Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo, Lazio e Molise
Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo, Lazio e Molise is an Italian national park founded in 1922. The majority of the park is located in the Abruzzo region though it is not constrained by regional boundaries and includes territory in Lazio and Molise; the park headquarters are in Pescasseroli in the Province of L'Aquila. The park includes 496.80 km2. The oldest in the Apennines, the Italy's second declared park, with an important role in the preservation of species such as the Italian wolf, Abruzzo chamois and Marsican brown bear, the protected area is around two thirds beech forest though many other trees grow in the area including the silver birch and black and mountain pines. Other characteristic fauna of the park are wild boar and the white-backed woodpecker; the idea for the Abruzzo National Park arose in the years following World War I thanks to the work of Erminio Sipari, member of Italian Parliament and cousin of Benedetto Croce. Between the months of October and November 1921, the municipality of Opi leased 5 square kilometres of land to a private federation with the aim of protecting flora and fauna and Sipari founded in Rome an organization to administer the reserve.
So the Park was founded on September 1922. Over the next few years the territory of the park expanded into neighbouring municipalities until it covered around 120 km² by 1923, when protection was enshrined in law. A period of intense activity followed and the park had further expanded to around 300 km² when it was abolished by the Fascist government in 1933. Re-establishment of the park in 1950 coincided with a period of financial difficulty, followed by a building boom which saw more than 12,000 trees felled for the construction of houses and ski tracks. A reorganisation of the park management at the end of the 1960s heralded better times and by 1976 further expansion, to 400 km², followed at the request of villages in neighbouring Molise, that were convinced by the economic benefits of the park. Today, at 500 km², the area of the park is 100 times larger than the original reserve; however the park's role in the marsican bear conservation program is now debated. The mountains within the park are Petroso, Meta, Jamiccio, Palombo.
These are included in the Monti della Meta. The Sangro River rises near Pescasseroli and runs south-east through the artificial Lago di Barrea before leaving the park and turning to the north-east. Other rivers in the park are the Giovenco and Volturno. Other lakes are Vivo, Scanno, Montagna Spaccata, Castel San Vincenzo and Selva di Cardito. In wildlife terms, the main attractions of the park are Italian wolf. While official figures report 70-100 bears in this genetically isolated population, the declining population is estimated at closer to 30; the shift from local agriculture to development in Abruzzo and poaching, threaten this remaining small population. While Wolves were once rarer, numbers have rebounded in recent years; the presence of the Eurasian lynx in the park is still controversial and there are no scientific studies that proves it, however there are some unconfirmed sightings. In greater numbers, are red deer and roe deer, the reintroduced wild boar, which live in the thicker areas of the forest.
Other reclusive inhabitants of the forest include European polecat, Eurasian otter and two species of marten. Higher, above the forest, chamois live alone or in small groups. Animals that are easier to see include red fox, the mountain hare, the least weasel, the European mole, the western European hedgehog. Dormice and red squirrel s are quite seen. Other mammals recorded in the park are the snow vole, the edible dormouse, the wildcat and the crested porcupine. Many birds of prey inhabit the park. Most notable amongst them is the golden eagle, represented by six breeding couples, despite living in the more inaccessible regions, can be seen soaring over central areas of the park in search of prey such as small mammals or sick, young chamois. Other raptors that reside within the park include goshawks, peregrine falcons, Eurasian buzzards and Eurasian sparrowhawks. Less visible, but more audible, to the nighttime visitor are several species of owl, the little owl, the barn owl and the tawny owl.
Woodland birds include the European green woodpecker and the rare white-backed woodpecker, cliffs harbour the red-billed chough and alpine chough and bare mountain birds include the rock partridge and white-winged snowfinch. Streams provide habitat for the grey white-throated dipper; the flora of the park is interesting. A comprehensive list of plants would extend to more than 2,000 species without including lichens, algae or fungi. Flowers present in the area include Marsian Iris, primrose, cyclamen and the lily; the most well-known flower of the park is a yellow and black orchid. The predominant tree of the park is the beech which covers 60% of the area grows at 900–1800 m altitude and provides a stunnin
The mouflon is a subspecies group of the wild sheep. Populations of O. orientalis can be partitioned into the mouflons and the urials. The mouflon is thought to be the ancestor for all modern domestic sheep breeds; the wild sheep of Corsica were locally called mufra. The French naturalist Buffon rendered this in French as moufflon. Mouflon sheep have reddish to dark brown, short-haired coats with dark back stripes and black ventral areas and light-colored saddle patches; the males are horned. The horns of mature rams are curved in one full revolution. Mouflon have shoulder heights around 0.9 body weights of 50 kg and 35 kg. Today, mouflon inhabit the Caucasus, Anatolia and eastern Iraq, most parts of Iran and Armenia; the range stretched further to the Crimean peninsula and the Balkans, where they had disappeared 3,000 years ago and came back to Bulgaria. Mouflon were introduced to the islands of Corsica, Sardinia and Cyprus during the neolithic period as feral domesticated animals, where they have naturalized in the mountainous interiors of these islands over the past few thousand years, giving rise to the subspecies known as European mouflon.
