Nuncio is the title for an ecclesiastical diplomat, being an envoy or permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See to a state or international organization. A nuncio is appointed by and represents the Holy See, and is the head of the mission, called an Apostolic Nunciature. The Holy See is legally distinct from the Vatican City or the Catholic Church, a nuncio is usually an archbishop. A papal nuncio is equivalent in rank to that of ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary. A nuncio performs the functions as an ambassador and has the same diplomatic privileges. Under the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, to which the Holy See is a party, the representative of the Holy See in some situations is called a Delegate or, in the case of the United Nations, Permanent Observer. In the Holy See hierarchy, these usually rank equally to a nuncio, in addition, the nuncio serves as the liaison between the Holy See and the Church in that particular nation, supervising the diocesan episcopate and has an important role in the selection of bishops.
The name nuncio is derived from the ancient Latin word, before 1829, Internuncio was the title applied instead to the ad interim head of a mission when one Nuncio had left office and his replacement had not yet assumed it. A legate a latere is a papal representative or a representative for a special purpose. Apostolic delegates have the ecclesiastical rank as nuncios, but have no formal diplomatic status. Archbishop Pio Laghi, for example, was first apostolic delegate, pro-nuncio, to the United States during the Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, Apostolic delegates are sent to regions such as the West Indies and the islands of the Pacific. Alterations in the credentials of a head of mission not involving any change of class shall not affect his precedence and this article is without prejudice to any practice accepted by the receiving State regarding the precedence of the representative of the Holy See. A Holy See Representative is accredited to an organisation where other states dispatch a Permanent Representative
A papal legate or Apostolic legate is a personal representative of the pope to foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church. He is empowered on matters of Catholic Faith and for the settlement of ecclesiastical matters, the legate is appointed directly by the pope. The term legation is applied both to a mandate and to the territory concerned. In the High Middle Ages, papal legates were often used to strengthen the links between Rome and the parts of Christendom. More often than not, legates were learned men and skilled diplomats who were not from the country they were accredited to. The Italian-born Guala Bicchieri served as legate to England in the early 13th century. Papal legates often summoned legatine councils, which dealt with church government, during the Middle Ages, a legatine council was the usual means that a papal legate imposed his directives. There are several ranks of papal legates in diplomacy, some of which are no longer used, a nuncio performs the same functions as an ambassador and has the same diplomatic privileges.
Under the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, to which the Holy See is a party and this highest rank is normally awarded to a priest of cardinal rank. It is an investiture and can either be focused or broad in scope. The legate a latere is the ego of the Pope. The legatus natus would act as the representative in his province. Although limited in their jurisdiction compared to legati a latere, a legatus natus were not subordinate to them, literally sent legate, possessing limited powers for the purpose of completing a specific mission. This commission is normally focused in scope and of short duration, some administrative provinces of the Papal states in Italy were governed by a Papal Legate. This has been the case in Benevento, in Pontecorvo and in Viterbo, in four cases, including Bologna, this post was awarded exclusively to Cardinals, the Velletri post was created for Bartolommeo Pacca. The title could be changed to Apostolic Delegate, as happened in Frosinone in 1827, Papal diplomacy Nuncio – an envoy whose diplomatic status is recognized by the receiving state – usually a titular archbishop.
Papal apocrisiarius List of papal legates to England Other Pontifical legate Catholic Encyclopedia, Legate WorldStatesmen - Italy to 1860 - Papal State Maseri, de Legatis et Nunciis Apostolicis Iudiciis Ecclesiasticis Civilibus et Criminalibus Oneribusque Civitatum Cameralibus et Communitativis. Commentatio Canoncia de Legatis et Nuntiis Pontificum, die englische Legation des Cardinals Guido Fulcodi, des spaeteren P. Clemens IV
Saint Peter, known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simōn pronunciation, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church. Hippolytus of Rome, a 3rd-century theologian, gave him the title of Apostle of the Apostles, according to Catholic teaching, Peter was ordained by Jesus in the Rock of My Church dialogue in Matthew 16,18. He is traditionally counted as the first Bishop of Rome and by Eastern Christian tradition as the first Patriarch of Antioch. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a saint and as founder of the Church of Antioch. The New Testament indicates that Peter was the son of John and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis and his brother Andrew was an apostle. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples, originally a fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration.
According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah, was part of Jesuss inner circle, thrice denied Jesus and wept bitterly once he realised his deed, according to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero Augustus Caesar. It is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, Tradition holds that he was crucified at the site of the Clementine Chapel. His remains are said to be contained in the underground Confessio of St. Peters Basilica. According to Catholic doctrine, the direct successor to Saint Peter is the incumbent pope. Two general epistles in the New Testament are ascribed to Peter, the Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peters preaching and eyewitness memories. Peters original name was Shimon or Simeon and he was given the name Peter, New Testament Greek Πέτρος derived from πέτρα, which means rock. In the Latin translation of the Bible this became Petrus, a form of the feminine petra. Another version of this name is Aramaic, , after his name in Hellenised Aramaic.
The English and German Peter, French Pierre, the Italian Pietro, the Spanish and Portuguese Pedro, the Syriac or Aramaic word for rock is kepa, which in Greek became Πέτρος, meaning rock. He is known as Simon Peter and Kepha, both Cephas and Kepha mean rock. In the New Testament, he is among the first of the disciples called during Jesus ministry, Peter became the first listed apostle ordained by Jesus in the early church. Peter was a fisherman in Bethsaida and he was named Simon, son of Jonah or John
In some religions, an exorcist is a person who is believed to be able to cast out the devil or other demons. A priest, a nun, a monk, a healer, an exorcist is a person who performs the ridding of demons or other supernatural beings who are alleged to have possessed a person, or a building or even an object. In a Roman Catholic context, exorcist may refer to a cleric who has been ordained into the order of exorcist. Since at least the third century, the Latin Church has formally ordained men to the order of exorcist. These exorcists routinely performed ceremonies over adults and infants preparing to be baptised, authors such as Eusebius and Augustine provide details of these minor exorcisms, Eusebius mentions the imposition of hands and prayer. Augustine noted that rites of exorcism by exsufflation were performed for the baptism of infants, by the twentieth century, the order had become purely ceremonial. As a minor order, exorcists wore the surplice and it was left open to the Catholic bishops of individual countries to petition the Vatican to establish a ministry of exorcist if it seemed useful in that nation.
The Eastern Churches did not establish a order of exorcist. In principle, every Christian has the power to command demons, the Catechism of the Catholic Church states that, Jesus performed exorcisms and from him the Church has received the power and office of exorcizing. The revised 1983 Code of Canon Law similarly stated that the bishop is to give this permission only to a presbyter who has piety, prudence, the Catholic Churchs Rite of Exorcism was revised in 1999. Paragraph 13 of its states that a priest can be appointed by the local Bishop either for a single act of exorcism. The Rite specifies that whenever it uses the word exorcist without qualification, among notable exorcists, Gabriele Amorth served as chief exorcist of the Diocese of Rome, he was the founder of the International Association of Exorcists. Beliefs and practices pertaining to the practice of exorcism are prominently connected with the ancient Dravidians in the south, of the four Vedas, the Atharva Veda is said to contain the secrets related to magic and medicine.
Many of the rituals described in this book are for casting out demons and these beliefs are particularly strong and practiced in West Bengal and southern states like Kerala. Vaishnava traditions employ a recitation of names of Lord Narasimha, main Puranic resource on ghost- and death-related information is Garuda Purana. Exorcism Parapsychology Fangxiangshi, a Chinese ritual exorcist An Evening with an Exorcist, thomas J. Euteneuer Exorcisms in the Catholic Church
A pastor is usually an ordained leader of a Christian congregation. When used as an ecclesiastical styling or title, the term may be abbreviated to Pr or Ps, a pastor gives advice and counsel to people from the community or congregation. The word pastor derives from the Latin noun pastor which means shepherd and relates to the Latin verb pascere - to lead to pasture, set to grazing, cause to eat. The term pastor relates to the role of elder within the New Testament, many Protestant churches call their ministers pastors. Present-day usage of the word is rooted in the Biblical image of shepherding, the Hebrew Bible uses the Hebrew word רעה. English-language translations of the New Testament usually render the Greek noun ποιμήν as shepherd, the two words occur a total of 29 times in the New Testament, most frequently referring to Jesus. For example, Jesus called himself the Good Shepherd in John 10,11, the same words in the familiar Christmas story refer to literal shepherds. 1 Corinthians 9,7 - Paul says, of himself and the apostles, in the United States, the term pastor is used by Catholics for what in other English-speaking countries is called a parish priest.
The Latin term used in the Code of Canon Law is parochus, the parish priest is the proper clergyman in charge of the congregation of the parish entrusted to him. Many Protestants use the term pastor as a title or as a job title, United Methodists, for example, ordain to the office of deacon and elder, each of whom can use the title of pastor depending upon their job description. These pastors may be lay people, seminary students, or seminary graduates in the ordination process, and cannot exercise any functions of clergy outside the charge where they are appointed. The use of the pastor can be regional in some denominations, including some parts of the Methodist, Seventh-day Adventist, American Churches of Christ. The use of the pastor to refer to the common Protestant title of modern times dates to the days of John Calvin. Both men, and other Reformers, seem to have revived the term to replace the Catholic priest in the minds of their followers, the pastor was considered to have a role separate from the board of presbyters.
In some Lutheran churches, ordained clergy are called priests, while in others the term pastor is preferred, ordained clergy are called priests in the Episcopal Church, as in all other branches of the Anglican Communion. Bercot, David W. Will The Real Heretics Please Stand Up, newAdvent. org, The Catholic Encyclopedias entry on the term pastor. LifeWay. com, Articles to help the pastor in the roles of preacher, leader and person
A curate is a person who is invested with the care or cure of souls of a parish. In this sense curate correctly means a parish priest, but in English-speaking countries the term curate is used to describe clergy who are assistants to the parish priest. The duties or office of a curate are called a curacy, the term is derived from the Latin curatus. In other languages, derivations from curatus may be used differently, in French, the curé is the chief priest of a parish, as is the Italian curato, the Spanish cure, and the Filipino term kura pároko, which is derived from Spanish. In the Catholic Church, the English word curate is used for a priest assigned to a parish in a subordinate to that of the parish priest. The parish priest is the priest who has responsibility for the parish. He may be assisted by one or more priests, referred to as curates, assistant priests. In the Church of England today, curate refers to priests who are in their first post after ordination, once in possession of their benefices and vicars enjoyed a freehold, and could only be removed after due legal process, and for a restricted number of reasons.
Perpetual curates were placed on a footing in 1838 and were commonly styled vicars. Clergy who assist the curate were, and are, properly called assistant curates, a house provided for an assistant curate is sometimes colloquially called a curatage. Assistant curates are licensed by the bishop, but only at the request of the curate, for example, Geoffrey Francis Fisher served as Curate of Trent near Sherborne after retiring as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1961. With the 1968 Pastoral Measure and subsequent legislation, the Church of England has undergone a process of reform which still continues today. Ministers in the Church of England whose main income comes from sources other than their work as clergy may be termed Self Supporting Ministers or Curate. Terms like rector and curate were carried overseas with the spread of Anglicanism, in Anglican parishes with a Charismatic or evangelical tradition, the roles of curates are usually seen as being an assistant leader to the overall leader, often in a larger team of pastoral leaders.
Many of the larger Charismatic and Evangelical parishes have larger ministry teams with a number of leaders, some ordained. Originally a bishop would entrust a priest with the cure of souls of a parish, when, in medieval Europe, this included the legal freehold of church land in the parish, the parish priest was a perpetual curate, an assistant would be a curate. The words perpetuus and temporalis distinguish their appointments but not the length of service, a curate is appointed by the parish priest and paid from parish funds. A perpetual curate is a priest in charge of a parish who was appointed, as the church became more embedded into the fabric of feudal Europe, various other titles often supplanted curate for the parish priest
Originally, a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. The system of rule of families by senior males is termed patriarchy. The word patriarch originally acquired its religious meaning in the Septuagint version of the Bible, the word has acquired specific ecclesiastical meanings. In particular, the bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church. The office and the circumscription of such a patriarch is termed a patriarchate. Historically, a patriarch has often been the choice to act as ethnarch of the community identified with his religious confession within a state or empire of a different creed. He included in this the western part of North Africa. Justinians system was given formal recognition by the Quinisext Council of 692. Popes have in the past occasionally used the title Patriarch of the West, beginning 1863, this title appeared in the annual reference publication, Annuario Pontificio, which in 1885 became a semi-official publication of the Holy See.
This publication suppressed the title in its 2006 edition, the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity explained the decision in a press release issued that year. It stated that the title Patriarch of the West had become obsolete and practically unusable, since the Second Vatican Council, the Latin Church, with which the title could be considered associated, is now organized as a number of episcopal conferences and their international groupings. The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem The Patriarch of the East Indies a titular see, united to Goa. The Patriarch of Aquileia – with rival line of succession moved to Grado - dissolved in 1752, the Patriarch of Grado – in 1451 merged with the Bishopric of Castello and Venice to form the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Venice. The Patriarch of the West Indies – a titular patriarchal see, the Latin Patriarch of Antioch – title abolished in 1964. The titular Latin Patriarch of Alexandria – title abolished in 1964, the Latin Patriarch of Constantinople – title abolished in 1964.02.24 to Alessandro Cescenzi, former Latin Titular Patriarch of Alexandria, who resigned the title on 1682.01.09.
