MacOS is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop and home computers, by web usage, it is the second most used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, introduced in 1984, the final release of, Mac OS 9 in 1999; the first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, tvOS; the latest version is macOS Mojave, publicly released in September 2018.
Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced as such; the X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version have UNIX 03 certification. MacOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
A modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion run on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, do not support PowerPC applications. The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, launched in 1989; the kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent and Gershwin projects, but all of them were abandoned.
This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system. This purchase led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals; the project was first code named "Rhapsody" and officially named Mac OS X. Mac OS X was presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9; the letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to a Roman numeral. It is therefore pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is commonly pronounced like the letter "X"; the first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system.
Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'. Apple developed several new releases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's review of version 10.3, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file s
The Mac mini is a desktop computer made by Apple Inc. One of four desktop computers in the current Macintosh lineup, along with the iMac, Mac Pro, iMac Pro, it uses many components featured in laptops to achieve its small size; the current Mac mini, introduced in October 2018, is the fourth generation of the product. First released in 2005, the Mac mini is Apple's only consumer desktop computer since 1998 to ship without a display, keyboard, or mouse. Apple marketed it as BYODKM, pitching it to users switching from a traditional Windows PC. In 2010, a third-generation Mac mini became Apple's first computer with an HDMI video port to connect to a television or other display, more positioning the unit as a home theater device alternative to the Apple TV. A server version of the Mac mini, bundled with the Server edition of the OS X operating system, was offered from 2009 to 2014. A small form factor computer had been speculated and requested long before the release of the Mac mini. Rumors predicted that the "headless iMac" would be small, include no display, would be positioned as Apple's entry-level desktop computer.
On January 10, 2005, the Mac mini was announced alongside the iPod shuffle at the Macworld Conference & Expo and was described by Apple CEO Steve Jobs at the time as "the cheapest, most affordable Mac ever". Its case measured 2.0 × 6.5 × 6.5 inches. The Mac mini is an entry-level computer intended for budget-minded customers; until the 2011 release, the Mac mini had much less processing power than the other computers of the Macintosh lineup. Unlike regular desktop computers, which use standard-sized components such as 3.5-inch hard drives and full-size DIMM's, Apple uses lower-power laptop components in the Mac mini to fit all the necessary components into the small case and to prevent overheating. With the choice of components on the older models, the machine was considered somewhat slower than standard desktop computers, it had less storage and memory than comparable desktops. However, the 2011 upgrade addressed many of these previous complaints. In general, the Mac mini has been praised as a affordable computer with a solid range of features.
However, many agree that it is costly for a computer aimed at the lower segment of the market. It is possible to buy small computers at the same price with faster processors, better graphics card, more memory, more storage; the small size has made the Mac mini popular as a home theater solution. In addition, its size and reliability has helped keep resale values high. On October 22, 2009, Apple introduced a new server version of the Mac mini along with revisions of the computer; this model had a second hard drive instead of an optical drive, was marketed as an affordable server for small businesses and schools. On June 15, 2010, Apple introduced the third-generation Mac mini; the new model was thinner, with a unibody aluminum case designed to be opened for RAM access, incorporated upgraded hardware, such as an HDMI port and Nvidia GeForce 320M graphics. It included an internal power supply. An update announced July 20, 2011, dropped the internal CD/DVD optical drive from all versions and introduced a Thunderbolt port, Intel Core i5 processor, either Intel HD Graphics 3000 integrated graphics or AMD Radeon HD 6630M dedicated graphics.
