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Appanage

An appanage, or apanage, is the grant of an estate, office or other thing of value to a younger child of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture. It was common in much of Europe; the system of appanage influenced the territorial construction of France and the German states and explains why many of the former provinces of France had coats of arms which were modified versions of the king's arms. Late Latin *appanaticum, from appanare or adpanare'to give bread', a pars pro toto for food and other necessities, hence for a "subsistence" income, notably in kind, as from assigned land. An appanage was a concession of a fief by the sovereign to his younger sons, while the eldest son became king on the death of his father. Appanages were considered as part of the inheritance transmitted to the puîsné sons; these lands could not be sold, neither hypothetically nor as a dowry, returned to the royal domain on the extinction of the princely line. Daughters were excluded from the system: Salic law generally prohibited daughters from inheriting land and from acceding to the throne.

The system of appanage has played a important role in France. It developed there with the extension of royal authority from the 13th century disappeared from the late Middle Ages with the affirmation of the exclusive authority of the royal state, it influenced the territorial construction, explaining the arms of several provinces. The prerogative of Burgundy is the origin of the Belgian and Dutch States, through the action of its dukes favored by their position in the court of the kings of France. Appanages were used to sweeten the pill of the primogeniture, it has traditionally been used to prevent the revolt of younger sons who would otherwise have no inheritance, while avoiding the weakening of the kingdom by equal division. Indeed, according to Frankish custom, the inheritance was to be divided among the surviving sons; the kingdom was considered family property, so many divisions occurred under the Merovingians, under the rule of the Carolingians in which the Treaty of Verdun of 843 gave birth to independent territories.

The consequences of equal division led to the adoption of the appanage system, which has the advantage of diverting the claim of younger sons to the crown, the inheritance of the eldest. In addition, over time, the system guarantees the unity of the royal domain to the senior heir. Hugh Capet was elected King of the Franks on the death of Louis V in 987; the Capetian dynasty broke away from the Frankish custom of dividing the kingdom among all the sons. The eldest son alone received the royal domain except for the appanages. Unlike their predecessors, their hold on the crown was tenuous, they could not afford to divide the kingdom among all their sons, the royal domain was small, inititially consisting of the Île-de-France. Most of the Capetians endeavored to add to the royal domain by the incorporation of additional fiefs, large or small, thus obtained the direct lordship over all of France; the first king to create an appanage is Henry I of France in 1032, when he gave the Duchy of Burgundy to his brother Robert, Robert I of Burgundy, whose descendants retained the duchy until 1361 with the extinction of the first Capetian House of Burgundy by the death of Philip de Rouvres.

Louis VIII and Louis IX created appanages. The king who created the most powerful appanages for his sons was John II of France, his youngest son, Philip the Bold, founded the second Capetian House of Burgundy in 1363. By marrying the heiress of Flanders, Philip became ruler of the Low Countries. King Charles V in vain. Provinces conceded in appanage tended to become de facto independent and the authority of the king was recognized there reluctantly. In particular the line of Valois Dukes of Burgundy caused considerable trouble to the French crown, with which they were at war in open alliance with the English. Theoretically appanages could be reincorporated into the royal domain but only if the last lord had no male heirs. Kings tried as much as possible to rid themselves of the most powerful appanages. Louis XI retook the Duchy of Burgundy at the death of Charles the Bold. Francis I confiscated the Bourbonnais, after the treason in 1523 of his commander in chief, Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, the'constable of Bourbon'.

The first article of the Edict of Moulins declared that the royal domain could not be alienated, except in two cases: by interlocking, in the case of financial emergency, with a perpetual option to repurchase the land. The apanagist therefore could not separate himself from his appanage in any way. After Charles V of France, a clear distinction had to be made between titles given as names to children in France, true appanages. At their birth the French princes received a title independent of an appanage. Thus, the Duke of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV, never possessed Anjou and never received any revenue from th

Tacubaya

Tacubaya is an area of Mexico City located in the west, in the borough of Miguel Hidalgo, consisting of the colonia Tacubaya proper and adjacent areas in other colonias, with San Miguel Chapultepec sección II, Daniel Garza and Ampliación Daniel Garza being considered part of Tacubaya. The area has been inhabited since the fifth century BCE, its name comes from Nahuatl, meaning “where water is gathered.” From the colonial period to the beginning of the 20th century, Tacubaya was an separate entity to Mexico City and many of the city’s wealthy, including viceroys, built residences here to enjoy the area’s scenery. From the mid-19th century on, Tacubaya began to urbanize both due to the growth of Mexico City and the growth of its own population. Along with this urbanization, the area has degraded into one of the poorer sections of the city and contains the “La Ciudad Perdida”, a shantytown where people live in shacks of cardboard and other materials. Many of the mansions that were built here in the 19th century remain, such as the Casa Amarilla and Casa de la Bola, but most Mexico City residents are familiar with it due to its transportation hub on Avenida Jalisco where the Metro and many street buses all converge.

