Appellation d'origine protégée (Switzerland)
In Switzerland, the appellation d'origine protégée is a geographical indication protecting the origin and the quality of traditional food products other than wines. In the past, the appellation d'origine contrôlée certification was used for both wines and other food products. In 2013, to match the system of the European Union, the appellation d'origine contrôlée was replaced by the appellation d'origine protégée for agricultural products other than wine; the appellation d'origine protégée certifies that "everything, from the raw material to the processing and the final product, comes from one defined region of origin". The indication géographique protégée certifies that products were "either manufactured, processed or prepared at their place of origin"; the appellation d'origine contrôlé certifies wines. Cardon épineux genevois Munder Safran Rheintaler Ribelmais Abricotine Damassine Eau-de-vie de poire du Valais Zuger / Rigi Kirsch Pain de seigle valaisan Poire à BotziCheesesBerner Alpkäse Bloderkäse-Sauerkäse Emmentaler L'Etivaz Formaggio d'alpe ticinese Glarner Alpkäse Gruyère Raclette du Valais Sbrinz Tête de Moine Vacherin fribourgeois Vacherin Mont-d'or Bois du Jura Boutefas Bündner Bergkäse Huile de noix de Sévery Jambon de la borne St.
Galler Alpkäse Cuchaule, dossier has been transferted to the Federal Office for Agriculture the 22 April 2016 Bündnerfleisch Glarner Kalberwurst Jambon cru du Valais Longeole Lard sec du Valais St. Galler Bratwurst Saucisse d'Ajoie Saucisse aux choux vaudoise Saucisson neuchâtelois et Saucisse neuchâteloise Saucisson vaudois Viande séchée du Valais Zuger Kirschtorte Appenzeller Mostbröckli Appenzeller Siedwurst Appenzeller Pantli Berner Zungenwurst Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union Culinary Heritage of Switzerland Stéphane Boisseaux and Dominique Barjolle, La bataille des AOC en Suisse. Les appellations d'origine contrôlées et les nouveaux terroirs, collection « Le savoir suisse », Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, 2004
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Le Puy-en-Velay is a commune in the Haute-Loire department in south-central France near the Loire river. Its inhabitants are called Ponots; the city is famous for its cathedral, for a kind of lentil, for its lace-making. Le Puy-en-Velay was a major bishopric in medieval France, founded early, its early history is legendary. According to a martyrology compiled by Ado of Vienne, published in many copies in 858, supplemented in the mid-10th century by Gauzbert of Limoges, a priest named George accompanied a certain Front, the first Bishop of Périgueux, when they were sent to proselytize in Gaul. Front was added to the list of the apostles to Gaul, who in tradition are described as being sent out to reorganize Christians after the persecutions that are associated with Decius, circa 250; as with others of the group, notably Saint Martial of Limoges mythology pushed the activities of Saint Front and the priest George back in time. It tells; the expanding legend of this St. George, according to the Church historian Duchesne is not earlier than the 11th century makes that saint one of the Seventy Apostles of the Gospel of Luke.
It tells that he founded the church of the que dicitur Vetula in pago Vellavorum, the city "called Vetula in the pays of the Vellavi" was how a document of 1004 termed it. This was. Vetula means "the old woman", pagans were still making small images of her as late as the 6th century in Flanders, according to the vita of Saint Eligius; this was the first cathedral at Le Puy. Following St. George the founder medieval local traditions evoke a legendary list of bishops at this chief town of the pays of Le Velay: Macarius, Roricius, Eusebius and Vosy, all of them canonized by local veneration; the Gaulish settlement of Ruessium/Vellavorum was given its Christianizing name, Saint-Paulien, from Bishop Paulianus. A bishop Evodius attended the Council of Valence in 374. In the early 1180s peasants of Le Puy, led by a carpenter named Durandus, formed a conspiratio called the Capucciati, they challenged seigneurial dominance in a short-lived attempt at reformation. The Christianization legends of Mons Anicius relate that at the request of Bishop Martial of Limoges, Bishop Evodius/Vosy ordered an altar to the Virgin Mary to be erected on the pinnacle that surmounts Mont Anis.
