Apple USB Modem
The Apple USB Modem is a combined 56 kbit/s data modem and 14.4 kbit/s fax external USB modem introduced by Apple Inc. after the internal 56k modem was dropped on the October 12, 2005 iMac G5 revision. While it looks similar, it should not be confused with Apple's optional USB Ethernet Adapter accessory, available for its MacBook Air and MacBook Pro Retina range of laptops since 2008. Apple introduced its first true modems in the Apple Modem 300 & 1200 modems. Prior to that they offered a third party Apple-badged comparatively low-tech acoustic coupler; those were followed by the industry standard 2400/data and combined 9600/fax AppleFax Modem in 1987. Apple introduced the internal 2400 data/fax modem card for its Macintosh Portable in 1989 as well as released its last external desktop Apple Data Modem 2400. Only standard internal modems were offered during the 1990s through 2005, with the notable exception of Apple's foray into GeoPort passive telephony modems which relied upon the computer's software and processing power rather than dedicated hardware.
The Apple USB Modem is Apple's first true external modem since the Apple Data Modem 2400 was discontinued in 1992. As of September 2009 it is no longer available in the US Apple Store, but it still works as of Mac OS X version 10.6.2. No supported 64-bit driver exists, as Mac OS X Lion operates by default in 64-bit mode, the USB modem will not function in Lion without workarounds; the Apple USB Modem supports V.92, Caller ID, wake-on-ring, telephone answering, modem on hold. The modem is manufactured by Motorola. A device driver for the modem was introduced with Mac OS X version 10.4.3. It retailed for US$49 at the time of its introduction. Apart from using the Apple USB Modem for Internet dial-up and faxing, it is being suggested as a low cost line interface for telephony applications, such as for telephone systems and answering machine software; the decision to drop the built-in dial-up modem is reminiscent of Apple's decision to drop built-in floppy drives. With the rise of broadband Internet and the general availability of wireless networking, it is that Apple felt that it was of more use for people to have broadband using an ethernet cable or a wireless system instead of dial-up.
The miniaturized product, about the size of a cigarette lighter and with a 4.6-inch long USB cable, won a RED DOT design award for good design
Frog Design Inc.
Frog is a global design firm founded in 1969 by industrial designer Hartmut Esslinger in Mutlangen, Germany as "esslinger design". Soon after it moved to Altensteig, to Palo Alto, to its current headquarters in San Francisco, California; the name was changed to Frogdesign in 1982 to Frog Design in 2000, to frog in 2011. In August 2004, the company announced that Flextronics International, a large electronics manufacturing services provider, was taking an equity stake in the company, a deal characterized by some commentators as an acquisition. Flextronics CEO Michael Marks, in a March 2005 BusinessWeek article, said that Flex was going to integrate their San Jose-based industrial-design group with frog. Frog is now a company of Altran. First designs were for WEGA in 1969, a German radio and television manufacturer acquired by Sony. Frog continued to work for Sony and designed the Trinitron television receiver in 1975, their first designs for computer manufacturers were for proprietary systems by CTM in 1970 and Diehl Data Systems in 1979.
More prominent are the designs for Apple Computer, starting with the case of the portable Apple IIc, introducing the Snow White design language used by Apple during 1984–1990, continuing with several Macintosh models. The firm designed Sun's SPARCstations in 1989 and the NeXT Computer in 1987. Apple Industrial Design Group Tim Leberecht, Frog's former chief marketing officer Doreen Lorenzo, Frog's former president www.frogdesign.com — frog design
The Altair 8800 is a microcomputer designed in 1974 by MITS and based on the Intel 8080 CPU. Interest grew after it was featured on the cover of the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics, was sold by mail order through advertisements there, in Radio-Electronics, in other hobbyist magazines; the designers hoped to sell a few hundred build-it-yourself kits to hobbyists, were surprised when they sold thousands in the first month. The Altair appealed to individuals and businesses that just wanted a computer and purchased the assembled version; the Altair is recognized as the spark that ignited the microcomputer revolution as the first commercially successful personal computer. The computer bus designed for the Altair was to become a de facto standard in the form of the S-100 bus, the first programming language for the machine was Microsoft's founding product, Altair BASIC. While serving at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory at Kirtland Air Force Base, Ed Roberts and Forrest M. Mims III decided to use their electronics background to produce small kits for model rocket hobbyists.
In 1969, Roberts and Mims, along with Stan Cagle and Robert Zaller, founded Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems in Roberts' garage in Albuquerque, New Mexico, started selling radio transmitters and instruments for model rockets. The model rocket kits were a modest success and MITS wanted to try a kit that would appeal to more hobbyists; the November 1970 issue of Popular Electronics featured the Opticom, a kit from MITS that would send voice over an LED light beam. As Mims and Cagle were losing interest in the kit business, Roberts bought his partners out began developing a calculator kit. Electronic Arrays had just announced a set of six large scale integrated circuit chips that would make a four-function calculator; the MITS 816 calculator kit used the chip set and was featured on the November 1971 cover of Popular Electronics. This calculator kit sold for $175. Forrest Mims wrote the assembly manual for many others over the next several years, he accepted a copy of the kit as payment.
The calculator was followed by several improved models. The MITS 1440 calculator was featured in the July 1973 issues of Radio-Electronics, it had a 14-digit display and square root function. The kit sold for $200 and the assembled version was $250. MITS developed a programmer unit that would connect to the 816 or 1440 calculator and allow programs of up to 256 steps. In addition to calculators, MITS made a line of test equipment kits; these included an IC tester, a waveform generator, a digital voltmeter, several other instruments. To keep up with the demand, MITS moved into a larger building at 6328 Linn NE in Albuquerque in 1973, they installed an assembly line at the new location. In 1972, Texas Instruments developed its own calculator chip and started selling complete calculators at less than half the price of other commercial models. MITS and many other companies were devastated by this, Roberts struggled to reduce his quarter-million-dollar debt. In January 1972, Popular Electronics merged with Electronics World.
The change in editorial staff upset many of their authors, they started writing for a competing magazine, Radio-Electronics. In 1972 and 1973, some of the best construction projects appeared in Radio-Electronics. In 1974, Art Salsberg became editor of Popular Electronics, it was Salsberg's goal to reclaim the lead in electronics projects. He was impressed with Don Lancaster's TV Typewriter article and wanted computer projects for Popular Electronics. Don Lancaster did an ASCII keyboard for Popular Electronics in April 1974, they were evaluating a computer trainer project by Jerry Ogdin when the Mark-8 8008-based computer by Jonathan Titus appeared on the July 1974 cover of Radio-Electronics. The computer trainer was put on hold and the editors looked for a real computer system. One of the editors, Les Solomon, knew MITS was working on an Intel 8080 based computer project and thought Roberts could provide the project for the always popular January issue; the TV Typewriter and the Mark-8 computer projects were just a detailed set of plans and a set of bare printed circuit boards.
The hobbyist faced the daunting task of acquiring all of the integrated circuits and other components. The editors of Popular Electronics wanted a complete kit in a professional-looking enclosure. Ed Roberts and his head engineer, Bill Yates, finished the first prototype in October 1974 and shipped it to Popular Electronics in New York via the Railway Express Agency. However, it never arrived due to a strike by the shipping company. Solomon had a number of pictures of the machine and the article was based on them. Roberts got to work on building a replacement; the computer on the magazine cover is an empty box with just LEDs on the front panel. The finished Altair computer had a different circuit board layout than the prototype shown in the magazine; the January 1975 issues appeared on newsstands a week before Christmas of 1974 and the kit was available for sale. The typical MITS product had a generic name like the "Model 1440 Calculator" or the "Model 1600 Digital Voltmeter". Ed Roberts was busy finishing the design and left the naming of the computer to the editors of Popular Electronics.
