An augur was a priest and official in the classical Roman world. His main role was the practice of augury: Interpreting the will of the gods by studying the flight of birds – whether they were flying in groups or alone, what noises they made as they flew, direction of flight, what kind of birds they were; this was known as "taking the auspices". The augural ceremony and function of the augur was central to any major undertaking in Roman society – public or private – including matters of war and religion. Augurs sought the divine will regarding any proposed course of action which might affect Rome's pax and salus. For similar practices in other places, see Ornithomancy. Although ancient authors believed that the term "augur" contained the words avis and gero – Latin for "directing the birds" – historical-linguistic evidence points instead to the root aug-: "to increase, to prosper". Template:Priesthoods of Etruria and ancient Rome Political and civil actions were sanctioned by augury and by haruspices.
Augury was performed by priests of the college of augurs on behalf of senior magistrates. The practice itself comes from the neighboring region of Etruria, where augers were respected as officials. Magistrates were empowered to conduct augury as required for the performance of their official duties. Magistracies included senior military and civil ranks, which were therefore religious offices in their own right, magistrates were directly responsible for the pax and salus of Rome and everything, Roman; the presiding magistrate at an augural rite held the "right of augury". The right of nuntiatio – announcing the appearance of auspicia oblativa – was reserved for the officiating augur, which would require the interruption of the proceedings underway; the Roman historian Livy stressed the importance of the augurs: "Who does not know that this city was founded only after taking the auspices, that everything in war and in peace, at home and abroad, was done only after taking the auspices?"In the Regal period, which ended 509 BCE, tradition holds that there were three augurs at a time.
By the Principate, their numbers swelled further to an estimated 25 members. During the Republic, priesthoods were prized as as the consulship, the censorship, the triumph. Membership gave the lifelong right to participate prominently in processions at ludi and in public banquets. Roman augurs were part of a college of priests who shared the duties and responsibilities of the position. At the foundation of the Republic in 510 BCE, the patricians held sole claim to this office. Senior members of the collegium put forth nominations for any vacancies, members voted on whom to co-opt. According to Cicero, the auctoritas of ius augurum included the right to adjourn and overturn the process of law: Consular election could be – and was – rendered invalid by inaugural error. For Cicero, this made the augur the most powerful authority in the Republic. Cicero himself was co-opted into the college only late in his career. In the Republic, augury was supervised by the college of pontifices, a priestly-magistral office whose powers were woven into the cursus honorum.
The office of pontifex maximus became a de facto consular prerogative. The effectiveness of augury could only be judged retrospectively; those whose actions had led to divine wrath could not have possessed a true right of augury. Of all the protagonists in the Civil War, only Octavian could have possessed it, because he alone had restored the pax deorum to the Roman people. Lucan, writing during the Principate, described the recent Civil War as "unnatural" – a mirror to supernatural disturbances in the greater cosmos, his imagery is apt to the traditional principles of augury and its broader interpretation by Stoic apologists of the Imperial cult. In the Stoic cosmology the pax deorum is the expression of natural order in human affairs; when his colleague Lepidus died, Augustus assumed his office as pontifex maximus, took priestly control over the State oracles, used his powers as censor to suppress the circulation of "unapproved" oracles. Despite their lack of political influence under the Empire, the augurate, as with its fellow quattuor amplissima collegia, continued to confer prestige on its members.
In ancient Rome the auguria were considered to be in equilibrium with the sacra and were not the only way by which the gods made their will known. The augures publici concerned themselves only with matters related to the state; the role of the augur was that of consulting and interpreting the will of gods about some course of action such as accession of kings to the throne, of magistrates and major sacerdotes to their functions and all public enterprises. It sufficed to say that the augur or magistrate had heard a clap of thunder to suspend the convocation of the comitia. Since auguria publica and inaugurations of magistrates are connected to political life this brought about the deterioration and abuses that condemned augury to progressive and inarrestable debasement, stripping it of all religious value. According to Varro, before his time augures had distinguished five kinds of territory: ager Romanus, ager Gabinus, ager peregrinus, ager hosticus, ager incertus; these distinctions point to the
Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the capital of the Province of Lucca, it is famous for its intact Renaissance-era city walls. Lucca was founded by the Etruscans and became a Roman colony in 180 BC; the rectangular grid of its historical centre preserves the Roman street plan, the Piazza San Michele occupies the site of the ancient forum. Traces of the amphitheatre may still be seen in the Piazza dell'Anfiteatro. At the Lucca Conference, in 56 BC, Julius Caesar and Crassus reaffirmed their political alliance known as the First Triumvirate. Frediano, an Irish monk, was bishop of Lucca in the early sixth century. At one point, Lucca was plundered by the first Germanic King of Italy. Lucca was an important city and fortress in the sixth century, when Narses besieged it for several months in 553. Under the Lombards, it was the seat of a duke; the Holy Face of Lucca, a major relic carved by Nicodemus, arrived in 742.