Some such beginning of the shrine Christianized the pagan site. This marked one starting-point for the pilgrim route to Santiago de Compostela, a walk of some 1600 km, as it still does today; the old town of Le Puy developed around the base of the cathedral. Pilgrims came early to Le Puy, this was the most popular destination in France during the Middle Ages. Charlemagne came twice, in 772 and 800. There is a legend that in 772, he established a foundation at the cathedral for ten poor canons, he chose Le Puy, with Aachen and Saint-Gilles, as a center for the collection of Peter's Pence. Charles the Bald visited Le Puy in 877, count of Paris in 892, Robert II in 1029, Philip Augustus in 1183. Louis IX met James I of Aragon there in 1245, in 1254, when passing through Le Puy on his return from the Holy Land, he gave the cathedral an ebony image of the Blessed Virgin clothed in gold brocade, she is one of the many dozens of venerable "Black Virgins" of France. It was destroyed during the Revolution, but replaced at the Restoration with a copy that continues to be venerated.
After him, Le Puy was visited by Philip the Bold in 1282, by Philip the Fair in 1285, by Charles VI in 1394, by Charles VII in 1420, by Isabelle Romée, the mother of Joan of Arc, in 1429. Louis XI made the pilgrimage in 1436 and 1475, in 1476 halted three leagues from the city and walked barefoot to the cathedral. Charles VIII visited it in 1495, Francis I in 1533; the legendary early shrine on the summit of Mons Anicius, which drew so many, would seem to predate the founding of an early church of Our Lady of Le Puy at Anicium. It was attributed to Bishop Vosy. Crowning the hill was a megalithic dolmen. A local tradition rededicated the curative virtue of the sacred site to Mary, who cured ailments when a person touched the standing stone; when the founding bishop Vosy climbed the hill, he found. The Bishop was apprised in a vision that the angels themselves had dedicated the future cathedral to the Blessed Virgin, whence the epithet "Angelic" given to the cathedral of Le Puy; the great dolmen was left standing in the center of the Christian sanctuary, constructed around it.
By the 8th century, the stone, popularly known as the "stone of visions", was taken down and broken up. Its pieces were incorporated into the floor of a particular section of the church that came to be called the Chambre Angélique, or the "angels' chamber." It is impossible to say whether this St. Evodius is the same person who signed the decrees of the Council of Valence in 374. Neither can it be affirmed that St. Benignus, who in the 7th century founded a hospital at the gates of the basilica, St. Agrevius, the 7th-century martyr from whom the town of Saint-Agrève Chiniacum took its name, were bishops. Duchesne thinks that the chronology of these early bishops rests on littl
Hautes-Alpes is a department of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur in southeastern France named after the Alps mountain range. Hautes-Alpes is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it consists of the southeast of the north of Provence. At the time when the department was created, the two mountain communes of La Grave and Villar-d'Arêne campaigned to be included in Hautes-Alpes and not in the neighbouring department of Isère to which they had been assigned; this was because they hoped to benefit from the relative autonomy and certain fiscal privileges enjoyed by the region since the fourteenth century under the terms of the Statute of the Briançon Escartons. Napoleon passed through Gap when he returned to reclaim France after his exile on Elba using what is now known as Route Napoléon; the department is surrounded by the following French departments: Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Drôme, Isère, Savoie. Italy borders it on the east with the Metropolitan City of Turin and the Province of Cuneo, region of Piedmont.
Hautes-Alpes is located in the Alps mountain range. The average elevation is over 1000 m, the highest elevation is over 4000 m; the only three sizable towns are Gap, Briançon, Embrun, the subprefecture until 1926. The third highest commune in all of Europe is the village of Saint-Véran. Gap and Briançon are subprefecture in France; the following rivers flow through the department: Durance Guisane Buëch Drac Clarée SéveraisseThe Durance has been dammed to create one of the largest artificial lakes in Western Europe: the Lac de Serre-Ponçon. The Queyras valley is located in the eastern part of the department and is noted by many as being an area of outstanding beauty; the inhabitants of the department are called Haut-Alpins. The mountainous terrain explains the sparse population, about 120,000, it changed little during the 19th century, but fell to about 85,000 after World War I. Thanks in large part to tourism, the population has risen from 87,436 in 1962 to 121,419 in 1999, principally in the town of Gap.
