Apollophanes

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Apollophanes
Coin of Apollophanes.jpg
Silver drachm of king Apollophanes (r. 35-25 BCE).
Obv: Helmeted bust of king. Greek legend: BASILEOS SOTEROS APOLLOPHANOU "Of Saviour King Apollophanes".
Rev: Pallas with aegis and thunderbolt. Kharoshthi legend: MAHARAJASA TRATARASA APALAVINASA "Saviour king Apollophanes".
Indo-Greek king
Reign 35–25 BCE
Died Mathura
Coin of Apollophanes Soter, Khanroshthi legend: "Maharajasa tratarasa Aplaphanasa" (Saviour King Apollophanes).

Apollophanes Soter (Greek: Ἀπολλοφάνης ὁ Σωτήρ; epithet means "the Saviour"; reigned c. 35 – 25 BCE) was an Indo-Greek king in the area of eastern and central Punjab in modern India and Pakistan.

Rule[edit]

Little is known about him, except for some of his remaining coins, the dating is Osmund Bopearachchi's, but R. C. Senior suggests approximately the same dates. Earlier scholars, such as Professor Ahmed Hasan Dani, W.W. Tarn and A.K. Narain dated Apollophanes considerably earlier, but the style and finding places of his coins make it clear that he belonged to the last line of eastern Indo-Greek kings, not long before they were overcome completely by pressure from the Indo-Scythians.

He may have been a relative of Apollodotus II Soter since both kings share the epithet Soter (Saviour), have names related to Apollo and use Pallas Athene as their reverse.

Coins of Apollophanes[edit]

The boxy mint mark characteristic of Apollophanes and later Indo-Greek kings.

Apollophanes issued a few debased silver drachms of the type seen above, struck with a single monogram and of little artistic quality, he seems to have been an insignificant local ruler. Apollophanes wears what appears to be a Macedonian helmet of the type seen on the Alexander Mosaic which he was the last Indo-Greek ruler to use.

Apollophanes used exclusively a single "boxy" mint-mark, which he had in coming with late Indo-Greek kings.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jakobsson, J (2010). "A Possible New Indo-Greek King Zoilos III, and an Analysis of Realism on Indo-Greek Royal Portraits". Numismatic Chronicle.  JSTOR article
Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek kings, territories and chronology
Based on Bopearachchi (1991)[1]
Greco-Bactrian kings Indo-Greek kings
Territories/
dates
West Bactria East Bactria Paropamisade
Arachosia Gandhara Western Punjab Eastern Punjab Mathura[2]
326-325 BCE Campaigns of Alexander the Great in India Nanda Empire
312 BCE Creation of the Seleucid Empire Creation of the Maurya Empire
305 BCE Seleucid Empire after Mauryan war Maurya Empire
280 BCE Foundation of Ai-Khanoum
255–239 BCE Independence of the
Greco-Bactrian kingdom
Diodotus I
Emperor Ashoka (268-232)
239–223 BCE Diodotus II
230–200 BCE Euthydemus I
200–190 BCE Demetrius I Sunga Empire
190-185 BCE Euthydemus II
190–180 BCE Agathocles Pantaleon
185–170 BCE Antimachus I
180–160 BCE Apollodotus I
175–170 BCE Demetrius II
160–155 BCE Antimachus II
170–145 BCE Eucratides I
155–130 BCE Yuezhi occupation,
loss of Ai-Khanoum
Eucratides II
Plato
Heliocles I
Menander I
130–120 BCE Yuezhi occupation Zoilos I Agathokleia Yavanarajya
inscription
120–110 BCE Lysias Strato I
110–100 BCE Antialcidas Heliokles II
100 BCE Polyxenos Demetrius III
100–95 BCE Philoxenus
95–90 BCE Diomedes Amyntas Epander
90 BCE Theophilos Peukolaos Thraso
90–85 BCE Nicias Menander II Artemidoros
90–70 BCE Hermaeus Archebius
Yuezhi occupation Maues (Indo-Scythian)
75–70 BCE Vonones Telephos Apollodotus II
65–55 BCE Spalirises Hippostratos Dionysios
55–35 BCE Azes I (Indo-Scythians) Zoilos II
55–35 BCE Vijayamitra/ Azilises Apollophanes
25 BCE – 10 CE Gondophares Zeionises Kharahostes Strato II
Strato III
Gondophares (Indo-Parthian) Rajuvula (Indo-Scythian)
Kujula Kadphises (Kushan Empire) Bhadayasa
(Indo-Scythian)
Sodasa
(Indo-Scythian)


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • The Greeks in Bactria and India, W.W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press.
  • The Bactrian and Indus Greeks, Ahmed Hasan Dani, Lahore Museum
  • The Indo-Greeks - Revisited and Supplemented, A.K. Narain, BR Publishing Corporation
  • Monnaies Gréco-Bactriennes et Indo-Grecques, Osmund Bopearachchi, Bibliothèque Nationale de France.
Preceded by:
Zoilos II
Indo-Greek Ruler
(Eastern Punjab)
35–25 BCE
Succeeded by:
Strato II and III
  1. ^ O. Bopearachchi, "Monnaies gréco-bactriennes et indo-grecques, Catalogue raisonné", Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, 1991, p.453
  2. ^ History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE, Sonya Rhie Quintanilla, BRILL, 2007, p.9 [1]