During the eighth-tenth centuries Lucca was a center of Jewish life, the community being led by the Kalonymos family. Lucca became prosperous through the silk trade that began in the eleventh century, came to rival the silks of Byzantium. During the tenth–eleventh centuries Lucca was the capital of the feudal margraviate of Tuscany, more or less independent but owing nominal allegiance to the Holy Roman Emperor. After the death of Matilda of Tuscany, the city began to constitute itself an independent commune with a charter in 1160. For 500 years, Lucca remained an independent republic. There were many minor provinces in the region between southern Liguria and northern Tuscany dominated by the Malaspina. Dante’s Divine Comedy includes many references to the great feudal families who had huge jurisdictions with administrative and judicial rights. Dante spent some of his exile in Lucca. In 1273 and again in 1277, Lucca was ruled by a Guelph capitano del popolo named Luchetto Gattilusio. In 1314, internal discord allowed Uguccione della Faggiuola of Pisa to make himself lord of Lucca.
The Lucchesi expelled him two years and handed over the city to another condottiero, Castruccio Castracani, under whose rule it became a leading state in central Italy. Lucca rivalled Florence until Castracani's death in 1328. On 22 and 23 September 1325, in the battle of Altopascio, Castracani defeated Florence's Guelphs. For this he was nominated by Louis IV the Bavarian to become duke of Lucca. Castracani's tomb is in the church of San Francesco, his biography is Machiavelli's third famous book on political rule. In 1408, Lucca hosted. Occupied by the troops of Louis of Bavaria, the city was sold to a rich Genoese, Gherardino Spinola seized by John, king of Bohemia. Pawned to the Rossi of Parma, by them it was ceded to Mastino II della Scala of Verona, sold to the Florentines, surrendered to the Pisans, nominally liberated by the emperor Charles IV and governed by his vicar. Lucca managed, at first as a democracy, after 1628 as an oligarchy, to maintain its independence alongside of Venice and Genoa, painted the word Libertas on its banner until the French Revolution in 1789.
Lucca had been the second largest Italian city state with a republican constitution to remain independent over the centuries. In 1805, Lucca was conquered by Napoleon, who installed his sister Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi as "Princess of Lucca". From 1815 to 1847 it was a Bourbon-Parma duchy; the only reigning dukes of Lucca were Maria Luisa of Spain, succeeded by her son Charles II, Duke of Parma in 1824. Meanwhile, the Duchy of Parma had been assigned for life to Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, the second wife of Napoleon. In accordance with the Treaty of Vienna, upon the death of Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma in 1847, Parma reverted to Charles II, Duke of Parma, while Lucca lost independence and was annexed to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany; as part of Tuscany, it became part of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1860 and part of the Italian State in 1861. The walls encircling the old town remain intact as the city expanded and modernized, unusual for cities in the region. Built as a defensive rampart, once the walls lost their military importance they became a pedestrian promenade, the Passeggiata delle Mura Urbane, a street atop the walls linking the bastions.