The President of the General Council is Jean-Yves Dusserre of the Union for a Popular Movement. The tourist industry is dependent on skiing in winter. In summer the Alpine scenery and many outdoor activities attract visitors from across Europe; the Tour de France passes through the department regularly. This draws many cycling fanatics to watch the race. Cantons of the Hautes-Alpes department Communes of the Hautes-Alpes department Arrondissements of the Hautes-Alpes department Hautes-Alpes at Curlie Official Website Prefecture website General Council webstite A village in the French Alps built by Vauban
Calvados is an apple or pear brandy from the Normandy region in France. Apple orchards and brewers are mentioned as far back as the 8th century by Charlemagne; the first known Norman distillation was carried out by Gilles Picot, Lord de Gouberville, in 1553, the guild for cider distillation was created about 50 years in 1606. In the 17th century, the traditional cider farms expanded, but taxation and prohibition of cider brandies were enforced elsewhere than Brittany and Normandy; the area called "Calvados" was created after the French Revolution, but eau de vie de cidre was called calvados in common usage. In the 19th century, output increased with industrial distillation and the working class fashion for café-calva; when a phylloxera outbreak in the last quarter of the 19th century devastated the vineyards of France and Europe, calvados experienced a "golden age". During World War I, cider brandy was requisitioned for use in armaments due to its alcohol content; the appellation contrôlée regulations gave calvados a protected name in 1942.
After the war, many cider houses and distilleries were reconstructed in the Pays d'Auge. Many of the traditional farmhouse structures were replaced by modern agriculture with high output; the calvados appellation system was revised in 1984 and 1996. Pommeau got its recognition in 1991. Cider brandy is made in the UK, appears in records going back to 1678. Somerset cider brandy gained European protected geographical indication status in 2011. Calvados is distilled from cider made from specially grown and selected apples, from over 200 named varieties, it is not uncommon for a calvados producer to use over 100 specific varieties of apples, which are either sweet, tart, or bitter, the latter being inedible. The fruit is harvested and pressed into a juice, fermented into a dry cider, it is distilled into eau de vie. After two years of aging in oak casks, it can be sold as calvados; the longer it is aged, the smoother the drink becomes. The maturation goes on for several years; the appellation of AOC for calvados authorizes double distillation for all calvados, but it is required for the Calvados Pays d'Auge.
Double distillation is carried out in a traditional alembic pot still, called either l'alambic à repasse or charentais Single continuous distillation in a column stillThe usual arguments for and against the two processes are that the former process gives the spirit complexity and renders it suitable for longer aging, whilst the latter process gives the calvados a fresh and clean apple flavour but with less complexity. In fact, a growing belief indicates a well-operated column still can produce as complex and "age-able" calvados as double distillation. Like many French wines, calvados is governed by appellation contrôlée regulations; the three appellations for calvados are: The AOC calvados area includes all of the Calvados and Orne départements and parts of Eure, Mayenne and Eure-et-Loir. AOC calvados makes up over 70% of the total production. A minimum of two years aging in oak barrels is required; the terroir, geographical area, is defined. The apples and pears are defined cider varieties; the procedures in production, such as pressing, fermentation and ageing, is regulated.
Single-column distillation is used. The more restrictive AOC calvados Pays d'Auge area is limited to the east end of the département of Calvados and a few adjoining districts. Extensive quality control, the basic rules for AOC calvados together with several additional requirements, is practiced. Aging for a minimum of two years in oak barrels is required. Double distillation in an alembic pot-still is used, it must be produced within the designated area in Pays d'Auge. A minimum of six weeks of fermentation of the cider is required. Flavour elements are controlled. AOC calvados Domfrontais reflects the long tradition of pear orchards in the area, resulting in a unique fruity calvados; the regulation is similar to the AOC calvados and the column still is used. A minimum of 30% pears from the designated areas is used. A three-year minimum of aging in oak barrels is required; the orchards must consist of at least 15% pear trees. Fermier calvados — some quality-minded producers both inside and outside the Pays d'Auge make "fermier calvados", which indicates the calvados is made on the farm in a traditional agricultural way according to high quality demands.