One explanation of the Altair name, which editor Les Solomon told the audience at the first Altair Computer Convention, is that the name was inspired by Les's 12-year-old daughter, Lauren. "She said why don't you c
The Macintosh Plus computer is the third model in the Macintosh line, introduced on January 16, 1986, two years after the original Macintosh and a little more than a year after the Macintosh 512K, with a price tag of US$2599. As an evolutionary improvement over the 512K, it shipped with 1 MB of RAM standard, expandable to 4 MB, an external SCSI peripheral bus, among smaller improvements, it had the same beige-colored case as the original Macintosh, but in 1987, the case color was changed to the long-lived, warm gray "Platinum" color. It is the earliest Macintosh model able to run System 7 OS. Bruce Webster of BYTE reported a rumor in December 1985: "Supposedly, Apple will be releasing a Big Mac by the time this column sees print: said Mac will come with 1 megabyte of RAM... the new 128K-byte ROM... and a double-sided disk drive, all in the standard Mac box". Introduced as the Macintosh Plus, it was the first Macintosh model to include a SCSI port, which launched the popularity of external SCSI devices for Macs, including hard disks, tape drives, CD-ROM drives, Zip Drives, monitors.
The SCSI implementation of the Plus was engineered shortly before the initial SCSI spec was finalized and, as such, is not 100% SCSI-compliant. SCSI ports remained standard equipment for all Macs until the introduction of the iMac in 1998, which replaced most of Apple's "legacy ports" with USB; the Macintosh Plus was the last classic Mac to have a phone cord-like port on the front of the unit for the keyboard, as well as the DE-9 connector for the mouse. The Mac Plus was the first Apple computer to utilize SIMM memory modules instead of single DIP DRAM chips. Four slots were provided and the computer shipped with four 256k SIMMs for 1MB total. By replacing them with 1MB SIMMs, it was possible to have 4MB of RAM. Although 30-pin SIMMs could support up to 16MB total RAM, the motherboard had only 22 address lines connected for 4MB, it has what was a new 3 1⁄2-inch double-sided 800 KB floppy drive, offering double the capacity of floppy disks for previous Macs, along with backward compatibility.
The then-new drive is controlled by the same IWM chip as in previous models, implementing variable speed GCR. The drive was still incompatible with PC drives; the 800 KB drive has two read/write heads, enabling it to use both sides of the floppy disk and thereby double storage capacity. Like the 400 KB drive before it, a companion Macintosh 800K External Drive was an available option. However, with the increased storage capacity combined with 2-4x the available RAM, the external drive was less of a necessity than it had been with the 128K and 512K; the Mac Plus has 128 KB of ROM on the motherboard, double the amount of ROM that's in previous Macs. For programmers, the fourth Inside Macintosh volume details how to use HFS and the rest of the Mac Plus's new system software; this new filing system allows it to use the first hard drive Apple developed for the 512K, the IWM floppy disk-based Hard Disk 20 and the then-new ROMs allow the Macintosh to use the drive as a startup disk for the first time.
The Plus still did not include provision for an internal hard drive and it would be over nine months before Apple would offer a SCSI drive replacement for the slow Hard Disk 20. It would be well over a year before Apple would offer the first internal hard disk drive in any Macintosh. A compact Mac, the Plus has a 9-inch 512×342 pixel monochrome display with a resolution of 72 PPI, identical to that of previous Macintosh models. Unlike earlier Macs, the Mac Plus's keyboard includes a numeric keypad and directional arrow keys and, as with previous Macs, it has a one-button mouse and no fan, making it quiet in operation; the lack of a cooling fan in the Mac Plus led to frequent problems with overheating and hardware malfunctions. The applications MacPaint and MacWrite were bundled with the Mac Plus. After August 1987, HyperCard and MultiFinder were bundled. Third-party software applications available included MacDraw, Microsoft Word and PowerPoint, as well as Aldus's PageMaker. Microsoft Excel and PowerPoint were developed and released first for the Macintosh, Microsoft Word 1 for Macintosh was the first time a GUI version of that software was introduced on any personal computer platform.
