The DualShock is a line of gamepads with vibration-feedback and analog controls developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment for the PlayStation family of systems. The DualShock was introduced in Japan in November 1997 and launched in the North American market in May 1998. First introduced as a secondary peripheral for the original PlayStation, an updated version of the PlayStation console included the controller. Sony subsequently phased out the digital controller, included with the console, as well as the Sony Dual Analog Controller; as of 2008, over 28 million DualShock controllers have been sold under the brand's name, excluding bundled controllers. The DualShock Analog Controller, a controller capable of providing vibration feedback, was based on the onscreen actions taking place in the game, as well as analog input through two analog sticks, its name derives from its use of two vibration motors. These motors are housed within the handles of the controller, with the left one being larger and more powerful than the one on the right, so as to allow for varying levels of vibration.
The DualShock differs from the Nintendo 64's Rumble Pak in this respect as the Rumble Pak only uses a single motor. The Rumble Pak uses batteries to power the vibration function while all corded varieties of the DualShock use power supplied by the PlayStation; the rumble feature of the DualShock is similar to the one featured on the first edition of the Japanese Dual Analog Controller, a feature, removed shortly after that controller was released. The DualShock, like its predecessor the Dual Analog controller, has two analog sticks. Unlike the earlier controller, the DualShock's analog sticks feature textured rubber grips rather than the smooth plastic tips with recessed grooves found on the Dual Analog controller; the DualShock features two additional buttons when compared to the Dual Analog, L3 and R3, which are triggered by depressing the analog sticks. Other differences between Dual Analog and the DualShock include the longer grips/handles and different L2/R2 buttons; the DualShock controller was supported.
Some games designed for the Dual Analog's vibration capability, such as Porsche Challenge and Crash Bandicoot 2 work. Many games took advantage of the presence of two motors to provide vibration effects in stereo including Gran Turismo and the PlayStation port of Quake II. Released in 1999, the PlayStation hit Ape Escape became the first game to explicitly require DualShock/Dual-Analog-type controllers, with its gameplay requiring the use of both analog sticks. In 2000, when the PS one was released with the redesigned DualShock Controller, similar to the first one, except its color is white instead of gray, in the middle of the controller has the "PS one" logo, instead of the "PlayStation" naming, most of the buttons, analog sticks and the cord are brighter than the previous one, the connector is more of a semi-circle shape than having round edge, it came in colors; the DualShock is compatible with the PlayStation 2, as they use the same connector and protocol. However, certain PS2 games that utilize the DualShock 2's analog buttons, such as The Bouncer, are not compatible with the DualShock.
The DualShock is forwards compatible with the PlayStation 2 when that console is used to play PlayStation games. When the PlayStation 2 computer entertainment system was announced, the DualShock 2 Analog Controller included with it was exactly the same externally as the previous DualShock analog controller. There were however a few minor cosmetic changes, it has one fewer screw. A blue DualShock 2 logo was added to the top of the controller, the connector is more square than the DualShock, both the cable and connector are black rather than grey; the standard controller is black as with the original DualShock. The analog sticks are noticeably stiffer than on the original DualShock. Internally, the DualShock 2 was lighter and all of the buttons were readable as analog values; the DualShock 2 has been made available in various colors: black, satin silver, ceramic white, slate grey, ocean blue, emerald green, crimson red, candy pink. The original PlayStation is forward compatible with the DualShock 2.