The age on the bottle refers to the youngest constituent of the blend. A blend is composed of old and young calvados. Producers can use the terms below to refer to the age. "Fine", Trois étoiles ***, Trois pommes must be at least two years old. Vieux or Réserve must be at least three years old. "V. O." "VO", Vieille Réserve, "V. S. O. P.", or "VSOP" must be at least four years old. "Extra", "X. O." "XO", "Napoléon", Hors d'Age, or Age Inconnu must be at least six years old, but are sold much older. High-quality calvados has parts which are much older than that mentioned. Calvados can be made from a single year; when this happens, the label carries that year. Calvados is the basis of the tradition of le trou Normand, or "the Norman hole"; this is a small drink of calvados taken between courses in a long meal, sometimes with apple or pear sorbet to reawaken the appetite. Calvados can be served as an apéritif, blended in drinks, between meals, as a digestif, or with coffee. Well-made calvados should natu
The lentil is an edible legume. It is a bushy annual plant known for its lens-shaped seeds, it is about 40 cm tall, the seeds grow in pods with two seeds in each. In cuisines of the Indian subcontinent, split lentils are known as dal. Eaten with rice or rotis, the lentil is a dietary staple throughout the Indian subcontinent; as a food crop, the majority of world production comes from Canada and Australia. The cultivated lentil Lens culinaris was derived from its wild subspecies L. culinaris subsp. Orientalis, although other species may have contributed some genes, according to Jonathan Sauer Unlike their wild ancestors, domesticated lentil crops have indehiscent pods and nondormant seeds. Lentils are the oldest pulse crop known, among the earliest crops domesticated in the Old World, having been found as carbonized remains alongside human habitations dating to 11,000 BC in Greece; the lentil is indigenous to Central Asia. Many different names in different parts of the world are used for the crop lentil.
The first use of the word lens to designate a specific genus was in the 16th century by the botanist Tournefort. The genus Lens is part of the subfamily Faboideae, contained in the flowering plant family Fabaceae or known as legume or bean family, of the order Fabales in the kingdom Plantae. Lens is a small genus which consists of six related wild taxa. Among the different taxa of wild lentils, L. orientalis is considered to be the progenitor of the cultivated lentil and is now classified as L. culinaris subsp. Orientalis. Therefore, the genus Lens comprises seven taxa in six species: Lens culinaris subsp. Culinaris Lens odemensis Lens ervoides Lens nigricans Lens lamottei Lens tomentosus Lentil is hypogeal, which means the cotyledons of the germinating seed stay in the ground and inside the seed coat. Therefore, it is less vulnerable to wind erosion, or insect attack; the plant is a diploid, bushy herb of erect, semierect, or spreading and compact growth and varies from 30 to 50 cm in height.
It has many hairy branches and its stem is slender and angular. The rachis bears 10 to 15 leaflets in five to eight pairs; the leaves are alternate, of oblong-linear and obtuse shape and from yellowish green to dark bluish green in colour. In general, the upper leaves are converted into tendrils. If stipules are present, they are small; the flowers, one to four in number, are small, pink, pale purple, or pale blue in colour. They arise from the axils of the leaves, on a slender footstalk as long as the leaves; the pods are oblong inflated, about 1.5 cm long. Each of them contains two seeds, about 0.5 cm in diameter, in the characteristic lens shape. The seeds can be mottled and speckled; the several cultivated varieties of lentil differ in size and colour of the leaves and seeds. Lentils are self-pollinating; the flowering begins from the lowermost buds and moves upward, so-called acropetal flowering. About two weeks are needed. At the end of the second day and on the third day after the opening of the flowers, they close and the colour begins to fade.
After three to four days, the setting of the pods takes place. Brewer's: a large brown lentil, considered the "regular" lentil in the United States Beluga, bead-like, lens-shaped, dicotilidon spherical, named for resemblance to beluga caviar Brown/Spanish pardina French green Puy lentils, Lens esculenta puyensis, Protected Designation of Origin name Yellow/tan lentils Red Chief Eston Green Richlea Laird Masoor Petite crimson/red Macachiados In 2016, global production of lentils was 6.3 million tonnes, led by Canada with 51% and India with 17% of the world total. Saskatchewan is the most productive growing region in Canada. For 2016, Statistics Canada reported a national production yield of 3.2 million tonnes from 5,700,000 acres harvested. The Palouse region of eastern Washington and the Idaho panhandle, with its commercial center at Pullman, constitutes the most important lentil-producing region in the United States. Montana and North Dakota are significant lentil growers. Lentils can grow on various soil types, from sand to clay loam, growing best in deep sandy loam soils with moderate fertility.
