Ferrari concentrated on an alternative use for his factory during the war years, doing machine tool work. After the war, Ferrari recruited several of his former Alfa colleagues and established a new Scuderia Ferrari, which would design and build its own cars; the team was based in Modena from its pre-war founding until 1943, when Enzo Ferrari moved the team to a new factory in Maranello in 1943, both Scuderia Ferrari and Ferrari's roadcar factory remain at Maranello to this day. The team owns and operates a test track on the same site, the Fiorano Circuit built in 1972, used for testing road and race cars; the team is named after Enzo Ferrari. Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses and is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams.
The prancing horse was the symbol on Italian World War I ace Francesco Baracca's fighter plane, became the logo of Ferrari after the fallen ace's parents, close acquaintances of Enzo Ferrari, suggested that Ferrari use the symbol as the logo of the Scuderia, telling him it would'bring him good luck'. In May 1947, Ferrari constructed the 12-cylinder, 1.5 L Tipo 125, the first racing car to bear the Ferrari name. A Formula One version of the Tipo 125, the Ferrari 125 F1 was developed in 1948 and entered in several Grands Prix, at the time a World Championship had not yet been established. In 1950, the Formula One World Championship was established, Scuderia Ferrari entered in this first season, it is the only team to have competed in every season of the World Championship, from its inception to the current day. In fact the Ferrari team missed the first race of the championship, the 1950 British Grand Prix, due to a dispute about the'start money' paid to entrants, the team debuted in the 1950 Monaco Grand Prix with the 125 F1, sporting a supercharged version of the 125 V12, three experienced and successful drivers, Alberto Ascari, Raymond Sommer and Gigi Villoresi.
The company switched to the large-displacement aspirated formula for the 275, 340, 375 F1 cars. The Alfa Romeo team dominated the 1950 Formula One season, winning all eleven events it entered, but Ferrari broke their streak in 1951 when rotund driver José Froilán González took first place at the 1951 British Grand Prix. After the 1951 Formula One season the Alfa team withdrew from F1, causing the authorities to adopt the Formula Two regulations due to the lack of suitable F1 cars. Ferrari entered the 2.0 L 4-cyl Ferrari Tipo 500, which went on to win every race in which it competed in the 1952 Formula One season with drivers Ascari, Giuseppe Farina, Piero Taruffi. In the 1953 Formula One season, Ascari won only five races but another world title; the 1954 Formula One season brought new rules for 2.5 L engines. Ferrari had only two wins, González at the 1954 British Grand Prix and Mike Hawthorn a
Red Bull Racing
Red Bull Racing is a Formula One racing team, racing under an Austrian licence and based in the United Kingdom. The team raced under a British licence from 2005 to 2006 and has raced under an Austrian licence since 2007, it is one of two Formula One teams owned by beverage company Red Bull GmbH, the other being Scuderia Toro Rosso. The team has been managed by Christian Horner since its formation in 2005; the team used engines supplied by Renault between 2007 and 2018. During this partnership they won four successive Drivers' and Constructors' Championship titles from 2010 to 2013, becoming the first Austrian-licensed team to win the title; the team began using Honda engines in 2019. The current Red Bull team can trace its origins back to the Stewart Grand Prix outfit that made its debut in 1997. Jackie Stewart sold his team to the Ford Motor Company late in 1999, Ford made the decision to rebrand the team Jaguar Racing, with little subsequent success over the next five years; the Jaguar Racing Formula One constructor and racing team was put up for sale in September 2004 when its owner, the Ford Motor Company, decided it could "no longer make a compelling business case for any of its brands to compete in F1".
Red Bull, an energy drinks company, agreed its purchase of Jaguar Racing on the final day of the sale, 15 November 2004. BBC Sport reported that Ford asked bidders for a symbolic US$1 in return for a commitment to invest US$400 million in the team over three Grand Prix seasons; the team continued to have access to the Cosworth engine developed for their 2005 chassis, the operation continued under the new title. Christian Horner was installed as the new team boss and lined up David Coulthard and Christian Klien to drive for the team. Red Bull Racing was not the start of Red Bull's involvement in Formula One, as they sponsored Sauber from 1995 to 2004. After buying a Formula One team of its own, Red Bull ended its long-term partnership with the Swiss team; the drinks company runs a young drivers programme, Red Bull Junior Team, whereby Red Bull sponsors promising young drivers. High-profile drivers who have received this backing include Enrique Bernoldi, Christian Klien, Patrick Friesacher, Vitantonio Liuzzi and Scott Speed.