It passes through the Bastions of Santa Croce, San Frediano, San Martino, San Pietro/Battisti, San Salvatore, La Libertà/Cairoli, San Regolo, San Colombano, Santa Maria, San Paolino/Catalani, San Donato. Each of the four principal sides of the structure is lined with a different tree species than the others; the walled city is encircled by Piazzale Boccherini, Viale Lazzaro Papi, Viale Carlo Del Prete, Piazzale Martiri della Libertà, Via Batoni, Viale Agostino Marti, Viale G. Marconi, Piazza Don A. Mei, Viale Pacini, Viale Giusti, Piazza Curtatone, Piazzale Ricasoli, Viale Ricasoli, Piazza Risorgimento, Viale Giosuè Carducci; the town includes a number of public squares, most notably the Piazza dell'Anfiteatro, site of ancient Roman amphitheater. Ducal Palace: built on the site of Ca
Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is located west of the Italian Peninsula and to the immediate south of the French island of Corsica. Sardinia is politically a region of Italy, whose official name is Regione Autonoma della Sardegna / Regione Autònoma de Sardigna, enjoys some degree of domestic autonomy granted by a specific Statute, it is divided into four provinces and a metropolitan city, with Cagliari being the region's capital and its largest city. Sardinia's indigenous language and the other minority languages spoken on the island are recognized by the regional law and enjoy "equal dignity" with Italian. Due to the variety of its ecosystems, which include mountains, plains uninhabited territories, rocky coasts and long sandy beaches, the island has been defined metaphorically as a micro-continent. In the modern era, many travelers and writers have extolled the beauty of its untouched landscape, which houses the vestiges of the Nuragic civilization; the name Sardinia is from the pre-Roman noun *srd- romanised as sardus.
It makes its first appearance on the Nora Stone, where the word Šrdn testifies to the name's existence when the Phoenician merchants first arrived. According to Timaeus, one of Plato's dialogues and its people as well might have been named after a legendary woman going by Sardò, born in Sardis, capital of the ancient Kingdom of Lydia. There has been speculation that identifies the ancient Nuragic Sards with the Sherden, one of the Sea Peoples, it is suggested that the name had a religious connotation from its use as the adjective for the ancient Sardinian mythological hero-god Sardus Pater, as well as being the stem of the adjective "sardonic". In Classical antiquity, Sardinia was called a number of names besides Sardò or Sardinia, like Ichnusa and Argirofleps. Sardinia is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 24,100 square kilometres, it is situated between 8 ° 8' and 9 ° 50' east longitude. To the west of Sardinia is the Sea of Sardinia, a unit of the Mediterranean Sea.
The nearest land masses are the island of Corsica, the Italian Peninsula, Tunisia, the Balearic Islands, Provence. The Tyrrhenian Sea portion of the Mediterranean Sea is directly to the east of Sardinia between the Sardinian east coast and the west coast of the Italian mainland peninsula; the Strait of Bonifacio is directly north of Sardinia and separates Sardinia from the French island of Corsica. The coasts of Sardinia are high and rocky, with long straight stretches of coastline, many outstanding headlands, a few wide, deep bays, many inlets and with various smaller islands off the coast; the island has an ancient geoformation and, unlike Sicily and mainland Italy, is not earthquake-prone. Its rocks date in fact from the Palaeozoic Era. Due to long erosion processes, the island's highlands, formed of granite, trachyte, basalt and dolomite limestone, average at between 300 to 1,000 metres; the highest peak is part of the Gennargentu Ranges in the centre of the island. Other mountain chains are Monte Limbara in the northeast, the Chain of Marghine and Goceano running crosswise for 40 kilometres towards the north, the Monte Albo, the Sette Fratelli Range in the southeast, the Sulcis Mountains and the Monte Linas.
The island's ranges and plateaux are separated by wide alluvial valleys and flatlands, the main ones being the Campidano in the southwest between Oristano and Cagliari and the Nurra in the northwest. Sardinia has few major rivers, the largest being the Tirso, 151 km long, which flows into the Sea of Sardinia, the Coghinas and the Flumendosa. There are 54 artificial dams that supply water and electricity; the main ones are Lake Coghinas. The only natural freshwater lake is Lago di Baratz. A number of large, salt-water lagoons and pools are located along the 1,850 km of the coastline; the climate of the island is variable from area to area, due to several factors including the extension in latitude and the elevation. It can be classified in two different macrobioclimates, one macrobioclimatic variant, called Submediterranean, four classes of continentality, eight thermotypic horizons and seven ombrotypic horizons, resulting in a combination of 43 different isobioclimates. During the year there is a major concentration
Mithridates VI of Pontus
Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI known as Mithradates the Great and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia from about 120–63 BC. Mithridates is remembered as one of the Roman Republic’s most formidable and successful enemies, who engaged three of the prominent generals from the late Roman Republic in the Mithridatic Wars: Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Lucius Licinius Lucullus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, he has been called the greatest ruler of the Kingdom of Pontus. Mithridates VI was a prince of Greek ancestry, he claimed descent from Cyrus the Great, the family of Darius the Great, the Regent Antipater, the generals of Alexander the Great as well as the kings Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Seleucus I Nicator. Mithridates was born in the Pontic city of Sinope, was raised in the Kingdom of Pontus, he was the first son among the children born to Mithridates V of Pontus. His father, Mithridates V, was a prince and the son of the former Pontic monarchs Pharnaces I of Pontus and his wife-cousin Nysa.
His mother, Laodice VI, was a Seleucid princess and the daughter of the Seleucid monarchs Antiochus IV Epiphanes and his wife-sister Laodice IV. Mithridates V was assassinated in about 120 BC in Sinope, poisoned by unknown persons at a lavish banquet which he held, he left the kingdom to the joint rule of Mithridates' mother, Laodice VI, his younger brother, Mithridates Chrestus. Neither Mithridates nor his younger brother were of age, their mother retained all power as regent for the time being. Laodice VI’s regency over Pontus was from 120 BC to 116 BC and favored Mithridates Chrestus over Mithridates. During his mother’s regency, he escaped from his mother's plots against him, went into hiding. Mithridates emerged from hiding, returning to Pontus between 116 BC and 113 BC and was hailed as king. By this time he had grown to become a man of physical strength, he could combine extraordinary energy and determination with a considerable talent for politics and strategy. Mithridates removed his mother and brother from the throne, imprisoning both, becoming the sole ruler of Pontus.
Laodice VI died in prison, ostensibly of natural causes. Mithridates Chrestus may have died in prison or may have been tried for treason and executed. Mithridates gave both royal funerals. Mithridates first married his younger sister Laodice, aged 16, his goal was to preserve the purity of their bloodline, solidify his claim to the throne, to co-rule over Pontus, to ensure the succession to his legitimate children. Mithridates entertained ambitions of making his state the dominant power in the Black Sea and Anatolia, he first subjugated Colchis, a region east of the Black Sea, prior to 164 BC, an independent kingdom. He clashed for supremacy on the Pontic steppe with the Scythian King Palacus; the most important centres of Crimea, Tauric Chersonesus and the Bosporan Kingdom surrendered their independence in return for Mithridates' promises to protect them against the Scythians, their ancient enemies. After several abortive attempts to invade the Crimea, the Scythians and the allied Rhoxolanoi suffered heavy losses at the hands of the Pontic general Diophantus and accepted Mithridates as their overlord.
The young king turned his attention to Anatolia, where Roman power was on the rise. He contrived to partition Galatia with King Nicomedes III of Bithynia, it was on the occasion of the Paphlagonian invasion of 108 BC that Mithridates adopted the Bithynian era for use on his coins in honour of the alliance. This calendar era began with the first Bithynian king Zipoites I in 297 BC, it was in use in Pontus by 96 BC at the latest. Yet it soon became clear to Mithridates that Nicomedes was steering his country into an anti-Pontic alliance with the expanding Roman Republic; when Mithridates fell out with Nicomedes over control of Cappadocia, defeated him in a series of battles, the latter was constrained to enlist the assistance of Rome. The Romans twice interfered in the conflict on behalf of Nicomedes, leaving Mithridates, should he wish to continue the expansion of his kingdom, with little choice other than to engage in a future Roman-Pontic war. By this time Mithradates had resolved to expel the Romans from Asia.
The next ruler of Bithynia, Nicomedes IV of Bithynia, was a figurehead manipulated by the Romans. Mithridates plotted to overthrow him, but his attempts failed and Nicomedes IV, instigated by his Roman advisors, declared war on Pontus. Rome itself was involved in a civil war with its Italian allies. Thus, in all of Roman Asia Province there were only two legions present in Macedonia; these legions combined with Nicomedes IV's army to invade Mithridates' kingdom of Pontus in 89 BC. Mithridates won a decisive victory, his victorious forces were welcomed throughout Anatolia. The following year, 88 BC, Mithridates orchestrated a massacre of Roman and Italian settlers remaining in several Anatolian cities wiping out the Roman presence in the region. 80,000 people are said to have perished in this massacre. The episode is known as the Asiatic Vespers; the Kingdom of Pontus comprised a mixed population in its Ionian Anatolian cities. The royal family moved the capital from Amasya to the Greek city of Sinope.