The Server model was upgraded to a quad-core Intel Core i7 processor. Quad-core i7 CPUs were used in the late-2012 desktop Mac mini computers. In October 2014, Apple refreshed the line, adding Haswell CPUs, improving the graphics, lowering the base-model price by $100; the only change to the body was the removal of the two holes used to open the case, as the RAM was no longer upgradable because it was soldered to the logic board. On October 30, 2018, after four years, the Mac mini got a refresh. With this came major specification upgrades, new colors, a switch to all-flash storage; the RAM was increased to a baseline of 8 GB, a maximum of 64 GB of SO-DIMM DDR4. This shows Apple's trend back toward user-upgrade-ability in their desktop models; the storage was changed to a baseline 128 GB of flash storage, with a max of 2 TB. It has optional 10 Gb Ethernet, HDMI 2.0, a headphone jack, 2 USB 3.1, 4 USB-C Thunderbolt 3 ports. The Bluetooth was upgraded to the 5.0 standard, the Mac itself was made available in space gray.
The baseline retail price is $799 USD. Missing for the 2018 model is the SD card reader, SATA drive bay, IR receiver, optical S/PDIF audio out, audio in; the most notable feature of the Mac mini is its size. The original design measured only 2.0 × 6.5 × 6.5 inches. The exterior of the original Mac mini was made of aluminum capped with polycarbonate plastic on the top and bottom; the original design was not meant to be upgraded by the user. The back of the machine contains the I/O vents for the cooling system, it had an external power supply rated at 85W or 110W. The Mac mini, updated on June 15, 2010, was redesigned, being slimmer than the prior models at only 1.4 inches tall, but wider at 7.7 inches a side. The weight rose from 2.9 to 3.0 pounds. The power supply is now internal as opposed to external; the chassis no longer has the polycarbonate plastic on the bottom. The newer model, introduced July 20, 2011 has the same physical dimensions
The iPod Classic is a portable media player created and marketed by Apple Inc. There were six generations of the iPod Classic, as well as a spin-off, re-integrated into the main iPod line. All generations used a 1.8-inch hard drive for storage. The "classic" suffix was formally introduced with the rollout of the sixth-generation iPod on September 5, 2007. Prior to this, all iPod Classic models were referred to as iPods, it was available in silver or black replacing the "signature iPod white". On September 9, 2014, Apple discontinued the iPod Classic; the sixth-generation 160GB iPod Classic was the last Apple product in the iPod line to use the original 30-pin iPod connector and the iconic Click Wheel. IPods with color displays use text, with sliding animations. All iPods have five buttons and the generations have the buttons integrated into the click wheel — a design which gives an uncluttered, minimalist interface, though the circuitry contains multiple momentary button switches; the buttons are: Menu: to traverse backwards through the menus, toggle the backlight on older iPods, jump to the main menu on newer iPods Center: to select a menu item Play / Pause: this doubles as an off switch when held Skip Forward / Fast Forward Skip Backwards / Fast Reverse The iPod's operating system is stored on its dedicated storage medium.
An additional NOR flash ROM chip contains a bootloader program that tells the device to load its OS from the storage medium. Each iPod has 32 MB of RAM, although the 60GB and 80GB fifth generation, the sixth-generation models have 64 MB. A portion of the RAM is used to hold the iPod OS loaded from firmware, but the majority of it serves to cache songs from the storage medium. For example, an iPod could spin its hard disk up once and copy 30 MB of upcoming songs into RAM, thus saving power by not requiring the drive to spin up for each song. Custom firmware has been developed such as Rockbox and iPodLinux which offer open-source alternatives to the standard firmware and operating system. In March 2002, Apple added limited PDA-like functionality: text files can be displayed, while contacts and schedules can be viewed and synchronized with the host computer; some built-in games are available, including Brick, Solitaire, iPod Quiz. A firmware update released in September 2006 brought some extra features to fifth-generation iPods including adjustable screen brightness, gapless playback, downloadable games.