Red Bull sponsors many drivers and teams competing in the Formula 2 Championship, Formula One's "feeder" series. Red Bull's owner, Dietrich Mateschitz tried to recruit former Formula One driver and BMW Motorsport chief Gerhard Berger to help guide the team through its debut season. However, this was never realised. For 2005, the chassis was christened the RB1. Red Bull Racing used Cosworth engines in its maiden year due to the ease of continuing with the engine Jaguar Racing used. Former McLaren driver David Coulthard led the team. Coulthard was chosen for his experience, considered ideal to help lead the fledgling team. For the second car, Red Bull shared the drive between two of its young sponsored drivers: Christian Klien, who had driven for Jaguar in 2004 and 2004 F3000 champion Vitantonio Liuzzi. At first it was announced that Klien and Liuzzi would swap driving duty every four races, but by the end of the season Liuzzi had appeared only four times. Red Bull's first year in Formula One was a massive success compared to their predecessors, Jaguar Racing.
They were 6th in the Constructors' Championship for most of the season, only beaten by the fast-improving BAR Hondas at the end of the season. In a single season they amassed more points than Jaguar had in 2003 and 2004. Coulthard, after a poor 2003 and 2004 with McLaren, was a revelation for the team while Klien showed that he had vastly improved from 2004. Overall they scored 34 points. Red Bull was occasional podium challenger for most of their debut season. American driver Scott Speed, who rose through the ranks in the American equivalent of Red Bull Junior Team, Red Bull Driver Search, was Red Bull Racing's third driver in 2005 for the Canadian and United States Grands Prix. Speed was attractive to Red Bull because of his American nationality, which would raise the profile of both Red Bull and Formula One in America, a market where the sport has traditionally struggled to make an impact. On 23 April 2005, the team announced a deal to use Ferrari engines in 2006; this coincided with a rule change mandating the use of V8 engines, making it that both Red Bull Racing and Ferrari would use the same specification engine.
Red Bull Racing continued to use Michelin tyres, rather than the Bridgestones used by Ferrari. On 8 November 2005, Red Bull Racing poached Adrian Newey, the successful McLaren technical director. On 15 December 2005, the Red Bull RB2, hit the track for the first time. David Coulthard completed a handful of laps of the Silverstone circuit in England, declared the new car was a "sexy looking thing". In early testing Red Bull was plagued with overheating of car components. At the opening race of the 2006 season in Bahrain, Christian Klien qualified eighth. Coulthard had problems when he flat spotted a tyre fighting with Nick Heidfeld, finished 10th. In Malaysia, Coulthard made up several places from back of the grid but was forced to retire with hydraulic problems, while Klien had an opening lap incident with Kimi Räikkönen and after pitting for repairs retired with hydraulic failure. Coulthard got a point in Australia after Scott Speed was penalised for passing him under the yellow flags; the following races were marred with retirements and lowly
1977 Dutch Grand Prix
The 1977 Dutch Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Circuit Zandvoort on 28 August 1977. In qualifying, Mario Andretti took his fifth pole of the season with Jacques Laffite alongside on the front row, James Hunt third. At the start, Hunt jumped both the front row starters to lead but before the end of the first lap, Andretti tried to drive alongside him but some aggressive defending from Hunt forced him to lift, Laffite took advantage to get second. Five laps Andretti had got back past Laffite and was attacking Hunt, who again defended aggressively but this time Andretti did not lift and they collided. Hunt was out on the spot, whereas Andretti rejoined fourth; this left Laffite leading from the Ferraris of Carlos Reutemann. The latter had a long battle with Andretti for third exchanging places, until the Lotus driver's engine blew up. Soon after, Lauda passed Laffite to take the lead, he went on build a gap and win comfortably. Laffite finished second. After Andretti's demise, Reutemann ran third until the second Lotus of Gunnar Nilsson attacked him, the two collided with Nilsson out and Reutemann rejoining at the back.
This sensationally left Patrick Tambay in the Ensign third, but he ran out of fuel on the last lap, thus handing the place to Scheckter. This meant. Brian Henton was disqualified. Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings. Only the best 8 results from the first 9 races and the best 7 results from the remaining 8 races were retained. Numbers without parentheses are retained points.
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company is an American multinational tire manufacturing company founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling and based in Akron, Ohio. Goodyear manufactures tires for automobiles, commercial trucks, light trucks, motorcycles, SUVs, race cars, farm equipment and heavy earth-mover machinery, it produced bicycle tires from its founding until 1976. As of 2017, Goodyear is one of the top four tire manufacturers along with Bridgestone and Continental; the company was named after inventor of vulcanized rubber. The first Goodyear tires became popular because they were detachable and required little maintenance. Goodyear is known for the Goodyear Blimp. Though Goodyear had been manufacturing airships and balloons since the early 1900s, the first Goodyear advertising blimp flew in 1925. Today it is one of the most recognizable advertising icons in America; the company is the most successful tire supplier in Formula One history, with more starts and constructors' championships than any other tire supplier.