On the island of Cyprus, the mouflon or agrino became a different and endemic subspecies known as the Cyprus mouflon. The Cyprus mouflon population contains only about 3,000 animals, they are now rare on the islands, but are classified as feral animals by the IUCN. They were successfully introduced into continental Europe, including Portugal, France, central Italy, Austria, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, the Canary Islands, some northern European countries such as Denmark and Finland. A small colony exists in the remote Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean, on the Veliki Brijun Island in the Brijuni Archipelago of the Istrian Peninsula in Croatia. In South America, mouflon have been introduced into central Argentina. Since the 1980s, they have been introduced to game ranches in North America for the purpose of hunting. Mouflon have been introduced as game animals into Spieden Island in Washington state, into the Hawaiian islands of Lanai and Hawaii where they have become a problematic invasive species.
A small population escaped from an animal enclosure owned by Thomas Watson, Jr. on the island of North Haven, Maine in the 1990s and still survives there. Their normal habitats are steep mountainous woods near tree lines. In winter, they migrate to lower altitudes; the scientific classification of the mouflon is disputed. Five subspecies of mouflon are distinguished by MSW3: Armenian mouflon, Ovis orientalis gmelini, northwestern Iran and Azerbaijan, it has been introduced in Texas, US. European mouflon, O. o. musimon was introduced about 7,000 years ago in Corsica and Sardinia for the first time. It has since been introduced in many parts of Europe. Cyprus mouflon, Ovis gmelini ophion called agrino, was nearly extirpated during the 20th century. In 1997, about 1,200 of this subspecies were counted; the television show Born to Explore with Richard Wiese reported. Esfahan mouflon, O. o. isphahanica, is from Iran. Laristan mouflon, O. o. laristanica, is a small subspecies. The eastern and the European mouflon appear in scientific literature as separate species, Ovis musimon and Ovis orientalis.
The mouflons are sometimes treated as a subspecies of the domestic sheep, Ovis aries, named with the same subspecific epithet as above: O. a. musimon, O. a. ophion, etc. Based on comparison of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences, three groups of sheep have been identified: Pachyceriforms of Siberia and North America, Argaliforms of Central Asia, Moufloniforms of Eurasia. However, a comparison of the mitochondrial DNA control region found that two subspecies of urial, Ovis vignei arkal and O. v./o. bochariensis, grouped with two different clades of argali. The ancestral sheep is presumed to have had 60 chromosomes, as in goats. Mouflon and domestic sheep have 54 chromosomes, with three pairs of ancestral acrocentric chromosomes joined to form bi-armed chromosomes; this is in contrast to the urial, which have 56 and 58 chromosomes respectively. If the urial is as related to the mouflons as mitochondrial DNA indicates two chromosomes would need to have split during its evolution away from the mouflon species.
In the Systema Naturæ, Linnaeus and Gmelin treated the argali as one species. Von Schreiber used the combination Ovis aries musimon as early as 1782. In 1792, Robert Kerr listed the "Corsican argali" as a separate variety of argali, writing I have introduced this variety on the authority of Mr Pennant, who distinguishes between the Argali of Corsica and the Siberian, though the difference seems chiefly in colour.