Its rulers tried to assimilate the potential of their subjects by showing a Greek face to the Greek world and an Iranian/Anatolian face to the Eastern world. Whenever the gap between the rulers and their Anatolian subjects became greater, they would put emphasis
The Rhodopes are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece. Golyam Perelik is its highest peak at 2,191 meters; the mountain range gives its name to the terrestrial ecoregion Rodope montane mixed forests that belongs in the Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Biome and the Palearctic ecozone. The region is notable for its karst areas with their deep river gorges, large caves and specific sculptured forms, such as the Trigrad Gorge. A significant part of Bulgaria's hydropower resources are located in the western areas of the range. There are a number of hydro-cascades and dams used for electricity production, irrigation and as tourist destinations. In Greece there are the HPPs of Thisavros and Platanovrysi; the Rhodopes have a rich cultural heritage including ancient Thracian sites such as Perperikon and Belintash, medieval castles, churches and picturesque villages with traditional Bulgarian architecture from the 18th and 19th centuries.
The name of the Rhodope mountains has a Thracian provenance. Rhod-ope is interpreted as the first name of a river, meaning "rusty/reddish river", where Rhod- has the same Indo-European root as the Bulgarian "руда", "ръжда", "риж", Latin "rufus", German "rot" and English "red".. In Greek mythology, Queen Rhodope of Thrace, the wife of King Haemus of Thrace, offended the gods, was changed into a mountain by Zeus and Hera as a punishment along with her husband; the mountains are associated with the mythic figure of Orpheus. In geomorphological terms, the Rhodopes are part of the Rilo-Rhodope massif, the oldest landmass on the Balkan peninsula; the Rhodopes are spread over 14,735 square kilometers, of which 12,233 square kilometers are on Bulgarian territory. They have the greatest extent of any single mountain range in Bulgaria; the mountains are about 240 kilometers long and about 100 to 120 kilometres wide, with an average altitude of 785 meters. To the north the mountain slopes descend steeply towards the Upper Thracian Plain.
To the west, the Rhodopes reach the Avram saddle and the valley of the Mesta River. To the south and east they extend to the coastal plains of Greek Thrace; the Rhodopes are a complex system of deep river valleys. Fifteen reserves have been established in the region; the mountains are famous for the largest coniferous woods in the Balkans, their mild relief and the lush vegetation in the western parts as well as the abundance of birds of prey in the eastern areas. The location of the Rhodopes in the southeastern part of the Balkan Peninsula determines the climate in the region to a great extent, it is influenced both by the colder air coming from the north and by the warmer breeze from the Mediterranean. The average annual temperature in the Eastern Rhodopes is 13 °C, the maximum precipitation is in December, the minimum in August. In the Western Rhodopes, the temperature varies from 5 to 9 °C and in the summer rainfalls prevail; the mild climate, combined with some other factors, works in favour of the development of recreation and tourist activities.
The Pamporovo resort, where the microclimate permits a heavy snow cover to be preserved for a long time, is an excellent example. Temperatures as low as −15 °C are common in winter, due to this the Rhodopes are the southernmost place in the Balkans where tree species such as the Norway Spruce and the Silver Birch can be found; the mountains have abundant water reserves with a dense network of mountain rivers. Nearly 80% of the mountain's territory falls within the drainage of the river Maritsa; the natural lakes are few, the most renown of these being the Smolyan lakes situated at several kilometers from the town of the same name. Some of the largest dams in the country are located in the Rhodopes including the Dospat Dam, Batak Dam, Golyam Beglik, Kardzhali Dam, Studen Kladenets, Vacha Dam, Shiroka Polyana and many others, while in Greece there are the dams of Thisavros and Platanovrysi, they are used for hydro-electric power generation and for irrigation. There are many mineral water springs, the most famous being in Velingrad, Devin, Beden and others.