They pulled out of the sport after the 1998 season. It is the sole tire supplier for NASCAR series. Goodyear is a former component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average; the company opened a new global headquarters building in Akron in 2013. The first Goodyear factory opened in Akron, Ohio, in 1898; the thirteen original employees manufactured bicycle and carriage tires, rubber horseshoe pads, poker chips. The company grew with the advent of the automobile. In 1901 Frank Seiberling provided Henry Ford with racing tires. In 1903, Paul Weeks Litchfield was granted a patent for the first tubeless automobile tire. By 1908 Ford was outfitting his Model T with Goodyear tires. In 1909 Goodyear manufactured its first aircraft tire. In 1916, Litchfield found land in the Phoenix area suitable for growing long-staple cotton, needed for reinforcing rubber in tires; the 36,000 acres purchased were controlled by the Southwest Cotton Company, formed with Litchfield as president. In 1924, Litchfield, as Goodyear Vice President, forged a joint venture with the German Luftschiffbau Zeppelin Company to form the Goodyear-Zeppelin Corporation.
In the late 1920s to 1940, the company worked with Goodyear to build two Zeppelins in the United States and the Goodyear-Zeppelin Corporation was created to facilitate the relationship. The partnership continued when Zeppelin was under Nazi control and only ended after World War II began. By 1926 Goodyear was the largest rubber company in the world. Only four years earlier it was forced to temporarily halt production of racing tires due to heavy competition; the popularity of the Goodyear tire on the racing circuit led to a popular demand for the return of the brand. On August 5, 1927, Goodyear had its initial public offering and was listed on the New York Stock Exchange. By 1930 Goodyear had pioneered what would become known as "tundra tires" for smaller aircraft — their so-called low inflation pressure "airwheel" aviation wheel-rim/tire sets were available in sizes up to 46 inches in diameter. For the next sixty years Goodyear grew to become a multinational corporation with multibillion-dollar earnings.
It acquired their rival Kelly-Springfield Tire in 1935. During World War II Goodyear manufactured F4U Corsair fighter planes for the U. S. Military. Goodyear ranked 30th among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts. WWII forced the dissolution of the Goodyear-Zeppelin partnership in December 1940. By 1956 they operated a nuclear processing plant in Ohio. In 1944, Goodyear created a subsidiary in Mexico in a joint venture with Compañía Hulera, S. A. de C. V. Compañía Hulera Goodyear-Oxo, S. A. de C. V. or Goodyear-Oxo. Of the five biggest U. S. tire firms in 1970, today only Goodyear remains independent, due to the challenge posed by radial tire technology, the varied responses. At the time, the entire U. S. tire industry produced the older bias-ply technology. Estimates to fit the factories with a new set of machinery and tools for making this new product were between $600 million and $900 million; this was a substantial amount in a low margin business with sales revenue in the low billions.
The U. S. market was shifting towards the radial tire, as had been the case in Europe and Asia. In 1968, Consumer Reports, an influential American magazine, acknowledged the superiority of radial construction, first developed in 1946 by Michelin; when Charles J. Pilliod Jr. became CEO in 1974, he faced a major investment decision regarding the radial tire, which today has a market share of nearly 100%. Despite heavy criticism at the time, Pilliod invested in new factories and tooling to build the radial tire. Sam Gibara, who headed Goodyear from 1996 to 2003, has noted that without the action of Pilliod, Goodyear "wouldn't be around today."Sales for 1969 topped $3 billion, five years sales topped $5 billion and it boasted operations in thirty-four countries. In 1978 the original Akron plant was converted into a Technical Center for design. By 1985 worldwide sales exceeded $10 billion. Goodyear Aerospace, a holding that developed from the Goodyear Aircraft Company after World War II designed a supercomputer for NASA's Goddard Spaceflight Center in 1979, the MPP.
The subsidiary was sold in 1987 to the Loral Corp. as a result of restructuring. In 1987, Goodyear formed a business partnership with Canadian tire retailer Fountain Tire. In October 1986, Goodyear was a victim of a Greenmail attack. British financier James Goldsmith in conjunction with the investment group Hanson purchased 11.5% of Goodyear's outstanding common stock. They threatened to take the company over