For a time, the exclusive availability of Excel and PageMaker on the Macintosh were noticeable drivers of sales for the platform. The case design is identical to the original Macintosh, it debuted in beige and was labeled Macintosh Plus on the front, but Macintosh Plus 1 MB on the back, to denote the 1 MB RAM configuration with which it shipped. In January 1987 it transitioned to Apple's long-lived platinum-gray color with the rest of the Apple product line, the keyboard's keycaps changed from brown to gray. In January 1988, with reduced RAM prices, Apple began shipping 2- and 4- MB configurations and rebranded it as "Macintosh Plus." Among other design changes, it included the same trademarked inlaid Apple logo and recessed port icons as the Apple IIc and IIGS before it, but it retained the original design. An upgrade kit was offered for the earlier Macintosh 128K and Macintosh 512K/enhanced, which includes a new motherboard, floppy disk drive and rear case; the owner retained the front case, monitor, a
The Apple II is an 8-bit home computer, one of the first successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed by Steve Wozniak. It was introduced in 1977 at the West Coast Computer Faire by Jobs and was the first consumer product sold by Apple Computer, Inc, it is the first model in a series of computers which were produced until Apple IIe production ceased in November 1993. The Apple II marks Apple's first launch of a personal computer aimed at a consumer market – branded towards American households rather than businessmen or computer hobbyists. Byte magazine referred to the Apple II, Commodore PET 2001 and the TRS-80 as the "1977 Trinity." The Apple II had the defining feature of being able to display color graphics, this capability was the reason why the Apple logo was redesigned to have a spectrum of colors. By 1976, Steve Jobs had convinced the product designer Jerry Manock to create the "shell" for the Apple II – a smooth case inspired by kitchen appliances that would conceal the internal mechanics.
The earliest Apple IIs were assembled in Silicon Valley, in Texas. The first computers went on sale on June 10, 1977 with a MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor running at 1.023 MHz, two game paddles, 4 KB of RAM, an audio cassette interface for loading programs and storing data, the Integer BASIC programming language built into the ROMs. The video controller displays 24 lines by 40 columns of monochrome, uppercase-only text on the screen, with NTSC composite video output suitable for display on a TV monitor, or on a regular TV set by way of a separate RF modulator; the original retail price of the computer was $1,298 and $2,638. To reflect the computer's color graphics capability, the Apple logo on the casing has rainbow stripes, which remained a part of Apple's corporate logo until early 1998. Most the Apple II was a catalyst for personal computers across many industries. In the May 1977 issue of Byte, Steve Wozniak published a detailed description of his design; this arrangement eliminated the need for a separate refresh circuit for the DRAM chips, as the video transfer accessed each row of the dynamic memory within the timeout period.
In addition, it did not require separate RAM chips for the video RAM, while the PET and TRS-80 had SRAMs for the video. Rather than use a complex analog-to-digital circuit to read the outputs of the game controller, Wozniak used a simple timer circuit whose period is proportional to the resistance of the game controller, used a software loop to measure the timer. A single 14.31818 MHz master oscillator was divided by various ratios to produce all other required frequencies, including the microprocessor clock signals, the video transfer counters, the color-burst samples. The text and graphics screens have a complex arrangement. For instance, the scanlines were not stored in sequential areas of memory; this complexity was due to Wozniak's realization that the method would allow for the refresh of the dynamic RAM as a side effect. This method had no cost overhead to have software calculate or look up the address of the required scanline and avoided the need for significant extra hardware. In the high-resolution graphics mode, color is determined by pixel position and thus can be implemented in software, saving Wozniak the chips needed to convert bit patterns to colors.
This allowed for subpixel font rendering, since orange and blue pixels appear half a pixel-width farther to the right on the screen than green and purple pixels. The Apple II at first used data cassette storage like most other microcomputers of the time. In 1978, the company introduced an external 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive, the Disk II, attached via a controller card that plugs into one of the computer's expansion slots; the Disk II interface, created by Wozniak, is regarded as an engineering masterpiece for its economy of electronic components. The approach taken in the Disk II controller is typical of Wozniak's designs. With a few small-scale logic chips and a cheap PROM, he created a functional floppy disk interface at a fraction of the component cost of standard circuit configurations. Steve Jobs extensively pushed to give the Apple II a case that looked visually appealing and sellable to people outside of electronics hobbyists, rather than the generic wood and metal boxes typical of early microcomputers.