In Greece there are mineral water springs in Thermes, 40 km. north of and in Thermia, 60 km. north of Drama, at 620 m. The Western Rhodopes are the larger, most infrastructurally developed and most visited part of the mountains; the highest and best known peaks are located in the region including the highest one, Golyam Perelik. Among the other popular peaks are Shirokolashki Snezhnik, Golyam Persenk, Batashki Snezhnik, Turla; some of the deepest river gorges in the Rhodopes are located in the western parts, as well as the rock phenomenon Wonderful Bridges. Significant bodies of water include the Chaira lakes and the Dospat, Shiroka Polyana, Golyam Beglik and Tsigov Chark dams; the town of Batak is located in this part of the mountains, as well as the popular tourist centres Smolyan, Devin, the winter resort Pamporovo, the Eastern Orthodox Bachkovo Monastery, the ruins of the Asen dynasty's fortress, the Devil's Throat and Uhlovitsa caves. The highest village in Bulgaria, Manastir, is crouched in the northern foot of Prespa Peak.
Marcus Licinius Crassus
Marcus Licinius Crassus was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. He is called "The richest man in Rome". Crassus began his public career as a military commander under Lucius Cornelius Sulla during his civil war. Following Sulla's assumption of the dictatorship, Crassus amassed an enormous fortune through real estate speculation. Crassus rose to political prominence following his victory over the slave revolt led by Spartacus, sharing the consulship with his rival Pompey the Great. A political and financial patron of Julius Caesar, Crassus joined Caesar and Pompey in the unofficial political alliance known as the First Triumvirate. Together the three men dominated the Roman political system; the alliance did not last long, due to the ambitions and jealousies of the three men. While Caesar and Crassus were lifelong allies and Pompey disliked each other and Pompey grew envious of Caesar's spectacular successes in the Gallic Wars.
The alliance was re-stabilized at the Lucca Conference in 56 BC, after which Crassus and Pompey again served jointly as consuls. Following his second consulship, Crassus was appointed as the Governor of Roman Syria. Crassus used Syria as the launchpad for a military campaign against the Parthian Empire, Rome's long-time Eastern enemy. Crassus' campaign was a disastrous failure, ending in his death at the Battle of Carrhae. Crassus' death permanently unraveled the alliance between Pompey, his political influence and wealth had been a counterbalance to the two greater militarists. Within four years of Crassus' death, Caesar would cross the Rubicon and begin a civil war against Pompey and the Optimates. Marcus Licinius Crassus was the second of three sons born to the eminent senator and vir triumphalis Publius Licinius Crassus Dives; this line was not descended from the Crassi Divites, although assumed to be. The eldest brother Publius died shortly before the Italic War and he had the unusual distinction of marrying his wife Tertulla after she had been first widowed by his eldest brother Gaius, his younger.
His father and the youngest brother Gaius took their own lives in Rome in winter 87–86 BC to avoid capture when being hunted down by the Marians following their victory in the bellum Octavianum. There were three main branches of the house of the Licinii Crassi in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, many mistakes in identifications and lines have arisen owing to the uniformity of Roman nomenclature, erroneous modern suppositions, the unevenness of information across the generations. In addition the Dives cognomen of the Crassi Divites means rich or wealthy, since Marcus Crassus, the subject here, was renowned for his enormous wealth, this has contributed to hasty assumptions that his family belonged to the Divites, but no ancient source accords his father the Dives cognomen. Crassus' grandfather of the same name, Marcus Licinius Crassus, was facetiously given the Greek nickname Agelastus by his contemporary Gaius Lucilius, the famous inventor of Roman satire, who asserted that he smiled once in his whole life.
This grandfather was son of Publius Licinius Crassus. The latter's brother Gaius Licinius Crassus produced the third line of Licinii Crassi of the period, the most famous of whom was Lucius Licinius Crassus, the greatest Roman orator before Cicero and the latter's childhood hero and model. Marcus Crassus was a talented orator and one of the most energetic and active advocates of his time. After the Marian purges and the subsequent sudden death of Gaius Marius, the surviving consul Lucius Cornelius Cinna imposed proscriptions on those surviving Roman senators and equestrians who had supported Lucius Cornelius Sulla in his 88 BC march on Rome and overthrow of the traditional Roman political arrangements. Cinna's proscription forced Crassus to flee to Hispania, he stayed in Spain from 87-84 BC. Here he recruited 2,500 men from his father's clients settled in the area. Crassus used his army to extort money from the local cities to pay for his campaigns, he is accused of sacking Malaca. After Cinna's death in 84 BC, Crassus went to the Roman province of Africa and joined Metellus Pius, one of Sulla's closest allies.