However, differences exist in the order of precedence and in the mode of accession, no papal confirmation is needed for newly elected patriarchs before they take office. They are just required to petition the pope as soon as possible for the concession of what is called ecclesiastical communion, the five ancient Patriarchates, the Pentarchy, in order of preeminence ranked by the Quinisext Council in 692. The title of patriarch created in 531 by Justinian. The Patriarch of the West, currently not an Episcopal or Patriarchal authority in the Eastern Orthodox Church, following the Great Schism in 1054
An acolyte is an assistant or follower assisting the celebrant in a religious service or procession. In many Christian denominations, an acolyte is anyone who performs duties such as lighting altar candles. In others, the term is used for one who has been inducted into a particular liturgical ministry, the word acolyte is derived from the Greek word ἀκόλουθος, meaning an attendant, via Late Latin acolythus. In the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches, the nearest equivalent of acolyte is the altar server, at one time there was a rank of minor clergy called the taper-bearer responsible for bearing lights during processions and liturgical entrances. However, this rank has long ago been subsumed by that of the reader, the functions of an acolyte or taper-bearer are therefore carried out by readers, subdeacons, or by non-tonsured men or boys who are sometimes called acolytes informally. Also, the term altar-boys is often used to refer to young altar servers, subdeacons wear their normal vestments consisting of the sticharion and crossed orarion and servers traditionally wear the sticharion alone.
In recent times, however, in many of the North American Greek Orthodox Churches, for the sake of uniformity, readers do not cross the orarion while wearing it, the uncrossed orarion being intended to slightly distinguish a reader from a subdeacon. In the Russian tradition, readers wear only the sticharion, if a server has not been tonsured, he must remove the sticharion before he can receive Holy Communion. In the early church, a taper-bearer was not permitted to enter the sanctuary, however, servers are permitted to go in, but they are not permitted either to touch the Holy Table or the Table of Oblation. Until 1972, the acolyte was the holder of the highest of four minor orders, by Pope Paul VIs motu proprio Ministeria quaedam of 15 August 1972, the term minor orders has been replaced by that of ministries. Two such ministries, those of reader and acolyte, are to be throughout the Latin Church. A prescribed interval, as decided by the Holy See and the episcopal conference, is to be observed between receiving them.
Candidates for diaconate and for priesthood must receive both ministries and exercise them for time before receiving holy orders. The two ministries are not reserved solely for candidates for orders, but can be conferred- in their formal, institutional permanent form- only on men. The ministries are conferred by the ordinary, either a bishop or, in the case of religious institutes. The motu proprio assigned to the acolyte the functions previously reserved for the subdeacon, the functions of the acolyte are specified in the motu proprio, and have been indicated in the General Instruction of the Roman Missal, no. 98, which says, The acolyte is instituted to serve at the altar and to assist the priest and deacon. In particular, it is his responsibility to prepare the altar, in the ministry of the altar, the acolyte has his own functions, which he must perform personally
In the Byzantine Empire, an exarch was a governor with extended authority over a province at some distance from the capital Constantinople. The prevailing situation frequently involved him in military operations, in the civil administration of the Byzantine Roman Empire the exarch was, as stated above, the viceroy of a large and important province. After the dissolution of the Western Empire in the fifth century. Justinian I reconquered North Africa, Italy and finally parts of Spain for the Eastern Roman Empire, this put an incredible strain on the Empires limited resources. Subsequent emperors would not surrender the land to remedy the situation. Thus the stage was set for Emperor Maurice to establish the Exarchates to deal with the evolving situation of the provinces. In Italy the Lombards were the opposition to Byzantine power. In North Africa the Amazigh or Berber princes were ascendant due to Roman weakness outside the coastal cities, the problems associated with many enemies on various fronts forced the imperial government to decentralize and devolve power to the former provinces.
The term Exarch most commonly refers to the Exarch of Italy, the exarchates seat was at Ravenna, whence it is known as the Exarchate of Ravenna. Ravenna remained the seat of the Exarch until the revolt of 727 over Iconoclasm, the growing menace of the Lombards and the split between eastern and western Christendom that Iconoclasm caused made the position of the Exarch more and more untenable. The last Exarch was killed by the Lombards in 751, a second exarchate was created by Maurice to administer northern Africa, formerly a separate praetorian prefecture, the islands of the western Mediterranean and the Byzantine possessions in Spain. The capital of the Exarchate of Africa was Carthage, the exarchate proved both financially and militarily strong, and survived until the Arab Muslim conquest of Carthage in 698. The term exarch entered ecclesiastical language at first for a metropolitan with jurisdiction not only for the area that was his as a metropolitan, the advance of Constantinople put an end to these exarchates, which fell back to the state of ordinary metropolitan sees.
