Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Champagne (wine region)
The Champagne wine region is a wine region within the historical province of Champagne in the northeast of France. The area is best known for the production of the white wine that bears the regions name. EU law and the laws of most countries reserve the term Champagne exclusively for wines that come from this region located about 100 miles east of Paris, the towns of Reims and Épernay are the commercial centers of the area. Located at the edges of France, the history of the Champagne wine region has had a significant role in the development of this unique terroir. The areas proximity to Paris promoted the economic success in its wine trade but put the villages. The principal grapes grown in the region include Chardonnay, Pinot noir, Pinot noir is the most widely planted grape in the Aube region and grows very well in Montagne de Reims. Pinot Meunier is the dominant grape in the Vallée de la Marne region, the Côte des Blancs is dedicated almost exclusively to Chardonnay. The Champagne province is located near the limits of the wine world along the 49th parallel.
The high altitude and mean temperature of 10 °C creates a difficult environment for wine grapes to fully ripen. Ripening is aided by the presence of forests which helps to stabilize temperatures, the cool temperatures serve to produce high levels of acidity in the resulting grape which is ideal for sparkling wine. During the growing season, the mean July temperature is 18 °C, the average annual rainfall is 630 mm, with 45 mm falling during the harvest month of September. Throughout the year, growers must be mindful of the hazards of fungal disease, ancient oceans left behind chalk subsoil deposits when they receded 70 million years ago. Earthquakes that rocked the region over 10 million years ago pushed the marine sediments of belemnite fossils up to the surface to create the belemnite chalk terrain. The belemnite in the soil allows it to heat from the sun. This soil contributes to the lightness and finesse that is characteristic of Champagne wine, the Aube area is an exception with predominately clay based soil.
The chalk is used in the construction of underground cellars that can keep the wines cool through the bottle maturation process. The tradition of crowning kings at Reims contributed to the reputation of the wines that came from this area, the Counts of Champagne ruled the area as an independent county from 950 to 1316. In 1314, the last Count of Champagne assumed the throne as King Louis X of France, the location of Champagne played a large role in its historical prominence as it served as a crossroads for both military and trade routes
Sherry is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the town of Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, Spain. Sweet dessert wines are made from Pedro Ximenez or Moscatel grapes. The word Sherry is an anglicisation of Xeres, Sherry was previously known as sack, from the Spanish saca, meaning extraction from the solera. In 1933 the Jerez Denominación de Origen was the first Spanish denominación to be recognised in this way. Jerez-Xeres-Sherry and sharing the same governing council as D. O, after fermentation is complete, the base wines are fortified with grape spirit in order to increase their final alcohol content. Wines classified as suitable for aging as Fino and Manzanilla are fortified until they reach an alcohol content of 15.5 per cent by volume. As they age in barrel, they develop a layer of flor—a yeast-like growth that helps protect the wine from excessive oxidation and those wines that are classified to undergo aging as Oloroso are fortified to reach an alcohol content of at least 17 per cent.
They do not develop flor and so oxidise slightly as they age, because the fortification takes place after fermentation, most sherries are initially dry, with any sweetness being added later. In contrast, port wine is fortified halfway through its fermentation, Sherry is regarded by many wine writers as underappreciated and a neglected wine treasure. Jerez has been a centre of viniculture since wine-making was introduced to Spain by the Phoenicians in 1100 BC, the practice was carried on by the Romans when they took control of Iberia around 200 BC. The Moors conquered the region in AD711 and introduced distillation, during the Moorish period, the town was called Sherish, from which both Sherry and Jerez are derived. Wines similar in style to Sherry have traditionally made in the city of Shiraz in mid-southern Iran. Wine production continued through five centuries of Arab Empires rule, in 1264 Alfonso X of Castile took the city. From this point on, the production of sherry and its export throughout Europe increased significantly, by the end of the 16th century, sherry had a reputation in Europe as the worlds finest wine.