The PlayStation 3 is backward compatible with the DualShock and DualShock 2 by the use of third party peripherals, which connect the controller to the console via a USB port. However, the DualShock and DualShock 2 will not work properly with games that require Sixaxis functionality, such as Heavy Rain. Announced at the 2007 Tokyo Game Show, the DualShock 3 wireless controller is a gamepad for the PlayStation 3, it replaces the Sixaxis wireless controller released with earlier versions of the console. The DualShock 3 is nearly identical to the previous Sixaxis version but adds the haptic feedback – known as force feedback – capabilities found in the DualShock and DualShock 2. Sony settled a patent infringement lawsuit with Immersion in March 2007 following a lengthy legal battle; the settlement cleared the way
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
The Lego Group
Lego System A/S, doing business as The Lego Group, is a Danish toy production company based in Billund. It is best known for the manufacture of Lego-brand toys, consisting of interlocking plastic bricks; the Lego Group has built several amusement parks around the world, each known as Legoland, operates numerous retail stores. The company was founded on 10 August 1932 by Ole Kirk Christiansen; the word "lego" is derived from the Danish words "leg godt", meaning "play well". In the first half of 2015, The Lego Group became the world's largest toy company by revenue, with sales amounting to US$2.1 billion, surpassing Mattel, which had US$1.9 billion in sales. On 11 August 2017, Lego announced that Niels B. Christiansen would become the new CEO, effective 1 October of the same year; the history of Lego spans nearly 100 years, beginning with the creation of small wooden playthings during the early 20th century. Manufacturing of plastic Lego bricks began in Denmark in 1947, but since has grown to include factories throughout the world.
In 1961, Lego was managed by Samsonite until 1986 in Canada. Below are historical images of the Lego logo throughout the company's existence. Since the expiration of the last standing Lego patent in 1989, a number of companies have produced interlocking bricks that are similar to Lego bricks; the toy company Tyco Toys produced such bricks for a time. These competitor products are compatible with Lego bricks, are marketed at a lower cost than Lego sets. One such competitor is Coko, manufactured by Chinese company Tianjin Coko Toy Co. Ltd. In 2002, Lego Group's Swiss subsidiary Interlego AG sued the company for copyright infringement. A trial court found many Coko bricks to be infringing. On appeal, the Beijing High People's Court upheld the trial court's ruling. In 2003, The Lego Group won a lawsuit in Norway against the marketing group Biltema for its sale of Coko products, on the grounds that the company used product confusion for marketing purposes. In 2003, a large shipment of Lego-like products marketed under the name "Enlighten" was seized by Finland customs authorities.
The packaging of the Enlighten products was similar to official Lego packaging. Their Chinese manufacturer failed to appear in court, thus Lego won a default action ordering the destruction of the shipment. Lego Group footed the bill for the disposal of the 54,000 sets, citing a desire to avoid brand confusion and protect consumers from inferior products. In 2004, Best-Lock Construction Toys defeated a patent challenge from Lego in the Oberlandesgericht, Hamburg; the Lego Group has attempted to trademark the "Lego Indicia", the studded appearance of the Lego brick, hoping to stop production of Mega Bloks. On 24 May 2002, the Federal Court of Canada dismissed the case, asserting the design is functional and therefore ineligible for trademark protection; the Lego Group's appeal was dismissed by the Federal Court of Appeal on 14 July 2003. In October 2005, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that "Trademark law should not be used to perpetuate monopoly rights enjoyed under now-expired patents" and held that Mega Bloks can continue to manufacture their bricks.
Because of fierce competition from copycat products, the company has always responded by being proactive in their patenting and has over 600 United States–granted design patents to their name. Lego products are mass-produced and shipped on a large scale. Lego Produktion AG was a major production facility for Lego, it was founded in Switzerland in 1974. At the time of its announced closing in 2001, 30% of the world production of Lego was produced at the Swiss facility in Baar; the Baar facility closed in 2004 with the remaining Swiss production facilities closing in 2005. Today, finance department of Lego is located in Switzerland. Lego acknowledges the impact of its operations on the environment, in particular in areas such as climate change and energy use and waste. All manufacturing sites are certified according to the environmental standard ISO 14001; the first Borkum Riffgrund 1 wind turbines off the coast of Germany began producing electricity in February 2015, which will help The Lego Group reach its goal of being based 100% on renewable energy by 2020.
The company claims to recycle 90% of its waste and that it had made its operations nearly one-third more energy efficient over the five-year period ending 31 December 2013. It is seeking alternatives to crude oil as the raw material for its bricks; this results in the establishment in June 2015 the Lego Sustainable Materials Centre, expected to recruit more than 100 employees, as a significant step towards the 2030 ambition of finding and implementing sustainable alternatives to current materials. In 2011, Lego bowed to pressure from the environmental campaigning organisation Greenpeace agreeing to drop supplier Asia Pulp and Paper, pledging to only use packaging material certified by the Forest Stewardship Council in future; the environmental group had accused Lego, Hasbro and Disney of using packaging material sourced from trees cleared out of the Indonesian rainforest. Lego partnered with the oil company Royal Dutch Shell in the 1960s, using the company's logo in some of its construction sets.