He did not stay there long because of disagreements with Metellus. He sailed his army to Greece and joined Sulla "with whom he stood in a position of special honour". During Sulla's second civil war and Gnaeus Pompey fought a battle in the plain of Spoletium, killed some 3000 of the men of Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, the leader of the Marian forces, besieged Carinas, a Marian commander. During the decisive battle outside the Colline Gate Crassus commanded the right flank of Sulla's army. After a day of fighting the battle was not going well for Sulla, his own centre was being pushed back and was on the verge of collapse when he got word from Crassus that he had comprehensively crushed the enemy before him. Now, Crassus wanted to know if Sulla needed a hand, or could his men retire. Sulla told him to advance on the enemy's centre. Sulla used the news to stiffen the resolve of his own troops; the battle still lasted till the next morning. And so Sulla became master of Rome. Sulla's victory and Crassus contribution in achieving it put Crassus in a key position.
Sulla was as loyal to his allies as he was cruel towards his enemies and Cras
Gaius Julius Caesar, known by his nomen and cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, military general, historian who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He wrote Latin prose. In 60 BC, Caesar and Pompey formed the First Triumvirate, a political alliance that dominated Roman politics for several years, their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar rose to become one of the most powerful politicians in the Roman Republic through a number of his accomplishments, notably his victories in the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC. During this time, Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both the English Channel and the Rhine River, when he built a bridge across the Rhine and crossed the Channel to invade Britain. Caesar's wars extended Rome's territory to past Gaul; these achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC.
With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Leaving his command in Gaul meant losing his immunity from being charged as a criminal for waging unsanctioned wars; as a result, Caesar found himself with no other options but to cross the Rubicon with the 13th Legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms. This began Caesar's civil war, his victory in the war put him in an unrivaled position of power and influence. After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar, he gave citizenship to many residents of far regions of the Roman Empire. He initiated land support for veterans, he centralized the bureaucracy of the Republic and was proclaimed "dictator for life", giving him additional authority. His populist and authoritarian reforms angered the elites. On the Ides of March, 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of rebellious senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Marcus Junius Brutus and Decimus Junius Brutus, who stabbed him to death.
A new series of civil wars broke out and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian known as Augustus, rose to sole power after defeating his opponents in the civil war. Octavian set about solidifying his power, the era of the Roman Empire began. Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns and from other contemporary sources the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust; the biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are major sources. Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history, his cognomen was subsequently adopted as a synonym for "Emperor". He has appeared in literary and artistic works, his political philosophy, known as Caesarism, inspired politicians into the modern era. Gaius Julius Caesar was born into a patrician family, the gens Julia, which claimed descent from Iulus, son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas the son of the goddess Venus.
The Julii were of Alban origin, mentioned as one of the leading Alban houses, which settled in Rome around the mid-7th century BC, after the destruction of Alba Longa. They were granted patrician status, along with other noble Alban families; the Julii existed at an early period at Bovillae, evidenced by a ancient inscription on an altar in the theatre of that town, which speaks of their offering sacrifices according to the lege Albana, or Alban rites. The cognomen "Caesar" originated, according to Pliny the Elder, with an ancestor, born by Caesarean section; the Historia Augusta suggests three alternative explanations: that the first Caesar had a thick head of hair. Caesar issued coins featuring images of elephants, suggesting that he favored this interpretation of his name. Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not politically influential, although they had enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC. Caesar's father called Gaius Julius Caesar, governed the province of Asia, his sister Julia, Caesar's aunt, married Gaius Marius, one of the most prominent figures in the Republic.
His mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential family. Little is recorded of Caesar's childhood. In 85 BC, Caesar's father died so Caesar was the head of the family at 16, his coming of age coincided with a civil war between his uncle Gaius Marius and his rival Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Both sides carried out bloody purges of their political opponents whenever they were in the ascendancy. Marius and his ally Lucius Cornelius Cinna were in control of the city when Caesar was nominated as the new Flamen Dialis, he was married to Cinna's daughter Cornelia. Following Sulla's final victory, Caesar's connections to the old regime made him a target for the new one, he was stripped of his inheritance, his wife's dowry, his priesthood, but he refused to divorce Cornelia and was forced to go into hiding. The threat against hi