Christopher Columbus brought sherry on his voyage to the New World, Sherry became very popular in Great Britain, especially after Francis Drake sacked Cadiz in 1587. At that time Cadiz was one of the most important Spanish seaports, among the spoils Drake brought back after destroying the fleet were 2,900 barrels of sherry that had been waiting to be loaded aboard Spanish ships. This helped to popularize Sherry in the British Isles, because sherry was a major wine export to the United Kingdom, many English companies and styles developed. Many of the Jerez cellars were founded by British families, in 1894 the Jerez region was devastated by the insect phylloxera
Hungary is a unitary parliamentary republic in Central Europe. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a member state of the European Union. The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken language in Europe. Hungarys capital and largest metropolis is Budapest, a significant economic hub, major urban areas include Debrecen, Miskolc, Pécs and Győr. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended to the throne in 1000, converting the country to a Christian kingdom, by the 12th century, Hungary became a middle power within the Western world, reaching a golden age by the 15th century. Hungarys current borders were established in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon after World War I, when the country lost 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, following the interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a four-decade-long communist dictatorship.
On 23 October 1989, Hungary became again a democratic parliamentary republic, in the 21st century, Hungary is a middle power and has the worlds 57th largest economy by nominal GDP, as well as the 58th largest by PPP, out of 188 countries measured by the IMF. As a substantial actor in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds 36th largest exporter and importer of goods, Hungary is a high-income economy with a very high standard of living. It keeps up a security and universal health care system. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and part of the Schengen Area since 2007, Hungary is a member of the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe and Visegrád Group. Well known for its cultural history, Hungary has been contributed significantly to arts, literature and science. Hungary is the 11th most popular country as a tourist destination in Europe and it is home to the largest thermal water cave system, the second largest thermal lake in the world, the largest lake in Central Europe, and the largest natural grasslands in Europe.
The H in the name of Hungary is most likely due to historical associations with the Huns. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Medieval Greek Oungroi, according to an explanation the Greek name was borrowed from Proto-Slavic Ǫgǔri, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. The Hungarians likely belonged to the Onogur tribal alliance and it is possible they became its ethnic majority. The Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of magyar and ország, the word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri
A Chianti wine Italian pronunciation, is any wine produced in the Chianti region, in central Tuscany, Italy. Baron Bettino Ricasoli created the Chianti recipe of 70% Sangiovese, 15% Canaiolo, the first definition of a wine-area called Chianti was made in 1716. It described the area near the villages of Gaiole and Radda, in 1932 the Chianti area was completely re-drawn and divided in seven sub-areas, Colli Aretini, Colli Fiorentini, Colline Pisane, Colli Senesi, Montalbano and Rùfina. Most of the villages that in 1932 were suddenly included in the new Chianti Classico area added in Chianti to their name-such as Greve in Chianti which amended its name in 1972, wines labelled Chianti Classico come from the biggest sub-area of Chianti, that includes the original Chianti heartland. In 1996 part of the Colli Fiorentini sub-area was renamed Montespertoli, during the 1970s producers started to reduce the quantity of white grapes in Chianti. In 1995 it became legal to produce a Chianti with 100% Sangiovese, for a wine to retain the name of Chianti, it must be produced with at least 80% Sangiovese grapes.
Aged Chianti, may be labelled as Riserva, Chianti that meets more stringent requirements may be labelled as Chianti Superiore, although Chianti from the Classico sub-area is not allowed in any event to be labelled as Superiore. The earliest documentation of a Chianti wine dates back to the 13th century when viticulture was known to flourish in the Chianti Mountains around Florence, the merchants in the nearby townships of Castellina and Radda formed the Lega del Chianti to produce and promote the local wine. In 1398, records note that the earliest incarnation of Chianti was as a white wine, subsequent expansions in 1967 would eventually bring the Chianti zone to cover a very large area all over central Tuscany. By the 18th century, Chianti was widely recognised as a red wine and it was not until the work of the Italian statesman Bettino Ricasoli that the modern Chianti recipe as a Sangiovese-based wine would take shape. Prior to Ricasoli, Canaiolo was emerging as the dominant variety in the Chianti blend with Sangiovese, in the mid-19th century, Ricasoli developed a recipe for Chianti that was based primarily on Sangiovese.