This partnership continued until the 1990s, was renewed again in 2011. In July 2014, Greenpeace launched a global campaign to persuade Lego to cease producing toys carrying the oil company Shell's logo in response to Shell's plans to drill for oil in the Arctic. Shell's PR company valued the
Free Lives Ltd is an independent South African video game developer based in Cape Town. Founded in April 2012 and lead by creative director Evan Greenwood, Free Lives is best known for creating the video game Broforce and has developed the comedy game Genital Jousting and the virtual reality game Gorn. Free Lives is published through American publisher Devolver Digital. Free Lives was founded in April 2012 by video game programmer and creative director Evan Greenwood and is based on a property, part studio, part house in Cape Town, South Africa; the titles developed by Free Lives do not sell well on the African continent and the studio's audience lies predominantly in the United States, as well as Europe, South America, China. Free Lives staff have showcased their products at various North American and European game conventions, was part of the Sony press conference at E3 2017; as of 2017, some of the Free Lives staff lives on-site. Free Lives first got involved with the video game industry when the team entered Rambros, a pixel art 2D shooter game inspired by 1980s and 1990s action movies, in the April 2012 Ludum Dare game jam.
Rambros was awarded for its graphics and humor at Ludum Dare, Free Lives continued to expand and tweak the game in the following years. Rambros was soon renamed to Broforce and was made available on the Free Lives website the next year. Broforce was first released through Steam Greenlight in 2013, received a spin-off titled The Expendabros in 2014. After one of the Free Lives team members met publisher Devolver Digital at the A Maze indie festival in Berlin, Devolver Digital signed the studio on and Broforce was published in 2015. Late 2016, Free Lives made the comedy game Genital Jousting available through the Steam Early Access program. In this multiplayer party game, players attempt to move flaccid, disembodied penises into disembodied anuses. Though Genital Jousting has been described as "extraordinarily juvenile", it was designed in part to deliver a sex-positive message to an audience that might not come to hear it otherwise; the studio stated in its developer blog that cisgender, heterosexual males are socialized not to discuss how they feel about anal sex or penises touching each other, wrote: "we were motivated by the fact that Genital Jousting gave us a vehicle to have those discussions amongst ourselves."
Greenwood told The Sunday Times that "at heart, the game is a play on masculinity, an attempt to disrupt entrenched notions of male power and authority." The game would not be allowed on major console platforms such as PlayStation. When Genital Jousting was banned from livestreaming service Twitch.tv, Lowrie Nigel of Devolver Digital contacted Steam to see if the game could be livestreamed through the platform's internal broadcasting system. Genital Jousting became the first game to be broadcast through Steam's live streaming feature. On 10 July 2017, Free Lives released the virtual reality game Gorn for the Oculus Rift and HTC Vive on Steam Early Access. Described as a "ludicrously violent VR gladiator simulator," Gorn features a physics-driven combat engine and a large amount of violent gore. Free Lives stated that they used the Early Access service in order to be able to expand the game with features players want to see. In an interview with MyGaming, Greenwood stated that the studio had made US$3 million off of Broforce sales by 2016.
The entire Free Lives team moved to Tamarin on the island nation of Mauritius for three months in late 2016, using the profit from their success with Broforce. Free Lives produced a video series here titled Game Jam Island, in which they documented their experience developing a video game on the popular vacation island. Official website
Revolution Software Limited, a British video-game developer based in York, dates from 1989. Charles Cecil, Tony Warriner, David Sykes and Noirin Carmody founded the company. Released in 1992 for the Amiga, Atari ST, DOS platforms, Lure of the Temptress was both critically and commercially a success, which helped set the company up for their future game releases. Revolution released the game as freeware on 1 April 2003, their next game was released in 1994. The game focused on protagonist Robert Foster's abduction and subsequent search for answers in a dystopian city of the future. In that period they ported Sierra's King's Quest VI: Heir Today, Gone Tomorrow to the Commodore Amiga. Virtual Theatre system was used instead of Sierra's Creative Interpreter due to its much better performance. Despite the success of Beneath a Steel Sky, it was the company's next game that they would become best known for, which would have both the biggest critical and commercial success. Broken Sword: The Shadow of the Templars was released for PC and PlayStation in 1996 and was ported to the Game Boy Advance in 2002.