The result was a futuristic-looking molded white plastic case. Jobs paid close attention to the keyboard design and decided to use dark brown keycaps as it contrasted well with the case; the first production Apple IIs had hand-molded cases. In addition, the initial case design ha
Macintosh Color Classic
The Macintosh Color Classic is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from February 1993 to May 1995. It is an all-in-one design, with an integrated 10″ Sony Trinitron display at 512×384 pixel resolution; the Color Classic is the final model of the original "compact" family of Macintosh computers, was replaced by the larger-display Macintosh LC 500 series and Power Macintosh 5200 LC. The Color Classic has a Motorola 68030 CPU running at 16 MHz and has a logic board similar to the Macintosh LC II. Like the Macintosh SE and SE/30 before it, the Color Classic has a single expansion slot: an LC-type Processor Direct Slot, incompatible with the SE slots; this was intended for the Apple IIe Card, offered with education models of the LCs. The card allowed the LCs to emulate an Apple IIe; the combination of the low-cost color Macintosh and Apple IIe compatibility was intended to encourage the education market's transition from Apple II models to Macintoshes. Other cards, such as CPU accelerators and video cards were made available for the Color Classic's PDS slot.
The Color Classic shipped with the Apple Keyboard known as an Apple Keyboard II which featured a soft power switch on the keyboard itself. The mouse supplied was the Apple Mouse known as the Apple Desktop Bus Mouse II. A updated model, the Color Classic II, featuring the Macintosh LC 550 logicboard with a 33 MHz processor, was released in Japan and some international markets in 1993, sometimes as the Performa 275. Both versions of the Color Classic have 256 KB of onboard VRAM, expandable to 512 KB by plugging a 256 KB VRAM SIMM into the onboard 68-pin VRAM slot; the name "Color Classic" was not printed directly on the front panel, but on a separate plastic insert. This enabled the alternative spelling "Colour Classic" and "Colour Classic II" to be used in appropriate markets; some Color Classic users upgraded their machines with motherboards from Performa/LC 575 units, while others have put entire Performa/LC/Quadra 630 or successor innards into them. Based on Takky there is a way to upgrade the Color Classic with a G3 CPU.
Another common modification to this unit was to change the display to allow 640 × 480 resolution, a common requirement for many programs to run. Introduced February 1, 1993: Macintosh Performa 250Introduced February 10, 1993: Macintosh Color ClassicIntroduced October 1, 1993: Macintosh Performa 275Introduced October 21, 1993: Macintosh Color Classic II: Sold in Japan and some other markets — but not the US. Colour Classic FAQ powercc.org - Upgrading Tutorials for Mystic, Takky, 640x480
Macy's West was a longtime division of Macy's, Inc. representing one of the New York-based department store chain's earliest notable acquisitions and westward expansions. Headquartered in San Francisco, this particular group of Macy's store locations included 258 sites by February 2, 2009, when the company announced plans to consolidate all Macy's divisions into a single division based in New York; the consolidation became effective during the second quarter of 2009. The division contained locations in Arizona, Colorado, Hawaii, Montana, New Mexico, western Texas, Utah and Wyoming, incorporating a mix of acquired chains and newly built stores; when it was consolidated, Macy's West was headed by Chairman Jeffrey Gennette, President Robert B. Harrison, Vice Chairman and Director of Stores Rudolph J. Borneo; as of February 2, 2009, the total gross square feet of the Macy's West stores totaled 40.331 million, employing 46,700 individuals. Macy's West was established in San Francisco, California in 1866 as O'Connor, Kean Co. at Second & Market Streets moving into several buildings on south Post Street, between Grant Avenue and Kearny Street, where it rebuilt after surviving the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.