Filattiera is a comune in the Province of Massa and Carrara in the Italian region Tuscany, located about 120 kilometres northwest of Florence and about 35 kilometres northwest of Massa. Church of San Giorgio, it contains a rare tombstone from 752 remembering the work of a Lombard bishop credited with sweeping off paganism in the area. The church has an aisle with apse, a bell tower from the 12th century. Romanesque church of San Giovanni Battista, at Dobbiana; the façade is made of sandstone. The interior is in Baroque style. Medieval pieve of St. Stephen, at Sorano, known from 1148
Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northeast Italy comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna. Its capital is Bologna, it has an area of 22,446 km2, about 4.4 million inhabitants. Emilia-Romagna is one of the wealthiest and most developed regions in Europe, with the third highest GDP per capita in Italy. Bologna, its capital, has one of Italy's highest quality of life indices and advanced social services. Emilia-Romagna is a cultural and tourist centre, being the home of the University of Bologna, the oldest university in the world, containing Romanesque and Renaissance cities, a former Eastern Roman Empire capital such as Ravenna, encompassing eleven UNESCO heritage sites, being a centre for food and automobile production and having popular coastal resorts such as Cervia, Cesenatico and Riccione. In 2018, the Lonely Planet guide named Emilia Romagna as the best place to see in Europe; the name Emilia-Romagna is a legacy of Ancient Rome. Emilia derives from the via Aemilia, the Roman road connecting Piacenza to Rimini, completed in 187 BC and named after the consul Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
Romagna derives from Romània, the name of the Eastern Roman Empire applied to Ravenna by the Lombards when the western Empire had ceased to exist and Ravenna was an outpost of the east. Before the Romans took control of present-day Emilia-Romagna, it had been part of the Etruscan world and that of the Gauls. During the first thousand years of Christianity trade flourished, as did culture and religion, thanks to the region's monasteries. Afterwards the University of Bologna—arguably the oldest university in Europe—and its bustling towns kept trade and intellectual life alive, its unstable political history is exemplified in such figures as Matilda of Canossa and contending seigniories such as the Este of Ferrara, the Malatesta of Rimini, the Popes of Rome, the Farnese of Parma and Piacenza, the Duchy of Modena and Reggio. In the 16th century, most of these were seized by the Papal States, but the territories of Parma and Modena remained independent until Emilia-Romagna became part of the Italian kingdom between 1859 and 1861.
After the referendum of 2006, seven municipalities of Montefeltro were detached from the Province of Pesaro and Urbino to join that of Rimini on 15 August 2009. The municipalities are Casteldelci, Novafeltria, San Leo, Sant'Agata Feltria and Talamello. On 20 and 29 May 2012 two powerful earthquakes hit the area, they caused churches and factories to collapse. 200 were injured. The 5.8 magnitude quake left 14,000 people homeless. The region of Emilia-Romagna consists of nine provinces and covers an area of 22,446 km², ranking sixth in Italy. Nearly half of the region consists of plains while 27 % is 25 % mountainous; the region's section of the Apennines is marked by areas of badland erosion and caves. The mountains stretch for more than 300 km from the north to the south-east, with only three peaks above 2,000 m – Monte Cimone, Monte Cusna and Alpe di Succiso; the plain was formed by the gradual retreat of the sea from the Po basin and by the detritus deposited by the rivers. Marshland in ancient times, its history is characterised by the hard work of its people to reclaim and reshape the land in order to achieve a better standard of living.
The geology varies, with lagoons and saline areas in the north and many thermal springs throughout the rest of the region as a result of groundwater rising towards the surface at different periods of history. All the rivers rise locally in the Apennines except for the Po, which has its source in the Alps in Piedmont; the northern border of Emilia-Romagna follows the path of the river for 263 km. The region has a temperate broadleaved and mixed forests and the vegetation may be divided into belts: the Common oak-European hornbeam belt, now covered with fruit orchards and fields of wheat and sugar beet, the Pubescent oak-European hop-hornbeam belt on the lower slopes up to 900 m, the European beech-Silver fir belt between 1,000 and 1,500 m and the final mountain heath belt. Emilia-Romagna has two Italian National Parks, the Foreste Casentinesi National Park and the Appennino Tosco-Emiliano National Park. Emilia-Romagna has been a populated area since ancient times. Inhabitants over the centuries have radically altered the landscape, building cities, reclaiming wetlands, establishing large agricultural areas.
All these transformations in past centuries changed the aspect of the region, converting large natural areas to cultivation, up until the 1960s. The trend changed, agricultural lands began giving way to residential and industrial areas; the increase of urban-industrial areas continued at high rates until the end of the 2010s. In the same period and mountainous areas saw an increase in the registration of semi-natural areas, because of the abandonment of agricultural lands. Land use changes can have strong effects on ecological functions. Human interactions such as agriculture and deforestation affect soil function, e.g. food and other biomass production, storing and transformation, habitat and gene pool. In the Emilia-Romagna plain, which represents half of the region and where three quarters of the population of the region live, the agricultural land area has been reduced by 157 km2 while urban and industrial areas
Province of Lucca
The Province of Lucca is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Lucca, it has an area of 1,773 square kilometres and a total population of about 390,000. There are 33 comuni in the province. Situated in northwestern coastal Italy, within Tuscany, Lucca borders the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west, the provinces of Massa e Carrara to the northwest, Pisa to the south, Pistoia to the north-east and Firenze to the east. To the north it abuts the region of Emilia-Romagna. Access to the Tyrrhenian Sea is through municipalities such as Torre del Lago and Forte dei Marmi, it is divided into four areas. Versilia is known for its extensive beaches, there are coastal dunes and wetlands in the Migliarino-San Rossore-Massaciuccoli Natural Park; the principal resorts of the province are located at Viareggio, Lido di Camaiore and Forte dei Marmi. Garfagnana is known for olive trees. Lago di Massaciuccoli is a lake with a surface area of 6.9 square kilometres, located in the municipality of Massarosa and in Torre del Lago, a civil parish of Viareggio.