But the title of exarch was still used for any Metropolitan. Thus, since the Church of Cyprus was declared autocephalous, its Primate received the title of Exarch of Cyprus, the short-lived medieval Churches of Peć, Ohrid and Tirnova, were governed previously by exarchs, though these prelates assumed the title of patriarch. On the same principle the Archbishop of Mount Sinai and Raithu is an exarch, though in case, as in that of Cyprus. When the Bulgarians reconstituted their national Church in 1870, they obtained from the Ottoman authorities for its head the title of Exarch, not the highest, that of Patriarch. The Bulgarian Exarch, who resided at Constantinople, was the most famous bearer of the title, adherents throughout Macedonia were called exarchists, as opposed to the Greek patriarchists
In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, like the Lutheran Church of Sweden, it is the denomination leader title, an archbishop may be granted the title, or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Episcopal sees are generally arranged in groups in which the bishop who is the ordinary of one of them has certain powers and he is known as the metropolitan archbishop of that see. As well as the more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that have archiepiscopal rank. In some cases, such a see is the one in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco. In others, the title of archdiocese is for reasons attributed to a see that was once of greater importance. Some of these archdioceses are suffragans of a metropolitan archdiocese, an example is the Archdiocese of Avignon, which is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Marseille, Another such example is the Archdiocese of Trnava, Slovakia.
Others are immediately subject to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese and these are usually aggregated to an ecclesiastical province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, the ordinary of such an archdiocese is an archbishop, especially in the Anglican Communion, not all archbishops dioceses are called archdioceses. Since then, the title of Coadjutor Archbishop of the see is considered sufficient, the rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops who are not ordinaries of an archdiocese. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head, the bishop transferred is known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009, the title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is merely that of Bishop of the see, unless he is granted the personal title of Archbishop. The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists for titular sees as well as for residential ones, the Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees of the former class with the abbreviation Metr.
and the others with Arciv. Many of the sees to which nuncios and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not of archiepiscopal rank. In that case the person who is appointed to such a position is given the title of archbishop. They are usually referred to as Archbishop of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop, until 1970, such archbishops were transferred to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of the see, the 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a see, an archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred to another see
Subdeacon is a title used in various branches of Christianity. A subdeacon or hypodeacon is the highest of the orders of clergy in the Orthodox Church. This order is higher than the reader and lower than the deacon, like the reader, the clerical street-dress of the subdeacon is the cassock, which is usually black but only need be so if he is a monk. This is symbolic of his suppression of his own tastes and desires, and his obedience to God, his bishop. As a concession in countries where Orthodoxy is little known, many wear the cassock when attending services or when moving about the faithful on church business. This situation often arises if there is a need for a subdeacon, the reason for this lies in the fact that the canons prohibit subdeacons to marry after their ordination. This latter stipulation has led, in places, to the reservation of the formal ordination service as a stepping-stone for candidates for the priesthood. In the Byzantine Rite, the liturgical role is primarily that of servant to the bishop.
Outside of hierarchical services, the subdeacon serves in the altar as any other server but, in addition to the above duties, the subdeacon may read the reading from the Apostle at the Divine Liturgy if there is only one deacon. For this reason, he has a blessing to touch the Holy Table and the Table of Oblation. He is responsible for the training of new servers, the clerical street-wear of a subdeacon is the inner-cassock and outer cassock. Many wear the cassock only when present among the community or attending to church business. For services, the subdeacon is vested in a sticharion with an orar tied around his waist, up over his shoulders, and with the ends crossed over, the ordination to the subdiaconate is performed outside of the altar and in a context other than the Divine Liturgy. The reader who is to be tonsured subdeacon is presented to the bishop by two other subdeacons, who first lead him to the nave, there he faces east and makes a prostration before turning to make three prostrations towards the bishop, moving further west after each one.
He is led to stand immediately before the bishop, the subdeacons present the orar to the bishop, who blesses it. The ordinand kisses the orar and the hand. The bishop blesses the ordinand three times with the sign of the Cross upon his head, lays his hand upon the ordinands head. The bishop dries his hands and the three subdeacons receive the blessing and kiss his hands