In 1928, the company, by known as O'Connor, Moffat & Co. commissioned a new location at 101 Stockton Street. R. H. Macy & Company, New York, New York acquired O'Connor Moffat in 1945 and on October 16, 1947 renamed the store Macy's San Francisco. Macy's followed up with a major expansion of the store at 170 O'Farrell Street in 1948, using the original architect of the 1928 building, Louis Parson Hobart. Macy's Northern California expansion began in 1952 when it purchased a small San Rafael based department store named Albert's. Albert's had a location on Fourth street in downtown San Rafael, another in Richmond. Both of these were small in size and did not carry a full line of merchandise. In 1954 Macy's built its first full-line Northern California branch at Hillsdale Shopping Center in San Mateo, California. After that, the company expanded throughout Northern California the San Francisco Bay Area, but opening stores in Sacramento, Fresno and Modesto in the 1960s and 1970s. Along the way, the newly renamed Macy's California ventured into shopping center development with Valley Fair in San Jose and Bayfair in San Leandro.
In 1971, the San Francisco store pioneered the cellar as the marketing concept for its housewares department, in the basement. The brand has spread to all housewares departments at all Macy's stores, although not all such stores have a basement in which the department can be physically sited. In 1978, Macy's expanded into Nevada with a new store in Nevada. In 1984, four complementary locations were acquired from Liberty House, including Liberty House's own O'Farrell & Stockton flagship built in 1974, which became Macy's Men's Store. In 1986 R. H. Macy's management team led a buyout of the company. Concurrently, Macy's California began to seek locations in Southern California; these plans were put on hold after Macy's purchased the Bullock's, Bullocks Wilshire and I. Magnin organizations from Campeau Corp. in 1988. Campeau had bested Macy's own attempted acquisition of Federated Department Stores and sold these California divisions to Macy's as part of their settlement. I. Magnin, whose San Francisco flagship adjoined Macy's, was consolidated with Bullocks Wilshire to form an autonomous specialty-department store subdivision under Macy's California.
Many of I. Magnin's smaller, dated locations were shuttered and in 1989 the Bullocks Wilshire stores assumed the I. Magnin name. In a test case, the I. Magnin at South Coast Plaza in Costa Mesa, California was converted to a stand-alone Bullock's Men's store in 1991; the traditional Bullock's department stores were operated as part of the new Macy's South/Bullock's division based in Atlanta, but in late 1991 R. H. Macy announced plans to re-aligned its divisional structure and create a new Macy's West/Bullock's in 1992. On January 27, 1992 R. H. Macy & Co. declared bankruptcy. During the next two years, as Macy's reorganized, the Macy's West division continued to expand, opening a location at Mall of America in late 1992, in addition to assuming the management of the Bullock's stores and the Macy's locations in Texas. Bullock's closed locations in Lakewood, La Mesa and Santa Ana, California at this time, while the I. Magnin group shuttered eleven more stores of its dwindling franchise; the historic Bullocks Wilshire store closed in early 1993.
In 1994 Federated Department Stores reached agreement with R. H. Macy's creditors to buy the company out of bankruptcy court, completing the acquisition in December 1994 and making Macy's West/Bullock's a division of Federated. Before the acquisition closed, Federated announced the closure of the remaining I. Magnin stores selling four stores to Saks Fifth Avenue and converting six former I. Magnin locations in Palo Alto, Walnut Creek, Woodland Hills, Palm Desert, Newport Beach and Palos Verdes to specialty Macy's or Bullock's locations; the upper floors of the former I. Magnin store on Union Square were converted to an expansion of Macy's West own adjoining flagship. Federated shuttered the sole remaining Arizona Bullock's store in Scottsdale at Camelview Shopping Center in early 1995. In late summer 1995, Federated reached an agreement with Broadway Stores, Inc.'s controlling-shareholder, Chicago-based financier Sam Zell, to buy that company. Broadway Stores was the post-bankruptcy successor of Carter Hawley Hale Stores, a Los Angeles-headquartered company that at one time ow