However, as of September 30, 2011, these games are no longer available on the iTunes Store. Apple introduced the first-generation iPod on October 23, 2001, with the slogan "1,000 songs in your pocket", they went on sale on November 10, 2001. The first iPod had a monochrome LCD screen and featured a 5GB hard drive capable of storing 1,000 songs encoded using MP3 and was priced at US$399. Among the iPod's innovations were its small size, achieved using a 1.8" hard drive, whereas its competitors were using 2.5" hard drives at the time, its easy-to-use navigation, controlled using a mechanical scroll wheel, a center select button, four auxiliary buttons around the wheel. The iPod had a rated battery life of ten hours. On March 20, 2002, Apple introduced a 10GB model of the first-generation iPod for US$499. VCard compatibility was added, as well as allowing iPods to display business card information synced from a Mac; the second-generation of the iPod was introduced on July 17, 2002. Using a similar body style as the first generation, the top of the iPod was redesigned, switching from a single swooping cutout in the back plate to mount the firewire port, hold switch and headphone assembly, to individual ports being cut into the back plate to allow these ports to be accessed.
Furthermore, the hold switch was redesigned, a cover was added to the FireWire port, the mechanical wheel was replaced with a touch-sensitive wheel. The second-generation class was available in 10GB for US$399 and 20GB for US$499; the first-generation 5GB iPod was carried over, but its price was reduced to US$299. Notably, the second-generation iPods and the updated first-generation iPod were now Windows-compatible; these versions were bundled with Musicmatch Jukebox. At that time iTunes was Mac unavailable for Windows. In December 2002, Apple unveiled its first limited edition iPods, with either Madonna’s, Tony Hawk’s, or Beck’s signature or No Doubt's band logo engraved on the back for an extra US$50. On April 29, 2003, Apple announced a redesigned third-generation iPod. Thinner than the previous models, the third-generation models replaced the FireWire port with a new Dock Connector and introduced the Touch Wheel, a non-mechanical interface with the four auxiliary buttons located in a row between the screen and the touch wheel.
The front plate had rounded edges, the rear casing was rounded as well. A new wired remote connector was introduced. Whereas first and second-generation iPods had an auxiliary ring around the headphone port for the remote, the third-generation iPods had a 4-pin jack adjacent to the headphone port. A 10GB model was sold for US$299, a 15GB model for US $399, a 30GB model for US $499. All iPods were now compatible with Mac and Windows out of the box, was requiring Windows users to reformat the iPod before use on a PC and both iTunes and Musicmatch Jukebox were bundled with all iPods; the battery life was reduced to 8 hours due to the use of a lithium-i
Apple Inc. has developed a range of "System on Chip" as well as "System in Package" processors for powering their mobile consumer devices and other tasks. To meet the stringent power and space constraints common to mobile devices, these chips combine a central processing unit with other components into a single compact physical package. Johny Srouji is the executive in charge of Apple's silicon design. Prior to the introduction of the Apple "A" series of SoCs, Apple used several SoCs in early revisions of the iPhone and iPod touch, they were manufactured by Samsung. They integrate a single ARM-based processing core, a graphics processing unit, other electronics necessary to provide mobile computing functions within a single physical package; the APL0098 is a package on package system on a chip, introduced on June 29, 2007 at the launch of the original iPhone. It includes a 412 MHz single-core ARM11 CPU and a PowerVR MBX Lite GPU, it was manufactured by Samsung on a 90 nm process. The first generation iPod touch used it.
The APL0278 is a package on package system on a chip, introduced on September 9, 2008 at the launch of the second generation iPod touch. It includes a 533 MHz single-core ARM11 CPU and a PowerVR MBX Lite GPU, it was manufactured by Samsung on a 65 nm process. The APL0298 is a package on package system on a chip, introduced on June 8, 2009 at the launch of the iPhone 3GS, it includes a 600 MHz single-core Cortex-A8 CPU and a PowerVR SGX535 GPU. It was manufactured by Samsung on a 65 nm process; the APL2298 is a 45 nm die shrunk version of the iPhone 3GS SoC and was introduced on September 9, 2009 at the launch of the third generation iPod touch. The Apple "A" series is a family of "Systems on Chip" used in multiple devices, including some of Apple's portable devices such as certain models of the iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, the Apple TV digital media player, they integrate one or more ARM-based processing cores, a graphics processing unit, cache memory and other electronics necessary to provide mobile computing functions within a single physical package.
They are designed by Apple, manufactured by Samsung and TSMC. The Apple A4 is a package on package system on a chip designed by Apple Inc. and manufactured by Samsung. It combines an ARM Cortex-A8 CPU with a PowerVR GPU, emphasizes power efficiency; the chip commercially debuted with the release of Apple's iPad tablet. It was superseded in the iPad 2, released the following year, by the Apple A5 processor. Apple A4 is based on the ARM processor architecture; the first version released ran at 1 GHz for the iPad and contains an ARM Cortex-A8 CPU core paired with a PowerVR SGX 535 graphics processor built on Samsung's 45-nanometer silicon chip fabrication process. The clock speed for the units used in the iPhone 4 and the iPod touch is 800 MHz; the clock speed for the unit used in the Apple TV has not been revealed. The Cortex-A8 core used in the A4 is thought to use performance enhancements developed by chip designer Intrinsity, subsequently acquired by Apple, in collaboration with Samsung; the resulting core, dubbed "Hummingbird", is able to run at far higher clock rates than other implementations while remaining compatible with the Cortex-A8 design provided by ARM.
Other performance improvements include additional L2 cache. The same Cortex-A8 CPU core used in the A4 is used in Samsung's S5PC110A01 SoC; the SGX535 in the A4 could theoretically push 35 million polygons per second and 500 million pixels per second, although real world performance may be less. The A4 processor package supports PoP installation. Hence, there is a package with two low-power 128 MB DDR SDRAM chips mounted on top of the A4 used in the first-generation iPad, the fourth-generation iPod touch, the second-generation Apple TV; the iPhone 4 has two 256 MB packages for a total of 512 MB. The RAM is connected to the processor using ARM's 64-bit-wide AMBA 3 AXI bus. To support the iPad's demand for high graphics bandwidth, the width of the RAM data bus is double that used in previous ARM11 and ARM9 based Apple devices; the Apple A5 is a system on a chip designed by Apple Inc. and manufactured by Samsung that replaced the A4. The chip commercially debuted with the release of Apple's iPad 2 tablet in March 2011, followed by its release in the iPhone 4S smartphone that year.
Apple claims that compared with its predecessor, the A4, the A5 CPU "can do twice the work" and the GPU has "up to nine times the graphics performance". The A5 contains a dual-core ARM Cortex-A9 CPU with ARM's advanced SIMD extension, marketed as NEON, a dual core PowerVR SGX543MP2 GPU; this GPU can push between 70 and 80 million polygons/second and has a pixel fill rate of 2 billion pixels/second. Apple lists the A5 to be clocked at 1 GHz on the iPad 2's technical specifications page, though it can dynamically adjust its frequency to save battery life; the clock speed of the unit used in the iPhone 4S is 800 MHz. Like the A4, the A5 process size is 45 nm. An updated 32 nm version of the A5 processor was used in the third generation Apple TV, the iPod touch, the iPad Mini, the new version of iPad 2; the chip in the Apple TV has one core locked. The markings of the square package indicates that it is named APL2498, in software, the chip is called S5L8942; the 32 nm variant of the A5 provides around 15% better battery life during web browsing, 30% better when playing 3D games and 20%
IPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. All generations of the iPhone use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software; the first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases have been released since. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard; the iPhone can connect to cellular networks. An iPhone can shoot video, take photos, play music and receive email, browse the web and receive text messages, follow GPS navigation, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, receive visual voicemail. Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps; as of January 2017, Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone. Apple has released twelve generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the twelve major releases of the iOS operating system.