The game revolves around the story of George Stobbart, an American tourist whose holiday in Paris is rudely interrupted by a bombing. Investigating, he runs into photo-journalist Nicole Collard, the two embark on a globe-trotting adventure; the hand drawn graphics and characters, gameplay helped make the game a hit, cemented the company's reputation for story driven games. The game was followed by a well-received sequel, Broken Sword II: The Smoking Mirror. According to Charles Cecil, each of the first two Broken Sword games sold around a 1,000,000 copies in the mid-1990s. On July 2000, the company released their first 3D game In Cold Blood for the PlayStation. Set in the near future, the game featured an MI6 agent. Sent to the fictional, former soviet region of Volgia, the player embarks on a mission to investigate a newly discovered substance, Blue Nephrine. However, Cord is betrayed and must work out by whom, while trying to work out what plans the dictator of Volgia, General Nagarov, has for this mysterious new chemical and the implications for the world.
On December 2000, the company released a children's adventure game Gold and Glory: The Road to El Dorado to coincide with the release of the film The Road to El Dorado. The company started work on Good Cop Bad Cop, an action game for the PlayStation 2, Xbox and GameCube; however the game was cancelled so that the company could concentrate on Broken Sword: The Sleeping Dragon. Released in November 2003, Broken Sword: The Sleeping Dragon featured 3D graphics, moved away from the 2D point-and-click style of older games; as the game was developed for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 2 and Xbox they decided to implement a direct control mechanism for the protagonist, instead of mouse control clicking on hot spots, as this was easier to convert to console game pads. Revolution released Broken Sword: The Angel of Death on 15 September 2006. At the start of the game, George is working as a bail bonds clerk, when he falls in love with Anna-Maria, a woman who asks George to help her find an artefact. On 1 March 2009, Revolution Software released a director's cut version of their first Broken Sword series, called Broken Sword: The Shadow of the Templars – Director's Cut, for Wii and Nintendo DS platforms.
According to a Charles Cecil interview with Pocket Gamer, the iOS version of the Director's Cut sold around 160,000 copies by December 2010. The company announced that The Director's Cut is coming soon to Android. On October 2009, Beneath a Steel Sky – Remastered was made available on the Apple App Store; the Remastered Edition sold around 20,000 copies in its first month and expected to hit 70,000 sales in the first year and 100,000 lifetime sales. The company announced the remastered edition of the second game in the Broken Sword series on 9 December 2010, called Broken Sword: The Smoking Mirror – Remastered; the game was released in April 2011 on OS X and May 2011 on Microsoft Windows. On 25 July 2012, Charles Cecil posted on his personal Facebook account: "Totally focused on the announce video for our next game. I am thrilled by how it's looking, can't wait to talk publicly, but completing the video for end of the month – as promised – now seems somewhat ambitious." After a short delay, the game was announced to be a fifth entry in the series: Broken Sword 5: The Serpent's Curse.
The game was announced with a Kickstarter campaign and a video, showing some of the game's graphics and hinting at its storyline. After the release of Beneath a Steel Sky – Remastered, Charles Cecil and Dave Gibbons stated that a sequel could be and that iPhone would be the ideal platform. During its Broken Sword 5: The Serpent's Curse crowdfunding campaign on Kickstarter, the company put Beneath a Steel Sky 2 as a $1,000,000 bonus stretch goal if the new Broken Sword game raises enough money, but it only raised $820,000. On 24 September 2012, after failing to reach the bonus stretch goal, the company's co-founder Tony Warriner said that "after the huge success of the Broken Sword 5 crowdfunding campaign on Kickstater, it inspired us to begin work on Beneath a Steel Sky 2. Development of the sequel will begin after the release of Broken Sword 5: The Serpent's Curse. We're delighted by the recent level of interest in a sequel to Beneath a Steel Sky and are discussing design ideas for this project which we plan to go into development following the release of Broken Sword 5: The Serpent's Curse.
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne