Macintosh Classic II
The Macintosh Classic II is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from October 1991 to September 1993. Like the Macintosh SE/30 it replaces, the Classic II was powered by a 16 MHz Motorola 68030 CPU and 40 or 80 MB hard disk, but in contrast to its predecessor, it was limited by a 16-bit data bus and a 10 MB memory ceiling; the slower data bus resulted in the Classic II being 30% slower than the SE/30. While the Classic II shares a case with the earlier Classic, architecturally it is more similar to the Macintosh LC; the use of custom ICs, identical to those used in the LC, enabled the Classic II to have a lower component count than older Macs. Unlike the LC and the SE/30 before it, the Classic II does not have an internal Processor Direct Slot, making it the first slotless desktop Macintosh since the Macintosh Plus; the Classic II was one of the three machines Apple repackaged as a Macintosh Performa when the brand was introduced in September 1992. Called the "Performa 200", it was sold with the same specifications as the original Classic II, with the addition of a speaker grille on the left side for enhanced sound.
A number of changes to the packaged software were included, such as the At Ease desktop alternative which aimed to provide a simpler user interface than the standard Macintosh Finder. The exact software included tended to vary from one retailer to the next, it was offered at a retail price of about $1,250 USD. The Classic II is the last black-and-white compact Macintosh, the last desktop Macintosh to include an external floppy disk drive port. Apple discontinued support for the Classic II on January 1, 2001. Macintosh Classic II: Sold in two configurations:2/40: 2 MB RAM, 40 MB HDD. USD $1,899. 4/80: 4 MB RAM, 80 MB HDD. USD $2,399. Macintosh Performa 200: Processor: 16 MHz Motorola 68030, with an optional Motorola 68882 FPU RAM: 2 MB, expandable to 10 MB using two 100 ns 30-pin SIMMs Display: 9" b&w screen, 512 x 342 pixels Audio: 8-bit mono 22kHz Hard drive: 40 or 80 MB Floppy: 1.4 MB double sided Addressing: 24-bit or 32-bit Battery: 3.6 V lithium Expansion: Connectors on the rear panel include an ADB port for keyboard and mouse, two mini-DIN-8 RS-422 serial ports, DB-25 SCSI, DB-19 External floppy drive, two 3.5 mm minijack audio sockets for audio in and headphone out.
The Classic II has a 50-pin internal expansion slot intended for either an FPU co-processor or additional ROM. The socket is not designed to be used for any other purpose and is not suitable for use as a general expansion slot. Apple never produced an expansion card of any kind for this slot, although at least one third-party FPU was available: the FastMath Classic II by Applied Engineering, and Sonnet offered a synchronous and asynchronous 68882 FPU. In 2016, a group of hobbyists at the 68k Mac Liberation Army forums produced an expansion card with sockets for an FPU and a bootable, rewriteable ROM. Classic II Information pages at Mac512.com
The PowerBook is a family of Macintosh laptop computers designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1991 to 2006. During its lifetime, the PowerBook went through several major revisions and redesigns being the first to incorporate features that would become standard in competing laptops; the PowerBook line was targeted at the professional market, received numerous awards in the second half of its life, such as the 2001 Industrial Design Excellence Awards "Gold" status, Engadget's 2005 "Laptop of the Year". In 1999, the line was supplemented by education-focused iBook family; the PowerBook was replaced by the MacBook Pro in 2006 as part of Apple's transition to Intel processors. In October 1991 Apple released the first three PowerBooks: the low-end PowerBook 100, the more powerful PowerBook 140, the high end PowerBook 170, the only one with an active matrix display; these machines caused a stir in the industry with their compact dark grey cases, built-in trackball, the innovative positioning of the keyboard that left room for palmrests on either side of the pointing device.
Portable PC computers at the time were still oriented toward DOS, tended to have the keyboard forward towards the user, with empty space behind it, used for function key reference cards. In the early days of Microsoft Windows, many notebooks came with a clip on trackball that fit on the edge of the keyboard molding; as usage of DOS gave way to the graphical user interface, the PowerBook's arrangement became the standard layout all future notebook computers would follow. The PowerBook 140 and 170 were the original PowerBook designs, while the PowerBook 100 was the result of Apple having sent the schematics of the Mac Portable to Sony, who miniaturized the components. Hence the PowerBook 100's design does not match those of the rest of the series, as it was designed after the 140 and 170 and further benefited from improvements learned during their development; the PowerBook 100, did not sell well until Apple dropped the price substantially. The 100 series PowerBooks were intended to tie into the rest of the Apple desktop products utilizing the corporate Snow White design language incorporated into all product designs since 1986.
Unlike the Macintosh Portable, a battery-powered desktop in weight and size, the light colors and decorative recessed lines did not seem appropriate for the scaled-down designs. In addition to adopting the darker grey colour scheme that coordinated with the official corporate look, they adopted a raised series of ridges mimicking the indented lines on the desktops; the innovative look not only unified their entire product line, but set Apple apart in the marketplace. These early series would be the last to utilize the aging Snow White look, with the 190 adopting a new look along with the introduction of the 500 series; the first series of PowerBooks were hugely successful. Despite this, the original team left setting back updated versions for some time; when attempting to increase processing power, Apple was hampered by the overheating problems of the 68040. For several years, new PowerBook and PowerBook Duo computers were introduced that featured incremental improvements, including color screens, but by mid-decade, most other companies had copied the majority of the PowerBook's features.
Apple was unable to ship a 68040-equipped PowerBook until the PowerBook 500 series in 1994. The original PowerBook 100, 140, 170 were replaced by the 145, 160, 180 in 1992; the 160 and 180 having video output allowing them to drive an external monitor. In addition, the PowerBook 180 had a superb-for-the-time active-matrix grayscale display, making it popular with the Mac press. In 1993, the PowerBook 165c was the first PowerBook with a color screen followed by the 180c. In 1994, the last true member of the 100-series form factor introduced was the PowerBook 150, targeted at value-minded consumers and students; the PowerBook 190, released in 1995, bears no resemblance to the rest of the PowerBook 100 series, is in fact a Motorola 68LC040-based version of the PowerBook 5300. Like the 190, the 150 used the 5300 IDE-based logic-board architecture. From the 100's 68000 processor, to the 190's 68LC040 processor, the 100 series PowerBooks span the entire Apple 68K line, with the 190 upgradable to a PowerPC processor.
In 1992 Apple released a hybrid portable/desktop computer, the PowerBook Duo, continuing to streamline the subnotebook features introduced with the PowerBook 100. The Duos were a series of thin and lightweight laptops with a minimum of features, which could be inserted into a docking station to provide the system with extra video memory, storage space and could be connected to a monitor. 1994 saw the introduction of the Motorola 68LC040-based PowerBook code-named Blackbird. These models of PowerBooks were much sleeker and faster than the 100 series, which they replaced as the mid and high-end models; the 500 series featured DSTN or active-matrix LCD displays, stereo speakers, was the first computer to use a trackpad. The PowerBook 500 series was the mainstay of the product line until the PowerBook 5300; the 500 series was the first
The Apple IIe is the third model in the Apple II series of personal computers produced by Apple Computer. The e in the name stands for enhanced, referring to the fact that several popular features were now built-in that were only available as upgrades or add-ons in earlier models. Improved expandability combined with the new features made for a attractive general-purpose machine to first-time computer shoppers; as the last surviving model of the Apple II computer line before discontinuation, having been manufactured and sold for nearly 11 years with few changes, the IIe earned the distinction of being the longest-lived computer in Apple's history. Apple Computer planned to discontinue the Apple II series after the introduction of the Apple III in 1980. Management believed that "once the Apple III was out, the Apple II would stop selling in six months", cofounder Steve Wozniak said. By the time IBM released the rival IBM PC in 1981, the Apple II's technology was four years old. In September 1981 InfoWorld reported—below the PC's announcement—that Apple was secretly developing three new computers "to be ready for release within a year": Lisa, "McIntosh", "Diana".
Describing the last as a software-compatible Apple II replacement—"A 6502 machine using custom LSI" and a simpler motherboard—it said that Diana "was ready for release months ago" but decided to improve the design to better compete with the Xerox 820. "Now it appears that when Diana is ready for release, it will offer features and a price that will make the Apple II uncompetitive", the magazine wrote."Apple's plans to phase out the Apple II have been delayed by complications in the design of the Apple III", the article said. After the Apple III struggled, management decided in 1981 that the further continuation of the Apple II was in the company's best interest. After 3 1⁄2 years of the Apple II Plus at a standstill, came the introduction of a new Apple II model — the Apple IIe; the Apple IIe was released in the successor to the Apple II Plus. The Apple IIe was the first Apple computer with a custom ASIC chip, which reduced much of the old discrete IC-based circuitry to a single chip; this change resulted in reducing the size of the motherboard.
Some of the hardware features of the Apple III were borrowed in the design of the Apple IIe, some from incorporating the Apple II Plus Language card. The culmination of these changes led to increased sales and greater market share of home and small business use. One of the most notable improvements of the Apple IIe is the addition of a full ASCII character set and keyboard; the most important addition is the ability to display lower-case letters. Other keyboard improvements include four-way cursor control and standard editing keys, two special Apple modifier keys, a safe off-to-side relocation of the "Reset" key; the auto-repeat function is now automatic, no longer requiring the "REPT" key found on the keyboards of previous models. The machine came standard with 64 KB RAM, with the equivalent of a built-in Apple Language Card in its circuitry, had a new special "Auxiliary slot" for adding more memory via bank-switching RAM cards. Through this slot it includes built-in support for an 80-column text display on monitors and could be doubled to 128 KB RAM by alternatively plugging in Apple's Extended 80-Column Text Card.
As time progressed more memory could be added through third-party cards using the same bank-switching slot or, general-purpose slot cards that addressed memory 1 byte at a time. A new ROM diagnostic routine could be invoked to test the motherboard for faults and test its main bank of memory; the Apple IIe lowered production costs and improved reliability by merging the function of several off-the-shelf ICs into single custom chips, reducing total chip count to 31. The IIe switched to using newer single-voltage 4164 DRAM chips instead of the unreliable triple-voltage 4116 DRAM in the II/II+. For this reason the motherboard design is much cleaner and runs cooler as well, with enough room to add a pin-connector for an external numeric keypad. Added was a backport-accessible DE-9 joystick connector, making it far easier for users to add and remove game and input devices. Improved were port openings for expansion cards. Rather than cutout V-shaped slot openings as in the Apple II and II Plus, the IIe has a variety of different-sized openings, with thumb-screw holes, to accommodate mounting interface cards with DB-xx and DE-xx connectors.
Although the lower IC count improved reliability over previous Apple II models, Apple still retained the practice of socketing all ICs so that servicing and replacement could be performed more easily. Later-production IIe models had the RAM soldered to the system board rather than socketed. Despite the hardware changes, the IIe maintains a high degree of backwards compatibility with the previous models, allowing most hardwa
The cathode-ray tube is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, is used to display images. It modulates and deflects electron beam onto the screen to create the images; the images may represent electrical waveforms, radar targets, or other phenomena. CRTs have been used as memory devices, in which case the visible light emitted from the fluorescent material is not intended to have significant meaning to a visual observer. In television sets and computer monitors, the entire front area of the tube is scanned repetitively and systematically in a fixed pattern called a raster. An image is produced by controlling the intensity of each of the three electron beams, one for each additive primary color with a video signal as a reference. In all modern CRT monitors and televisions, the beams are bent by magnetic deflection, a varying magnetic field generated by coils and driven by electronic circuits around the neck of the tube, although electrostatic deflection is used in oscilloscopes, a type of electronic test instrument.
A CRT is constructed from a glass envelope, large, deep heavy, fragile. The interior of a CRT is evacuated to 0.01 pascals to 133 nanopascals, evacuation being necessary to facilitate the free flight of electrons from the gun to the tube's face. The fact that it is evacuated makes handling an intact CRT dangerous due to the risk of breaking the tube and causing a violent implosion that can hurl shards of glass at great velocity; as a matter of safety, the face is made of thick lead glass so as to be shatter-resistant and to block most X-ray emissions if the CRT is used in a consumer product. Since the late 2000s, CRTs have been superseded by newer "flat panel" display technologies such as LCD, plasma display, OLED displays, which in the case of LCD and OLED displays have lower manufacturing costs and power consumption, as well as less weight and bulk. Flat panel displays can be made in large sizes. Cathode rays were discovered by Johann Wilhelm Hittorf in 1869 in primitive Crookes tubes, he observed that some unknown rays were emitted from the cathode which could cast shadows on the glowing wall of the tube, indicating the rays were traveling in straight lines.
In 1890, Arthur Schuster demonstrated cathode rays could be deflected by electric fields, William Crookes showed they could be deflected by magnetic fields. In 1897, J. J. Thomson succeeded in measuring the mass of cathode rays, showing that they consisted of negatively charged particles smaller than atoms, the first "subatomic particles", which were named electrons; the earliest version of the CRT was known as the "Braun tube", invented by the German physicist Ferdinand Braun in 1897. It was a modification of the Crookes tube with a phosphor-coated screen; the first cathode-ray tube to use a hot cathode was developed by John B. Johnson and Harry Weiner Weinhart of Western Electric, became a commercial product in 1922. In 1925, Kenjiro Takayanagi demonstrated a CRT television that received images with a 40-line resolution. By 1927, he improved the resolution to 100 lines, unrivaled until 1931. By 1928, he was the first to transmit human faces in half-tones on a CRT display. By 1935, he had invented an early all-electronic CRT television.
It was named in 1929 by inventor Vladimir K. Zworykin, influenced by Takayanagi's earlier work. RCA was granted a trademark for the term in 1932; the first commercially made electronic television sets with cathode-ray tubes were manufactured by Telefunken in Germany in 1934. Flat panel displays dropped in price and started displacing cathode-ray tubes in the 2000s, with LCD screens exceeding CRTs in 2008; the last known manufacturer of CRTs ceased in 2015. In oscilloscope CRTs, electrostatic deflection is used, rather than the magnetic deflection used with television and other large CRTs; the beam is deflected horizontally by applying an electric field between a pair of plates to its left and right, vertically by applying an electric field to plates above and below. Televisions use magnetic rather than electrostatic deflection because the deflection plates obstruct the beam when the deflection angle is as large as is required for tubes that are short for their size. Various phosphors are available depending upon the needs of the display application.
The brightness and persistence of the illumination depends upon the type of phosphor used on the CRT screen. Phosphors are available with persistences ranging from less than one microsecond to several seconds. For visual observation of brief transient events, a long persistence phosphor may be desirable. For events which are fast and repetitive, or high frequency, a short-persistence phosphor is preferable; when displaying fast one-shot events, the electron beam must deflect quickly, with few electrons impinging on the screen, leading to a faint or invisible image on the display. Oscilloscope CRTs designed for fast signals can give a brighter display by passing the electron beam through a micro-channel plate just before it reaches
The Macintosh IIsi is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from October 1990 to March 1993. Introduced as a lower-cost alternative to the other Macintosh II family of desktop models, it was popular for home use, as it offered more expandability and performance than the Macintosh LC, introduced at the same time. Like the LC, it has built-in sound support, as well as support for color displays, with a maximum screen resolution of 640×480 in eight-bit color; the IIsi remained on the market for two and a half years, was discontinued shortly after the introduction of its replacement, the Centris 610. The IIsi's case design is a compact three-box desktop unit used for no other Macintosh model, one of the only Macintosh models of which this is true. Positioned below the Macintosh IIci as Apple's entry-level professional model, the IIsi's price was lowered by the redesign of the motherboard substituting a different memory controller and the deletion of all but one of the expansion card slots and removal of the level 2 cache slot.
It shipped with either a 40-MB or 80-MB internal hard disk, a 1.44-MB floppy disk drive. The MC 68882 FPU was an optional upgrade, mounted on a special plug-in card. Ports included SCSI, two serial ports, an ADB port, a floppy drive port, 3.5mm stereo headphone sound output and microphone sound input sockets. A bridge card was available for the IIsi to convert the Processor Direct slot to a standard internal NuBus card slot, compatible with other machines in the Macintosh II family; the bridge card included a math co-processor to improve floating-point performance. The NuBus card was mounted horizontally above the motherboard. To cut costs, the IIsi's video shared the main system memory, which had the effect of slowing down video especially as the IIsi had 1 MB of slow RAM soldered to the motherboard. David Pogue's book Macworld Macintosh Secrets observed that one could speed up video if one set the disk cache size large enough to force the computer to draw video RAM from faster RAM installed in the SIMM banks.
The IIsi suffers from sound difficulties: over time, the speaker contacts can fail, causing the sound to periodically drop out. This problem was caused by the modular construction of the computer, where the mono loudspeaker is on a daughterboard under the motherboard, with springy contacts. Speaker vibrations led to fretting of the touching surfaces; the problem could be solved by removing the motherboard and using a pencil eraser to clean the contacts of the daughterboard holding the loudspeaker. As the IIsi is the only Macintosh to use this case design, these issues were never corrected in a subsequent model; the IIsi was designed to be and cheaply manufactured, such that no tools were required to put one together – everything is held in place with clips or latches. Because of its heritage as a cut-down IIci, it was a simple modification to substitute a new clock crystal to increase the system's clock rate to 25 MHz for a slight increase in performance. Charles Bukowski was an enthusiastic user of the IIsi.
Macintosh IIsi teardown at ifixit.com
Macintosh Color Classic
The Macintosh Color Classic is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from February 1993 to May 1995. It is an all-in-one design, with an integrated 10″ Sony Trinitron display at 512×384 pixel resolution; the Color Classic is the final model of the original "compact" family of Macintosh computers, was replaced by the larger-display Macintosh LC 500 series and Power Macintosh 5200 LC. The Color Classic has a Motorola 68030 CPU running at 16 MHz and has a logic board similar to the Macintosh LC II. Like the Macintosh SE and SE/30 before it, the Color Classic has a single expansion slot: an LC-type Processor Direct Slot, incompatible with the SE slots; this was intended for the Apple IIe Card, offered with education models of the LCs. The card allowed the LCs to emulate an Apple IIe; the combination of the low-cost color Macintosh and Apple IIe compatibility was intended to encourage the education market's transition from Apple II models to Macintoshes. Other cards, such as CPU accelerators and video cards were made available for the Color Classic's PDS slot.
The Color Classic shipped with the Apple Keyboard known as an Apple Keyboard II which featured a soft power switch on the keyboard itself. The mouse supplied was the Apple Mouse known as the Apple Desktop Bus Mouse II. A updated model, the Color Classic II, featuring the Macintosh LC 550 logicboard with a 33 MHz processor, was released in Japan and some international markets in 1993, sometimes as the Performa 275. Both versions of the Color Classic have 256 KB of onboard VRAM, expandable to 512 KB by plugging a 256 KB VRAM SIMM into the onboard 68-pin VRAM slot; the name "Color Classic" was not printed directly on the front panel, but on a separate plastic insert. This enabled the alternative spelling "Colour Classic" and "Colour Classic II" to be used in appropriate markets; some Color Classic users upgraded their machines with motherboards from Performa/LC 575 units, while others have put entire Performa/LC/Quadra 630 or successor innards into them. Based on Takky there is a way to upgrade the Color Classic with a G3 CPU.
Another common modification to this unit was to change the display to allow 640 × 480 resolution, a common requirement for many programs to run. Introduced February 1, 1993: Macintosh Performa 250Introduced February 10, 1993: Macintosh Color ClassicIntroduced October 1, 1993: Macintosh Performa 275Introduced October 21, 1993: Macintosh Color Classic II: Sold in Japan and some other markets — but not the US. Colour Classic FAQ powercc.org - Upgrading Tutorials for Mystic, Takky, 640x480
The Macintosh Plus computer is the third model in the Macintosh line, introduced on January 16, 1986, two years after the original Macintosh and a little more than a year after the Macintosh 512K, with a price tag of US$2599. As an evolutionary improvement over the 512K, it shipped with 1 MB of RAM standard, expandable to 4 MB, an external SCSI peripheral bus, among smaller improvements, it had the same beige-colored case as the original Macintosh, but in 1987, the case color was changed to the long-lived, warm gray "Platinum" color. It is the earliest Macintosh model able to run System 7 OS. Bruce Webster of BYTE reported a rumor in December 1985: "Supposedly, Apple will be releasing a Big Mac by the time this column sees print: said Mac will come with 1 megabyte of RAM... the new 128K-byte ROM... and a double-sided disk drive, all in the standard Mac box". Introduced as the Macintosh Plus, it was the first Macintosh model to include a SCSI port, which launched the popularity of external SCSI devices for Macs, including hard disks, tape drives, CD-ROM drives, Zip Drives, monitors.
The SCSI implementation of the Plus was engineered shortly before the initial SCSI spec was finalized and, as such, is not 100% SCSI-compliant. SCSI ports remained standard equipment for all Macs until the introduction of the iMac in 1998, which replaced most of Apple's "legacy ports" with USB; the Macintosh Plus was the last classic Mac to have a phone cord-like port on the front of the unit for the keyboard, as well as the DE-9 connector for the mouse. The Mac Plus was the first Apple computer to utilize SIMM memory modules instead of single DIP DRAM chips. Four slots were provided and the computer shipped with four 256k SIMMs for 1MB total. By replacing them with 1MB SIMMs, it was possible to have 4MB of RAM. Although 30-pin SIMMs could support up to 16MB total RAM, the motherboard had only 22 address lines connected for 4MB, it has what was a new 3 1⁄2-inch double-sided 800 KB floppy drive, offering double the capacity of floppy disks for previous Macs, along with backward compatibility.
The then-new drive is controlled by the same IWM chip as in previous models, implementing variable speed GCR. The drive was still incompatible with PC drives; the 800 KB drive has two read/write heads, enabling it to use both sides of the floppy disk and thereby double storage capacity. Like the 400 KB drive before it, a companion Macintosh 800K External Drive was an available option. However, with the increased storage capacity combined with 2-4x the available RAM, the external drive was less of a necessity than it had been with the 128K and 512K; the Mac Plus has 128 KB of ROM on the motherboard, double the amount of ROM that's in previous Macs. For programmers, the fourth Inside Macintosh volume details how to use HFS and the rest of the Mac Plus's new system software; this new filing system allows it to use the first hard drive Apple developed for the 512K, the IWM floppy disk-based Hard Disk 20 and the then-new ROMs allow the Macintosh to use the drive as a startup disk for the first time.
The Plus still did not include provision for an internal hard drive and it would be over nine months before Apple would offer a SCSI drive replacement for the slow Hard Disk 20. It would be well over a year before Apple would offer the first internal hard disk drive in any Macintosh. A compact Mac, the Plus has a 9-inch 512×342 pixel monochrome display with a resolution of 72 PPI, identical to that of previous Macintosh models. Unlike earlier Macs, the Mac Plus's keyboard includes a numeric keypad and directional arrow keys and, as with previous Macs, it has a one-button mouse and no fan, making it quiet in operation; the lack of a cooling fan in the Mac Plus led to frequent problems with overheating and hardware malfunctions. The applications MacPaint and MacWrite were bundled with the Mac Plus. After August 1987, HyperCard and MultiFinder were bundled. Third-party software applications available included MacDraw, Microsoft Word and PowerPoint, as well as Aldus's PageMaker. Microsoft Excel and PowerPoint were developed and released first for the Macintosh, Microsoft Word 1 for Macintosh was the first time a GUI version of that software was introduced on any personal computer platform.
For a time, the exclusive availability of Excel and PageMaker on the Macintosh were noticeable drivers of sales for the platform. The case design is identical to the original Macintosh, it debuted in beige and was labeled Macintosh Plus on the front, but Macintosh Plus 1 MB on the back, to denote the 1 MB RAM configuration with which it shipped. In January 1987 it transitioned to Apple's long-lived platinum-gray color with the rest of the Apple product line, the keyboard's keycaps changed from brown to gray. In January 1988, with reduced RAM prices, Apple began shipping 2- and 4- MB configurations and rebranded it as "Macintosh Plus." Among other design changes, it included the same trademarked inlaid Apple logo and recessed port icons as the Apple IIc and IIGS before it, but it retained the original design. An upgrade kit was offered for the earlier Macintosh 128K and Macintosh 512K/enhanced, which includes a new motherboard, floppy disk drive and rear case; the owner retained the front case, monitor, a