AppleScript is a scripting language created by Apple Inc. that facilitates automated control over scriptable Mac applications. First introduced in System 7, it is included in all versions of macOS as part of a package of system automation tools; the term "AppleScript" may refer to the language itself, to an individual script written in the language, or, informally, to the macOS Open Scripting Architecture that underlies the language. AppleScript is a scripting language developed by Apple to do inter-application communication using Apple events. AppleScript is related to, but different from, Apple events. Apple events are designed to exchange data between and control other applications in order to automate repetitive tasks. AppleScript has some processing abilities of its own, in addition to sending and receiving Apple events to applications. AppleScript can do basic calculations and text processing, is extensible, allowing the use of scripting additions that add new functions to the language.
However, AppleScript relies on the functionality of applications and processes to handle complex tasks. As a structured command language, AppleScript can be compared to Unix shells, the Microsoft Windows Script Host, or IBM REXX in its purpose, but it is distinct from all three. Essential to its functionality is the fact that Macintosh applications publish "dictionaries" of addressable objects and operations. AppleScript has some elements of procedural programming, object-oriented programming, natural language programming tendencies in its syntax, but does not conform to any of these programming paradigms. In the late 1980s Apple considered using HyperCard's HyperTalk scripting language as the standard language for end-user development across the company and within its classic Mac OS operating system, for interprocess communication between Apple and non-Apple products. HyperTalk could be used by novices to program a HyperCard stack. Apple engineers recognized that a similar, but more object-oriented scripting language could be designed to be used with any application, the AppleScript project was born as a spin-off of a research effort to modernize the Macintosh as a whole and became part of System 7.
AppleScript was released in October 1993 as part of System 7.1.1. QuarkXPress was one of the first major software applications; this in turn led to AppleScript being adopted within the publishing and prepress world tying together complex workflows. This was a key factor in retaining the Macintosh's dominant position in publishing and prepress after QuarkXpress and other publishing applications were ported to Microsoft Windows. After some uncertainty about the future of AppleScript on Apple's next generation OS, the move to Mac OS X and its Cocoa frameworks increased the usefulness and flexibility of AppleScript. Cocoa applications allow application developers to implement basic scriptability for their apps with minimal effort, broadening the number of applications that are directly scriptable. At the same time, the shift to the Unix underpinnings and AppleScript's ability to run Unix commands directly, with the do shell script command, allowed AppleScripts much greater control over the operating system itself.
AppleScript Studio, released with Mac OS X 10.2 as part of Xcode, AppleScriptObjC framework, released in Mac OS X 10.6, allowed users to build Cocoa applications using AppleScript. In a 2006 article, Macworld included AppleScript among its rankings of Apple's 30 most significant products to date, placing it at #17. In a 2013 article for Macworld, veteran Mac software developer and commentator John Gruber concluded his reflection on "the unlikely persistence of AppleScript" by noting: "In theory, AppleScript could be much better, it exemplifies the Mac's advantages over iOS for tinkerers and advanced users."In October 2016, longtime AppleScript product manager and automation evangelist Sal Soghoian left Apple when his position was eliminated "for business reasons". Veterans in the Mac community such as John Gruber and Andy Ihnatko responded with concern, questioning Apple's commitment to the developer community and pro users. Apple senior vice president of software engineering Craig Federighi responded in an email saying that "We have every intent to continue our support for the great automation technologies in macOS!", though Jeff Gamet at The Mac Observer opined that it did little to assuage his doubt about the future of Apple automation in general and AppleScript in particular.
For the time being, AppleScript remains one component of macOS automation technologies, along with Services and shell scripting. AppleScript was designed to be used as an accessible end-user scripting language, offering users an intelligent mechanism to control applications, to access and modify data and documents. AppleScript uses Apple events, a set of standardized data formats that the Macintosh operating system uses to send information to applications analogous to sending XPath queries over XML-RPC in the world of web services. Apple events allow a script to work with multiple applications passing data between them so that complex tasks can be accomplished without human interaction. For example, an AppleScript to create a simple web gallery might do the following: Open a photo in a photo-editing application. Tell the photo-editing application to manipulate the image Tell the photo-editing application to save the changed image in a file in
The Hanuman Chalisa is a Hindu devotional hymn addressed to Lord Hanuman. It is traditionally believed to have been authored by 16th-century poet Tulsidas in the Awadhi language, is his best known text apart from the Ramcharitmanas; the word "chālīsā" is derived from "chālīs", which means the number forty in Hindi, as the Hanuman Chalisa has 40 verses. Hanuman is one of the central characters in the Indian epic, the Ramayan. According to some Shaivite beliefs, Lord Hanuman is an incarnation of Lord Shiva. Folk tales acclaim the powers of Hanuman; the qualities of Hanuman – his strength, wisdom, devotion to Lord Rama and the many names by which he was known – are detailed in the Hanuman Chalisa. Recitation or chanting of the Hanuman Chalisa is a common religious practice; the Hanuman Chalisa is the most popular hymn in praise of Lord Hanuman, is recited by millions of Hindus every day. The authorship of the Hanuman Chalisa is attributed to Tulsidas, a poet-saint who lived in the 16th century CE.