His recipe called for 70% Sangiovese, 15% Canaiolo, 10% Malvasia, in 1967, the Denominazione di origine controllata regulation set by the Italian government firmly established the Ricasoli formula of a Sangiovese-based blend with 10–30% Malvasia and Trebbiano. The late 19th century saw a period of economic and political upheaval, first came oidium and the phylloxera epidemic would take its toll on the vineyards of Chianti just as they had ravaged vineyards across the rest of Europe. The chaos and poverty following the Risorgimento heralded the beginning of the Italian diaspora that would take Italian vineyard workers and winemakers abroad as immigrants to new lands. Those that stayed behind and replanted choose high-yielding varieties like Trebbiano, following the Second World War, the general trend in the world wine market for cheap, easy-drinking wine saw a brief boom for the region. With over-cropping and an emphasis on quantity over quality, the reputation of Chianti among consumers eventually plummeted, by the 1950s, Trebbiano made up to 30% of many mass-market Chiantis.
By the late 20th century, Chianti was often associated with basic Chianti sold in a squat bottle enclosed in a straw basket, called a fiasco. However, during the period, a group of ambitious producers began working outside the boundaries of DOC regulations to make what they believed would be a higher quality style of Chianti
Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers and it was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I signed separate treaties, although the armistice, signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919 and this article, Article 231, became known as the War Guilt clause. The treaty forced Germany to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions, in 1921 the total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion marks. On the other hand, prominent figures on the Allied side such as French Marshal Ferdinand Foch criticized the treaty for treating Germany too leniently, although it is often referred to as the Versailles Conference, only the actual signing of the treaty took place at the historic palace.
Most of the negotiations were in Paris, with the Big Four meetings taking place generally at the Quai dOrsay, the First World War was fought across Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Countries beyond the war zones were affected by the disruption of trade, finance. In 1917, two revolutions occurred within the Russian Empire, which led to the collapse of the Imperial Government, the American war aim was to detach the war from nationalistic disputes and ambitions after the Bolshevik disclosure of secret treaties between the Allies. The existence of these treaties tended to discredit Allied claims that Germany was the power with aggressive ambitions. On 8 January 1918, United States President Woodrow Wilson issued a statement that became known as the Fourteen Points and this speech outlined a policy of free trade, open agreements and self-determination. After the Central Powers launched Operation Faustschlag on the Eastern Front and this treaty ended the war between Russia and the Central powers and annexed 1,300,000 square miles of territory and 62 million people.
During the autumn of 1918, the Central Powers began to collapse, desertion rates within the German army began to increase, and civilian strikes drastically reduced war production. On the Western Front, the Allied forces launched the Hundred Days Offensive, sailors of the Imperial German Navy at Kiel mutinied, which prompted uprisings in Germany, which became known as the German Revolution. The German government tried to obtain a settlement based on the Fourteen Points. Following negotiations, the Allied powers and Germany signed an armistice, the terms of the armistice called for an immediate evacuation of German troops from occupied Belgium and Luxembourg within fifteen days. In addition, it established that Allied forces would occupy the Rhineland, in late 1918, Allied troops entered Germany and began the occupation. Both the German Empire and Great Britain were dependent on imports of food and raw materials, primarily from the Americas, the Blockade of Germany was a naval operation conducted by the Allied Powers to stop the supply of raw materials and foodstuffs reaching the Central Powers
Canadian wine is produced in mainly southern British Columbia and southern Ontario. There is a number of small scale producers of grapes and wine in southern Quebec. The three largest wine-producing regions in Canada are the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, the Niagara Peninsula of Ontario, other areas in Ontario include Prince Edward County. The Canadian wine industry vinifies imported grapes and juice and these products are labeled Cellared in Canada and are not required to conform to the strict Vintners Quality Alliance content regulations. Icewine, which can be produced reliably in most Canadian wine regions, Canada produced 75.9 million litres of wine in 2002. Fruit wineries and meaderies are increasingly common in Alberta and Manitoba, Canadian wine has been produced for over 200 years. Early settlers tried to cultivate Vitis vinifera grapes from Europe with limited success and they found it necessary to focus on the native species of Vitis labrusca and Vitis riparia along with various hybrids.
However, the market was limited for such wines because of their peculiar taste which was often called foxy, this became less apparent when the juice was made into Port- and Sherry-styled wines. During the first half of the century, the temperance movement and consumer demand for fortified. However, during the 1960s consumer demand shifted from sweet and fortified wines to drier and lower alcohol table wines, at the same time, there were significant improvements in wine-making technology, access to better grape varieties and disease-resistant clones, and systematic research into viticulture. After the repeal of prohibition in Canada in 1927, provinces strictly limited the number of licences to produce wine. A nearly 50-year moratorium on issuing new winery licences was finally dropped in 1974, during the same decade, demonstration planting began to show that Vitis vinifera could be successfully grown in Canada. Other growers found that high quality wines could be produced if Vitis vinifera vines were grown with reduced yields, new trellising techniques, and appropriate canopy management.
In 1988, three important events occurred, the trade with the United States, the establishment of the Vintners Quality Alliance standard. Each of these served in one way or another to improve the viability of the wine industry in Canada. While there are many small Canadian wineries, the wine market has long been dominated by two companies, Vincor International and Andres Wines. Some Canadian wine is exported to the United States, Canada shipped US$4.9 million worth of wine to the United States in 2001. Icewine is an export product for Canadian wineries
Lake Erie is the fourth-largest lake of the five Great Lakes in North America, and the thirteenth-largest globally if measured in terms of surface area. It is the southernmost and smallest by volume of the Great Lakes, at its deepest point Lake Erie is 210 feet deep. Lake Eries northern shore is bounded by the Canadian province of Ontario, with the U. S. states of Ohio and these jurisdictions divide the surface area of the lake by water boundaries. The lake was named by the Erie people, a Native Americans people who lived along its southern shore and that Iroquoian tribe called it Erige because of its unpredictable and sometimes violently dangerous nature. It is a matter of whether the lake was named after the tribe. Situated below Lake Huron, Eries primary inlet is the Detroit River, Lake Erie has a mean elevation of 571 feet above sea level. It has an area of 9,990 square miles with a length of 241 statute miles. The warm summer of 1999 caused lake temperatures to come close to the 85 °F limit necessary to keep the plants cool, because of its shallowness, and in spite of being the warmest lake in the summer, it is the first to freeze in the winter.
The waves build very quickly, according to other accounts, after being trapped for an hour-and-a-half, Baker was back on dry land and battered but alive. This area is known as the thunderstorm capital of Canada with breathtaking lightning displays. Lake Erie is primarily fed by the Detroit River and drains via the Niagara River, navigation downstream is provided by the Welland Canal, part of the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Other major contributors to Lake Erie include the Grand River, the Huron River, the Maumee River, the Sandusky River, the Buffalo River, the drainage basin covers 30,140 square miles. Point Pelee National Park, the southernmost point of the Canadian mainland, is located on a peninsula extending into the lake. Several islands are found in the end of the lake, these belong to Ohio except for Pelee Island and eight neighboring islands. Major cities along Lake Erie include Buffalo, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Islands tend to be located in the western side of the lake and total 31 in number.
The island-village of Put-in-Bay on South Bass Island attracts young crowds who sometimes wear red hats and are prone to break off cartwheels in the park. Pelee Island is the largest of Eries islands, accessible by ferry from Leamington and Sandusky, songbirds migrate to Pelee in spring, and monarch butterflies stop over during the fall. Lake Erie has a retention time of 2.6 years
German wine classification
The German wine classification system puts a strong emphasis on standardization and factual completeness, and was first implemented per the German Wine Law of 1971. In a country as far north as Germany, the ripeness of grapes varies tremendously and profoundly affects the types of wine that can be produced. The ripeness categories are referred to as quality levels, which is a misnomer - ripeness is always a clue to a wines body, ripeness is determined by sugar content at harvest and does not reflect the sugar content in the final wine. Thus a wine in any of the German categories can be dry or fairly dry The quality system of wines has been reorganized since 1 August 2009 by the EU wine market organization, the traditional German wine classification was superseded by an origin-related system. The already existing protection of geographical indication was transmitted through this step as well to the wine classification, there are two major categories of German wine, table wine and quality wine.