The lake was known in ancient times as the Fossis Papirianis, a name used in the Tabula Peutingeriana. The composer Giacomo Puccini lived nearby and hunted around the lake; the springs of Bagni di Lucca, in valley of the Lima River, a tributary of the Serchio are known from the early history of Lucca as the Vicaria di Val di Lima, Fallopius once claimed that the springs cured his own deafness. Situated along the Via Francigena, a major Medieval pilgrimage route, the province is dotted with castles, parish churches and villas such as the Villa Torrigiani and Villa Mansi. Lucca Cathedral known as the Duomo of San Martino, was built in the 6th century, but was rebuilt in the 11th century in the Romanesque style, consecrated by Alexander II in 1070, it was restored again with Tuscan Gothic influences in the 14th century, when columns of the upper arches were added. The Church of San Frediano in the city Lucca, is reputed to be only example of Lombard architecture preserved without notable alteration, although the façade dates to about 1200.
The church contains some valuable pieces of art, as does the Mansi Palace and the 14th-century Church of San Francesco, which contains the tomb of the Lucchese poet Giovanni Guidiccioni. The Case Guinigi and the Guinigi Tower of Lucca is a fine example of remaining medieval architecture in the province. Paolo Guinigi was a ruler of the town a little in the early 15th century. 44.25 metres high, it was built with sandstone and brick from Matraia and Verrucano from the Monti Pisani. Only one of the original towers remains, loggia and the porch on the ground floor of it have been shut off. Of note is an Aqueduct of Nottolini consisting of 459 arches, constructed between 1823 and 1832. Official website
Alpe di Succiso
The Alpe di Succiso is a mountain in the northern Apennines, located in the trait between the Cerreto and Lagastrello Passes, with an altitude of 2,017 m. It has a pyramidal appearance, carved by several gorges; the rivers Secchia and Enza, right affluences of the Po River, have their source in the Alpe di Succiso. The mountain is part of the National Park of the Appennino Tosco-Emiliano
Parco Nazionale del Cilento, Vallo di Diano e Alburni
The Parco Nazionale del Cilento, Vallo di Diano e Alburni is an Italian national park in the Province of Salerno, in Campania in southern Italy. It includes much of the Vallo di Diano and the Monti Alburni, it was founded in 1991, was known as the Parco Nazionale del Cilento e Vallo di Diano. The park was instituted on December 6, 1991 to protect the territory of Cilento from building speculation and mass tourism. Named Parco Nazionale del Cilento e Vallo di Diano, in 1998 it became a World Heritage Site of UNESCO with the ancient Greek towns of Paestum and the Padula Charterhouse; the other natural reserves instituted in the area of the park are the "Natural reserve of Foce Sele-Tanagro" and the "Maritime reserve of Punta Licosa", in the municipality of Castellabate. The national park's territory, one of the largest in Italy, does not include all the municipalities of the areas of Cilento and Vallo di Diano, it includes all the Cilentan Coast and its central forest area is Pruno. The administrative offices are located in Vallo della Lucania, at Piazza Santa Caterina nr. 8.
The municipalities part of the park are: Agropoli, Ascea, Bellosguardo, Camerota, Cannalonga, Capaccio-Paestum, Casal Velino, Casaletto Spartano, Caselle in Pittari, Castel San Lorenzo, Castellabate, Castelnuovo Cilento, Celle di Bulgheria, Ceraso, Controne, Corleto Monforte, Cuccaro Vetere, Futani, Giungano, Laureana Cilento, Laurito, Magliano Vetere, Moio della Civitella, Montano Antilia, Monteforte Cilento, Monte San Giacomo, Montesano sulla Marcellana, Novi Velia, Ogliastro Cilento, Orria, Perdifumo, Petina, Pisciotta, Pollica, Prignano Cilento, Roccagloriosa, Roscigno, Salento, San Giovanni a Piro, San Mauro Cilento, San Mauro la Bruca, San Pietro al Tanagro, San Rufo, Santa Marina, Sant'Angelo a Fasanella, Sant'Arsenio, Sassano, Sessa Cilento, Sicignano degli Alburni, Stella Cilento, Teggiano, Torre Orsaia, Tortorella, Valle dell'Angelo and Vallo della Lucania. Cilentan Coast Castelcivita Caves Pertosa Caves Foce del Sele List of National Parks of Italy Official website Official pages by the Park Authority on Parks.it