It is said in the last stanza of the Chalisa that whoever chants it with full devotion to Hanuman, will have Hanuman's grace. Among Hindus worldwide, it is a popular belief that chanting the Chalisa invokes Hanuman's divine intervention in grave problems, including those concerning evil spirits. Tulsidas was a Hindu poet-saint and philosopher renowned for his devotion for Rama. A composer of several popular works, he is best known for being the author of the epic Ramcharitmanas, a retelling of the Ramayana in the vernacular Awadhi language. Tulsidas was acclaimed in his lifetime to be a reincarnation of Valmiki, the composer of the original Ramayan in Sanskrit. Tulsidas lived in the city of Varanasi until his death; the Tulsi Ghat in Varnasi is named after him. He founded the Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple dedicated to Hanuman in Varanasi, believed to stand at the place where he had the sight of Hanuman. Tulsidas started, he has been acclaimed as one of the greatest poets in Hindi and World literature.
The impact of Tulsidas and his works on the art and society in India is widespread and is seen to date in vernacular language, Ramlila plays, Hindustani classical music, popular music, television series. There are 2 couplets in the beginning and one couplet at the ending between the 40 verses of Chalisa; the Chalisa detail in devotion to Rama and man without any desire. As with the case of devotional literature, Tulsidas starts the poem with two couplets praising his Guru; the language of Chalisa is in the refined Awadhi language. The Hindu deity to whom the prayer is addressed, Hanuman, is an ardent devotee of Ram and a central character in the Ramayana. Lord Hanuman is one of the powerful incarnation of Lord Shiva. A general among the vanaras, Hanuman is a disciple of Lord Ram in the war against the demon king Ravan. Hanuman's exploits are much celebrated in a variety of religious and cultural traditions in Hinduism, to the extent that he is the object of worship according to some bhakti traditions, is the prime deity in many temples known as Hanuman Mandirs.
He is one of seven chiranjeevs as per Sanatan Dharma. Hanuman appears in Mahabharata on Arjuna's chariot as'dhwaj'; the work consists of forty-three verses – two introductory Dohas, forty Chaupais and one Doha in the end. The first introductory Doha begins with the word shrī, which refers to Shiva, considered the Guru of Hanuman; the auspicious form, virtues and bravery of Hanuman are described in the first ten Chaupais. Chaupais eleven to twenty describe the acts of Hanuman in his service to Ram, with the eleventh to fifteenth Chaupais describing the role of Hanuman in bringing back Lakshman to consciousness. From the twenty-first Chaupai, Tulsidas describes the need of Hanuman's Kripa. At the end, Tulsidas greets Lord Hanuman with subtle devotion and requests him to reside in his heart and in the heart of Vaishnavs; the concluding Doha again requests Hanuman to reside in the heart, along with Ram and Sita. The translation below follows the English and Hindi translations by Gita Press, Rao and Rambhadracharya.
Cleansing the mirror in the form of my mind with the pollen of the lotus-feet of the Guru, I describe the unblemished glory of Rama, which bestows the four fruits. Gita Press translation interprets the four fruits as the four Puruṣārthas – Dharma, Artha, Kāma, Mokṣa. Rambhadracharya comments that the four fruits refer to any of the following The four Puruṣārthas – Dharma, Artha, Kāma, Mokṣa The four types of Mukti – Sālokya, Sāmīpya, Sāyujya, Sārūpya Dharma, Jñāna, JapaKnowing my body to be devoid of intelligence, I remember Hanuman, the son of Vāyu. Give me strength and knowledge and remove all ailments and impurities. Gita Press interprets kalesa as bodily ailments and bikāra as mental maladies. Rambhadracharya comments that kalesa refers to the five afflictions as described in the Yoga Sutras, bikāra refers to the six impurities of the mind. Rambhadracharya adds that these five afflictions and six impurities are the eleven enemies, Hanuman is capable of removing them as he is the incarnation of the eleven Rudras.
O Hanuman, the ocean of knowledge and virtues, may you be victorious. O the chief amongst Vanaras famous across the three Lokas, may you
Iota Sagittarii is a star in the zodiac constellation of Sagittarius. With an apparent visual magnitude of +4.118, it is bright enough to be viewed with the naked eye. Based upon an annual parallax shift of 17.94 mas as seen from Earth, this star is located 182 light years from the Sun. It is moving away from the Earth with a radial velocity of +35.8 km/s. This is a probable astrometric binary, based upon proper motion data collected during the Hipparcos mission; the visible component shows the spectrum of an evolved K-type giant or bright giant star with a stellar classification of K0 II-III. The measured angular diameter, after correction for limb darkening, is 2.32±0.02 mas. At an estimated distance of this star, this yields a physical size of about 14 times the radius of the Sun, it has 1.4 times the mass of the Sun and is radiating 87 times the Sun's luminosity from its photosphere at an effective temperature of about 4,594 K