A soil pH around 7 would be the best. Lentils do not tolerate flooding or water-logged conditions. Lentils increase the yield of succeeding cereal crops. Biological nitrogen fixation or other rotational effects could be the reason for higher yields after lentils; the conditions under which lentils are grown differ across different growing regions. In the temperate climates lentils are planted in the winter and spring under low temperatures and vegetative growth occurs in spring and the summer. Rainfall during this time is not limited. In the subtropics, lentils are planted under high temperatures at the end of the rainy season, vegetative growth occurs on the residual soil moisture in the summer season. Rainfall during this time is limited. In West A
The Somme is a river in Picardy, northern France. The name Somme comes from a Celtic word meaning "tranquility"; the department Somme was named after this river. The river is 245 km long, from its source in the high ground of the former Forest of Arrouaise at Fonsommes near Saint-Quentin, to the Bay of the Somme, in the English Channel, it lies in the geological syncline which forms the Solent. This gives it a constant and gentle gradient where several fluvial terraces have been identified; the Somme featured prominently in several historical campaigns. In 1066, the invasion fleet of William the Conqueror assembled in the Bay of the Somme, at Saint-Valery-sur-Somme; the river featured in the 1346 withdrawal of Edward III of England's army, which forded the river at the Battle of Blanchetaque during the campaign, which culminated in the Battle of Crécy. Crossing the river featured prominently in the campaign which led to the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. In 1636, a Spanish army led by Thomas Francis, prince of Carignan, crossed the Somme defeating a French army during the Thirty Years War threatening Paris.
Most famously, the Battle of the Somme, during World War I, lasted from July to November 1916 and resulted in more than a million casualties. Private A S Bullock in his wartime memoir recalls his first sight of it in early April 1918:'... we reached a small place called Hengest sur Somme. The train stopped and we descended. There in front of us was a muddy and somewhat narrow stream, which has given its name to one of the most awful battles in history - the Somme.' The great battles that stopped the German advance in the Spring Offensive of 1918 were fought around the valley of the Somme in places like Villers Bretonneux, which marked the beginning of the end of the war. Aisne: Saint-Quentin Somme: Ham, Péronne, Amiens, Saint-Valery-sur-Somme, Le Crotoy The river is characterized by a gentle gradient and a steady flow; the valley is more or less steep-sided but its bottom is flat with fens and pools. These characteristics of steady flow and flooded valley bottom arise from the river's being fed by the ground water in the chalk basin in which it lies.
At earlier, colder times, from the Günz to the Würm the river has cut down into the Cretaceous geology to a level below the modern water table. The valley bottom has now therefore, filled with water; this picture, of the source of the Somme in 1986, shows it when the water table had fallen below the surface of the chalk in which the aquifer lies. Here, the flow of water had been sufficient to keep fen from forming; this satellite photograph shows the fenny valley crossing the chalk to the sea on the left. The sinuous length at the centre of the picture lies downstream from Péronne. One of the fens, the Marais de l'Île is a nature reserve in the town of St. Quentin; the traditional market gardens of Amiens, the Hortillonages are on this sort of land but drained. Once exploited for peat cutting, the fen is now used for fishing and shooting The construction of the Canal de la Somme began in 1770 and reached completion in 1843, it is 156 km long, beginning at St. Simon and opening into the Bay of the Somme.
From St. Simon to Froissy, the canal is alongside the river. Thence to the sea, the river is river and navigation. From Abbeville, it is diverted through the silted, former estuary, to Saint-Valery-sur-Somme, where the maritime canal, once called the canal du Duc d'Angoulême enters the English Channel; the St Quentin Canal, famous for the 1918 battle, links the Somme to northern France and Belgium and southward to the Oise. The Canal du Nord links the Somme to the Oise, at Noyon, thence to Paris. In 2001, the Somme valley was affected by high floods, which were in large part due to a rise in the water table of the surrounding land. Catchment area 5,560 km2. at Abbeville. Daily flow rates compared with mean rates for the time of year at Hangest-sur-Somme. Catchment area 4,835 km2. for the year -1993.1994. 1995. 1996. 1997. 1998. 1999. 2000.2001.2002.2003.2004.2005. Mean flow rates daily at Péronne. Catchment area 1,294 km2. for the year -1986.1987.1988.1989.1990.1991.1992.1993.1994.1995.1996.1997.1998.1999.2000.2001.2002.2003.2004.2005.
Delattre, Ch. Mériaux, E. and Waterlot, M. Guides Géologiques Régionaux: Région du Nord, Flandre Artois Boulonnais Picardie Pictures from the Somme