The original first-generation iPhone was a GSM phone and established design precedents, such as a button placement that has persisted throughout all releases and a screen size maintained for the next four iterations. The iPhone 3G added 3G network support, was followed by the 3GS with improved hardware, the 4 with a metal chassis, higher display resolution and front-facing camera, the 4S with improved hardware and the voice assistant Siri; the iPhone 5 featured Apple's newly introduced Lightning connector. In 2013, Apple released the 5S with improved hardware and a fingerprint reader, the lower-cost 5C, a version of the 5 with colored plastic casings instead of metal, they were followed by the larger iPhone 6, with models featuring 4.7-and-5.5-inch displays. The iPhone 6S was introduced the following year, which featured hardware upgrades and support for pressure-sensitive touch inputs, as well as the SE—which featured hardware from the 6S but the smaller form factor of the 5S. In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which add water resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new rear dual-camera setup on the Plus model, new color options, while removing the 3.5 mm headphone jack found on previous models.
The iPhone 8 and 8 Plus were released in 2017, adding a glass back and an improved screen and camera. The iPhone X was released alongside the 8 and 8 Plus, with its highlights being a near bezel-less design, an improved camera and a new facial recognition system, named Face ID, but having no home button, therefore, no Touch ID. In September 2018, Apple again released 3 new iPhones, which are the iPhone XS, an upgraded version of the since discontinued iPhone X, iPhone XS Max, a larger variant with the series' biggest display as of 2018 and iPhone XR, a lower end version of the iPhone X; the original iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry. Subsequent iterations of the iPhone have garnered praise; the iPhone is one of the most used smartphones in the world, its success has been credited with helping Apple become one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies. Development of what was to become the iPhone began in 2004, when Apple started to gather a team of 1,000 employees to work on the confidential "Project Purple."
Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet towards a phone. Apple created the device during a secretive collaboration with Cingular Wireless at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months. According to Steve Jobs, the "i" word in "iMac" stands for internet, instruct and inspire. Apple rejected the "design by committee" approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, a unsuccessful collaboration with Motorola. Among other deficiencies, the ROKR E1's firmware limited storage to only 100 iTunes songs to avoid competing with Apple's iPod nano. Cingular gave Apple the liberty to develop the iPhone's hardware and software in-house and paid Apple a fraction of its monthly service revenue, in exchange for four years of exclusive US sales, until 2011. Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007, at the Macworld 2007 convention at the Moscone Center in San Francisco; the two initial models, a 4 GB model priced at US$499 and an 8 GB model at US$599, went on sale in the United States on June 29, 2007, at 6:00 pm local time, while hundreds of customers lined up outside the stores nationwide.
The passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone resulted in sections of the media dubbing it the'Jesus phone'. Following this successful release in the US, the first generation iPhone was made available in the UK, Germany in November 2007, Ireland and Austria in the spring of 2008. On July 11, 2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G including the original six. Apple released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty territories. Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8, 2009, along with plans to release it in June and August, starting with the US, Canada and major European countries on June 19. Many would-be users objected to the iPhone's cost, 40% of users had household incomes over US$100,000; the back of the original first generation iPhone was made of aluminum with a black plastic accent. The iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to increase the strength of the GSM signal; the iPhone 3G was available in
Outline of Apple Inc.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Apple Inc.: Apple Inc. is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, personal computers. The company's best-known hardware products are the Macintosh line of computers, the iPod, the iPhone and the iPad, its best-known software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media browser. As of March 2014, Apple has 425 retail stores in 16 countries, an online store. Macintosh – a family of personal computers designed and marketed by Apple. IMac – this line of all-in-one Macintosh desktop computers has been Apple's primary consumer desktop offering since its introduction in 1998. IMac Pro – Similar in design to the iMac, but with a workstation-class Intel Xeon W processor and higher memory and graphics options. MacBook family – Macintosh notebook computers that merged the PowerBook and iBook lines during Apple's transition to Intel processors. MacBook – line of ultraportable Macintosh notebook computer introduced in March 2015.