This area was designated as a "Barrio Mágico" by the city in 2011. Archeological evidence shows continuous human habitation here since between 450 and 250 BCE by the Chichimecas; this prehistoric settlement divided into a ceremonial center in the north and housing in the south, showing signs of influence from the Teotihuacan culture. The Mexica first arrived in 1276 but left in 1279, when they moved on to Chapultepec, its original Nahuatl name was Acozcomac renamed Atlalcuihaya. The name comes from Nahuatl and means “where water is gathered.” The second name was Hispanicized to Tacubaya when the Spanish built a monastery here called San José de Tacubaya in the early colonial period. The area was important to the Spaniards in the early colonial period. After the Conquest, the Spanish founded several churches and large mansions in this area. Viceroys spent time here because of its natural beauty; as a result, the area became divided between the rich and poor. Tacubaya consisted of wide, flat land and had free flowing rivers that supplied fresh water to Mexico City.

Moving the capital of New Spain from Mexico City to Tacubaya was considered early in the colonial period but it never happened. After the end of the Mexican War of Independence in the 19th century, Tacubaya remained a popular getaway for the wealthy. Over the 19th century, as communal property rights were dismantled in favor of private property, many of the well-to-do bought land here for second homes, making it a summer-home suburb of Mexico City; this was the scene of the Plan of Tacubaya. In 1861, Benito Juárez named it Tacubaya de los Mártires in honor of those who lost their lives on 11 April 1859. Tacubaya remained a rural suburb of Mexico City until the second half of the 19th century; the urbanization of Tacubaya was a gradual process that occurred from this time until about 1930. This urbanization was the result of both the growth of Tacubaya's population and the growth of Mexico City proper, both of which changed the economic and political scene here. Community property was dismantled in favor of private property by the Liberals in order to promote economic development.

This brought foreign investment which led to the establishment of immigrant communities of Spaniards. This pushed the indigenous population to the periphery of the municipality. Development of the economy led to the establishment of rail and trolley lines, as well as streets and roads for automobiles; the creation of the Departmento del Distrito Federal eliminated the municipal government structure here, integrated the area politically with the city. Tacubaya became an important commercial center for Mexico City, linking the city with the west of the country. In the early 20th century, the first tall structure of the Mexico City area was built here, called the Ermita Conjunto or Triángulo de Tacubaya, at the vanguard architecturally at the time in Art Deco style. For many years, this building housed the Teatro Hipódromo. Other major constructions such as El Jardin followed, transforming the formally-rural nature of the area; the main river through here is the Tacubaya River, but since the 1970s this river has been channelled into tunnels underneath the streets.

Tacubaya is the home of boxer Finito López. Films such as Los Olvidados, Amores Perros, Perfume de Violetas have been shot here. Since its height in the late 19th and early 20th century, this area has degraded considerably; the stately mansions that line the sides of the Alameda and used to house the political and intellectual elite now sit among garbage and drug trafficking. There have been attempts to clean the area up and restore it, but there are disputes between residents and the borough of Miguel Hidalgo as to how to do this. Residents want the federal agency INAH to intervene to protect buildings such as the Justo Sierra House, now a primary school, the Parish of La Candelaria, over 450 years old; the borough of Miguel Hidalgo has established a “consejo ciudadano” or citizen’s council to allow public participation in the “Renace” Project. The goals are to work on issues such as peddlers, pothole repair and the maintenance of historic buildings; the Alameda Tacubaya Park is located on Avenida Revolución, between Parque Lira and José María Vigil.