Table wine includes the designations tafelwein and landwein and these are rock bottom categories of inexpensive, neutral wine. In 2005, Tafelwein and Landwein only accounted for 3. 6% of total production, quality wine is divided into two types, Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete, or quality wine from a specific region. This is wine from one of the 13 wine-growing regions, and it is a basic level of everyday, mostly inexpensive quaffing wines. The grapes are at a low level of ripeness, with must weights of 51°Oe to 72°Oe. The alcohol content of the wine must be at least 7% by volume, QbA range from dry to semi-sweet, and the style is often indicated on the label, along with the designation Qualitätswein and the region. Some top-level dry wines are officially QbA although they would qualify as Prädikatswein, Prädikatswein, renamed from Qualitätswein mit Prädikat in August 2007 Translated as quality wine with specific attributes, this is the top level of German wines. These prominently display a Prädikat on the label and may not be chaptalized, Prädikatswein range from dry to intensely sweet, but unless it is specifically indicated that the wine is dry or off-dry, these wines always contain a noticeable amount of residual sugar.
Spätlese - meaning late harvest typically half-dry, often sweeter and fruitier than Kabinett, the grapes are picked at least 7 days after normal harvest, so they are riper. While waiting to pick the grapes carries a risk of the crop being ruined by rain, in warm years, Spätlese can be a relatively full-bodied dry wine if designated so. While Spätlese means late harvest the wine is not as sweet as a dessert wine, Auslese - meaning select harvest made from very ripe, hand selected bunches, typically semi-sweet or sweet, sometimes with some noble rot character. Sometimes Auslese is made into a dry wine. Auslese is the Prädikat which covers the widest range of wine styles, Beerenauslese - meaning select berry harvest made from overripe grapes individually selected from bunches and often affected by noble rot, making rich sweet dessert wine. Eiswein made from grapes that have been frozen on the vine
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Rioja is a wine region in Spain, with Denominación de Origen Calificada. Rioja wine is made from grapes grown in the communities of La Rioja and Navarre. Rioja is further subdivided into three zones, Rioja Alta, Rioja Baja and Rioja Alavesa, many wines have traditionally blended fruit from all three regions, though there is a slow growth in single-zone wines. The harvesting of wine in La Rioja has an ancient lineage with origins dating back to the Phoenicians, as was the case in many Mediterranean lands in mediaeval times, monks were the main practitioners of winemaking in La Rioja and great advocates of its virtues. In the thirteenth century, Gonzalo de Berceo, clergyman of the Suso Monastery in San Millán de la Cogolla and Spains earliest known poet, in the year 1063, the first testimony of viticulture in La Rioja appears in the Carta de población de Longares. The King of Navarra and Aragon gave the first legal recognition of Rioja wine in 1102, from the 15th century on, the Rioja Alta specialized in wine growing.
In 1560, harvesters from Longares chose a symbol to represent the quality of the wines, in 1635, the mayor of Logroño prohibited the passing of carts through streets near wine cellars, in case the vibrations caused a deterioration of the quality of the wine. Several years later, in 1650, the first document to protect the quality of Rioja wines was drawn up, the Society was established to promote the cultivation and commercialisation of Rioja wines and 52 Rioja localities participated. In 1852, Luciano Murrieta created the first fine wine of the Duque de la Victoria area, in 1892, the Viticulture and Enology Station of Haro was founded for quality-control purposes. In 1902, a Royal Decree determining the origin of Rioja wines is promulgated, the Consejo Regulador was created in 1926 with the objective of limiting the zones of production, expanding the warranty of the wine and controlling the use of the name Rioja. This Council became legally structured in 1945 and was inaugurated in 1953. In 1970 the Regulations for Denominación de Origen were approved as well as Regulations for the Regulating Council, in 1991, the prestigious Calificada nomination was awarded to La Rioja, making it Spains first Denominación de Origen Calificada.
In 2008, the Regulatory Council for the La Rioja Denomination of Origin created a new logo to go on all bottles of wine produced under this designation, from now on bottles of wine from the La Rioja Qualified Denomination of Origin will no longer bear the familiar logo. In an attempt to appeal to younger wine-lovers, the logo will now be replaced with a brighter. The aim is to reflect the new, modern aspects of wine-growing in La Rioja without detracting from the traditional wines, in theory, the new logo represents a Tempranillo vine symbolising “heritage and dynamism”. Consumers should start seeing the labels in October 2008, the Joven from 2008, Crianza from 2006, Reserva from 2005, and Gran Reserva from 2003 being released this year should bear the new label, in theory. Located south of the Cantabrian Mountains along the Ebro river, La Rioja benefits from a continental climate, the mountains help to isolate the region which has a moderating effect on the climate. They protect the vineyards from the winds that are typical of northern Spain