MacBook Air – line of ultraportable Macintosh notebook computers introduced in January 2008. MacBook Pro – line of Macintosh portable computers introduced in January 2006, it replaced the PowerBook G4. Mac Mini – small form factor desktop computer. Mac Pro – Workstation-class hardware specifications based on Intel Xeon microprocessors. Commercially successful families of Apple computers from the 20th century include the Apple II series, Compact Macintosh, Macintosh II, Macintosh LC, Macintosh Performa, Macintosh Quadra, Power Macintosh, PowerBook. IOS – mobile operating system for the iPhone and iPod Touch, extended to support other Apple devices such as the iPad, Apple TV, Apple Watch. Called "iPhone OS". Apple TV – A digital media receiver, it is a small form factor network appliance designed to play digital content originating from the iTunes Store, YouTube, MobileMe, MLB.tv, NBA League Pass, NHL GameCenter, or any macOS or Windows computer running iTunes onto an enhanced-definition or high-definition widescreen television.
Apple Watch. In size and weight, it falls between laptop computers. IPad – the first iPad released with a 9.7-inch display, a lithium-ion polymer battery that lasts up to 10 hours, a dual core Apple A4 processor, no cameras. Started the whole tablet marketplace of portable computing devices. IPad 2 – second generation iPad, with a lithium-ion polymer battery that lasts up to 10 hours, a dual core Apple A5 processor and VGA front-facing and 720p rear-facing cameras designed for FaceTime video calling. IPad – third generation iPad, it adds a Retina Display, the new Apple A5X chip with integrated quad-core graphics processor, a 5-megapixel camera, full HD 1080p video recording, voice dictation, 4G LTE. iPad – fourth generation iPad. Keeping the Retina Display, with a new Apple A6X chip with integrated a quad-core graphics processor, a 5 MP camera, full HD 1080p video recording rear camera and 1.2 MP still/720p HD video front camera, with improved 4G LTE connectivity. IPad Air – fifth generation iPad.
Lighter and smaller dimensions, following the design of the iPad Mini keeping the Retina Display, using a new 64-bit Apple A7 chip featured in the iPhone 5S and 2nd generation iPad Mini, with integrated a quad-core graphics processor, retaining a 5 MP camera, full HD 1080p video recording rear camera and 1.2 MP still/720p HD video front camera, improved 4G LTE connectivity. IPad Air 2 – sixth generation iPad. Thinner than the iPad Air, same design as the iPad Air and keeping the Retina Display, using a new 64-bit Apple A8X chip with integrated octa-core graphics processor, an 8 MP camera, full HD 1080p video recording rear camera and 1.2 MP still/720p HD video front camera. New addition include the Touch ID sensor compatible with Apple Pay. iPad Mini – smaller screen version of the larger iPad, same line of tablet computers specialized for audio-visual media including books, movies, games and web content. In size and weight, it falls between laptop computers. IPad Mini – first smaller generation iPad with non-Retina 7.9-inch display.
Uses older Apple A5 chip with integrated a dual-core graphics processor, a 5 MP camera, full HD 1080p video recording rear camera and 1.2 MP still/720p video front camera, with improved 4G LTE connectivity. IPad Mini – second generation with Retina Display keeping 7.9-inch display. Uses same Apple A7 chip with integrated a dual-core graphics processor as iPhone 5S and the larger iPad Air, retains same 5 MP camera, with further improved 4G LTE connectivity. IPad Mini – third generation with Retina Display keeping 7.9-inch display. Uses same Apple A7 chip with integrated a dual-core graphics processor as previous iPad Mini, new addition include the Touch ID sensor compatible with Apple Pay. iPad Mini 4 – fourth generation with Retina Display keeping 7.9-inch display, with anti-glare coating. Uses the 64-bit Apple A8 chip and Apple M8 motion co-processor. IPad Pro - larger screen version of the smaller iPad, same line of tablet computers specia
The Macintosh is a family of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984. The original Macintosh was the first mass-market personal computer that featured a graphical user interface, built-in screen and mouse. Apple sold the Macintosh alongside its popular Apple II family of computers for ten years before they were discontinued in 1993. Early Macintosh models were expensive, hindering its competitiveness in a market dominated by the Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses. Macintosh systems still found success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. In the early 1990s, Apple introduced models such as the Macintosh LC II and Color Classic which were price-competitive with Wintel machines at the time. However, the introduction of Windows 3.1 and Intel's Pentium processor which beat the Motorola 68040 in most benchmarks took market share from Apple, by the end of 1994 Apple was relegated to third place as Compaq became the top PC manufacturer.