When this neighborhood was at its height, the park was surrounded by mansions with large gardens, where the political and intellectual

Nicolae Vogoride

Prince Nicolae Vogoride, was a caimacam who ruled Moldavia between 1857–1858, following the Crimean War. He was the son of Stefan Bogoridi, an Ottoman high official of Bulgarian ethnicity who served as Moldavia's governor in 1820–1821, brother of Alexander Bogoridi, his mother was Ralou Skilitzi. In 1856, as Prince Grigore Alexandru Ghica was removed by the Treaty of Paris, although Moldavia remained technically under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, Vogoride was appointed as finance minister under the new government of caimacam Teodor Balş; when Balş died on March 1, 1857, Vogoride replaced him. He showed himself to be an ultra-conservative, was against the union of Moldavia with Wallachia, the other Danubian Principality — the union project was advanced by the Romanian liberals who had taken part in the 1848 Moldavian revolution and, returning from exile, were organizing themselves as Partida Naţională; the Treaty of Paris required elections for the Moldavian Assembly, to be supervised by the Ottoman ambassadors of the signing parties.

When these were held on July 19 of that year, Vogoride rigged the election lists to ensure a conservative majority with a strong Ottoman bias. When Sultan Abdülmecid I, with the assurances of Imperial Austria, did not void the election, Moldavia's other overseers broke diplomatic relations with the Ottoman Empire on August 4. Not unsurprisingly, the majority of those elected were in favor of the union of the two principalities. Vogoride was removed from office in October 1858. Vogoride studied in the Greek Orthodox College in Constantinople and married into the wealthy Conachi family, sometimes thereafter used the name Nicolae Conachi-Vogoride, his wife was Princess Ecaterina Conachi, they had four children: Prince Emanoil, Prince Constantin, Princess Maria and Princess Lucia. He died in Bucharest, his burial was in 1863 at Brăila. One year his wife Princess Ecaterina married Emanuele Ruspoli, 1st Prince of Poggio Suasa. Mormantul printului Vogoride descoperit in cimitirul Sf. Constantin at hotnews.ro This article is based in part on material from the Bulgarian Wikipedia

Ginger Cow

"Ginger Cow" is the sixth episode in the seventeenth season of the American animated television series South Park. The 243rd episode of the series overall, it first aired on Comedy Central in the United States on November 6, 2013. In the episode, Cartman modifies a cow to make it look like a ginger as a joke. However, various religious groups see this as a prophecy being fulfilled and peace is brought to the Middle East. At South Park Elementary, Cartman announces that he wishes to apologize to Kyle, saying that Kyle was correct the previous day when he told Cartman that humans are not the only animals that can have light skin and freckles. Telling them that he has discovered a ginger cow, Cartman takes his classmates to a nearby farm, where he shows them a cow, given a red wig and painted white with giant red "freckles". Though Kyle sees through this obvious prank, Cartman insists to his credulous classmates that it is real. News of the cow spreads across the globe and is interpreted as the fulfillment of a Biblical prophecy regarding a red heifer that signals the end times, prompting mass suicides.

Kyle is called to Mr. Mackey's office, where he is introduced to three Israeli rabbis, who explain the prophecy to him. Kyle tries to convince them that the red heifer is a forgery on Cartman's part, but the farm where the cow is located becomes a pilgrimage site where large numbers of Jews and Christians congregate, each claiming the cow for their respective religions. However, when the three religious sects meet to plan Armageddon, they realize that they are negotiating in a civil manner and that the prophecy may have meant that the cow would signal the end of war, not the end of the world; the congregants agree to sacrifice the cow in order to fulfill the prophecy. Peace is achieved in the Middle East among the three Abrahamic religions, who morph the cross, Star of David, Islamic crescent moon into a new unifying symbol—the logo of the band Van Halen, which appears on a stage to commence a 10-year concert in Israel. Cartman appears at Kyle's house and admits that the cow was a forgery and states that he intends to admit this publicly.

Realizing that this revelation may ruin the interfaith peace that the forgery achieved, Kyle asks him not to. Cartman agrees to withhold this information, on condition that Kyle do everything that Cartman says, which includes indignities such as insulting his own mother Sheila to her face, performing menial tasks and humiliating himself in public by allowing Cartman to fart in his face and claiming that he enjoys it. Kyle, conflicted over the morality of the deception, experiences a vision of a spirit that praises his sacrifice and compels him to shave his head. However, Stan becomes critical of Kyle, telling him that while publicly claiming to like Cartman's farts is his prerogative, the self-righteous manner that he has adopted when doing so is not. Kyle is unmoved, Stan, noting that Kyle's odd behavior began with the peace in the Middle East, seeks to investigate. Kyle and Cartman travel to Israel, where Cartman intends to further humiliate Kyle by having him endure his farts and claim to enjoy it on a stage before thousands of people.