After the transition to the superior PowerPC-based Power Macintosh line in the mid-1990s, the falling prices of commodity PC components, poor inventory management with the Macintosh Performa, the release of Windows 95 saw the Macintosh user base decline. Prompted by the returning Steve Jobs' belief that the Macintosh line had become too complex, Apple consolidated nearly twenty models in mid-1997 down to four in mid-1999: The Power Macintosh G3, iMac, 14.1" PowerBook G3, 12" iBook. All four products were critically and commercially successful due to their high performance, competitive prices and aesthetic designs, helped return Apple to profitability. Around this time, Apple phased out the Macintosh name in favor of "Mac", a nickname, in common use since the development of the first model. Since their transition to Intel processors in 2006, the complete lineup is based on said processors and associated systems, its current lineup includes four desktops, three laptops. Its Xserve server was discontinued in 2011 in favor of the Mac Mac Pro.
Apple has developed a series of Macintosh operating systems. The first versions had no name but came to be known as the "Macintosh System Software" in 1988, "Mac OS" in 1997 with the release of Mac OS 7.6, retrospectively called "Classic Mac OS". In 2001, Apple released Mac OS X, a modern Unix-based operating system, rebranded to OS X in 2012, macOS in 2016; the current version is macOS Mojave, released on September 24, 2018. Intel-based Macs are capable of running non-Apple operating systems such as Linux, OpenBSD, Microsoft Windows with the aid of Boot Camp or third-party software. Apple produced a Unix-based operating system for the Macintosh called A/UX from 1988 to 1995, which resembled contemporary versions of the Macintosh system software. Apple does not license macOS for use on non-Apple computers, however System 7 was licensed to various companies through Apple's Macintosh clone program from 1995 to 1997. Only one company, UMAX Technologies was licensed to ship clones running Mac OS 8.
Since Apple's transition to Intel processors, there is a sizeable community around the world that specialises in hacking macOS to run on non-Apple computers, which are called "Hackintoshes". The Macintosh project began in 1979 when Jef Raskin, an Apple employee, envisioned an easy-to-use, low-cost computer for the average consumer, he wanted to name the computer after his favorite type of apple, the McIntosh, but the spelling was changed to "Macintosh" for legal reasons as the original was the same spelling as that used by McIntosh Laboratory, Inc. the audio equipment manufacturer. Steve Jobs requested that McIntosh Laboratory give Apple a release for the newly spelled name, thus allowing Apple to use it; the request was denied, forcing Apple to buy the rights to use this name. In 1978, Apple began to organize the Apple Lisa project, aiming to build a next-generation machine similar to an advanced Apple II or the yet-to-be-introduced IBM PC. In 1979, Steve Jobs learned of the advanced work on graphical user interfaces taking place at Xerox PARC.
He arranged for Apple engineers to be allowed to visit PARC to see the systems in action. The Apple Lisa project was redirected to utilize a GUI, which at that time was well beyond the state of the art for microprocessor capabilities. Things had changed with the introduction of the 32-bit Motorola 68000 in 1979, which offered at least an order of magnitude better performance than existing designs, made a software GUI machine a practical possibility; the basic layout of the Lisa was complete by 1982, at which point Jobs's continual suggestions for improvements led to him being kicked off the project. At the same time that the Lisa was becoming a GUI machine in 1979, Jef Raskin started the Macintosh project; the design at that time was for a easy-to-use machine for the average consumer. In