Their demonstration is interrupted, however, by a broadcast hosted by Anderson Cooper, in which Stan intends to expose the truth about Cartman's red cow. Kyle, speaking to Stan by cell phone, explains why he has been enduring Cartman's abuse and convinces Stan not to expose the truth, in order to preserve the new peace. Acquiescing to this, Stan instead announces in the broadcast that he saw the cow descend miraculously from heaven. However, the prophecy stated that a fat child with a small penis would disguise a cow to look ginger, not that one would just miraculously fall from the sky; the short-lived peace among the three religions falls apart. Kyle, realizing that the prophecy has occurred, tries to convince the rabbis that this is what happened, but Cartman refuses to corroborate this, claiming, "I have a huge dick." South Park co-creators Trey Parker and Matt Stone reveal on the DVD commentary for "Ginger Cow" the origin of the episode. Stone had been reading about how the red heifer relates to religions and thought they could make a big story about it.

Parker and Stone felt. They said they thought they could have gotten a lot of mileage out of the main premise, with Parker saying it could have been a film, they were forced to cut a lot of content to condense the episode to the standard runtime of around twenty-one minutes. Max Nicholson of IGN gave the episode a score of 7.5 out of 10, stating that it "touches on some great ideas that would have benefited from more time". Ryan McGee of The A. V. Club gave the episode a B+ rating, stating: "'Ginger Cow' comes close to utterly succeeding on several occasions, but settles for being fascinating. There are some great ideas here that no amount of screen time would sufficiently answer, but those ideas still needed more screen time to sufficiently debate. Still, in a season as subpar as this has been, it’s heartening to see the show can still recapture some of its past heights this late in the game." "Ginger Cow" Full episode at South Park Studios. "Ginger Cow" on IMDb "Ginger Cow" at TV.com

2009 in World Victory Road

The year 2009 is the 2nd year in the history of World Victory Road, a mixed martial arts promotion based in Japan. In 2009 World Victory Road held 9 events beginning with, World Victory Road Presents: Sengoku Rebellion 2009. World Victory Road Presents: Sengoku no Ran 2009 was an event held on January 4, 2009 at the Saitama Super Arena in Saitama City, Japan. World Victory Road Presents: Gold Rush Korea was an event held on March 11, 2009 at the Team Maru Training Center in Seoul, South Korea. World Victory Road Presents: Sengoku 7 was an event held on March 20, 2009 at the Yoyogi National Gymnasium in Tokyo, Japan. World Victory Road Presents: Sengoku 8 was an event held on May 2, 2009 at the Yoyogi National Gymnasium in Tokyo, Japan. World Victory Road Presents: Sengoku Gold Cup Semi Finals was an event held on June 16, 2009 at PS Lab in Yokohama, Japan. World Victory Road Presents: Sengoku 9 was an event held on September 2, 2009 at the Saitama Super Arena in Saitama City, Japan. World Victory Road Presents: Sengoku 10 was an event held on September 23, 2009 at the Saitama Super Arena in Saitama City, Japan.

World Victory Road Presents: Sengoku 11 was an event held on November 7, 2009 at Ryogoku Kokugikan in Tokyo, Japan. Dynamite!! The Power of Courage 2009 was a mixed martial arts and kickboxing event promoted by Fighting and Entertainment Group, was an event held on December 31, 2009 at the Saitama Super Arena in Saitama, Japan; the event included bouts that encompass the DREAM, Sengoku Raiden Championship, K-1, K-1 World MAX banners. The event aired on HDNet in North America. World Victory Road

Little Anderson Island

Little Anderson Island is an island, with an area of 13 ha, in south-eastern Australia. It is part of Tasmania’s Tin Kettle Island Group, lying in eastern Bass Strait between Flinders and Cape Barren Islands in the Furneaux Group; the island is joined at low tide to nearby Anderson and Tin Kettle Islands by extensive intertidal mudflats. The island is part of the Franklin Sound Islands Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because it holds over 1% of the world populations of six bird species. Recorded breeding seabird and wader species are little penguin, sooty oystercatcher and pied oystercatcher. Reptiles present include spotted skink and Bougainville's skink. List of islands of Tasmania