Apple II series
The Apple II series is a family of home computers, one of the first successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed by Steve Wozniak, manufactured by Apple Computer, launched in 1977 with the original Apple II. In terms of ease of use and expandability, the Apple II was a major advancement over its predecessor, the Apple I, a limited-production bare circuit board computer for electronics hobbyists. Through 1988, a number of models were introduced, with the most popular, the Apple IIe, remaining changed little into the 1990s. A 16-bit model with much more advanced graphics and sound, the Apple IIGS, was added in 1986. While compatible with earlier Apple II systems, the IIGS was in closer competition with the Atari ST and Amiga; the Apple II was first sold on June 10, 1977. By the end of production in 1993, somewhere between five and six million Apple II series computers had been produced; the Apple II was one of the longest running mass-produced home computer series, with models in production for just under 17 years.
The Apple II became one of several recognizable and successful computers during the 1980s and early 1990s, although this was limited to the USA. It was aggressively marketed through volume discounts and manufacturing arrangements to educational institutions, which made it the first computer in widespread use in American secondary schools, displacing the early leader Commodore PET; the effort to develop educational and business software for the Apple II, including the 1979 release of the popular VisiCalc spreadsheet, made the computer popular with business users and families. The original Apple II operating system was in ROM along with Integer BASIC. Programs were entered saved and loaded on cassette tape; when the Disk II was implemented in 1978 by Steve Wozniak, a Disk Operating System or DOS was commissioned from the company Shepardson Microsystems where its development was done by Paul Laughton. The final and most popular version of this software was Apple DOS 3.3. Some commercial Apple II software did not use standard DOS formats.
This discouraged the modifying of the software on the disks and improved loading speed. Apple DOS was superseded by ProDOS, which supported a hierarchical filesystem and larger storage devices. With an optional third-party Z80-based expansion card, the Apple II could boot into the CP/M operating system and run WordStar, dBase II, other CP/M software. With the release of MousePaint in 1984 and the Apple IIGS in 1986, the platform took on the look of the Macintosh user interface, including a mouse. Despite the introduction of the Motorola 68000-based Macintosh in 1984, the Apple II series still accounted for 85% of the company's hardware sales in the first quarter of fiscal 1985. Apple continued to sell Apple II systems alongside the Macintosh until terminating the IIGS in December 1992 and the IIe in November 1993; the last II-series Apple in production, the IIe card for Macintoshes, was discontinued on October 15, 1993. The total Apple II sales of all of its models during its 16-year production run were about 6 million units, with the peak occurring in 1983 when 1 million were sold.
The Apple II was designed to look more like a home appliance than a piece of electronic equipment. The lid popped off the beige plastic case without the use of tools, allowing access to the computer's internals, including the motherboard with eight expansion slots, an array of random access memory sockets that could hold up to 48 kilobytes worth of memory chips; the Apple II had color and high-resolution graphics modes, sound capabilities and one of two built-in BASIC programming languages. The Apple II was targeted for the masses rather than just engineers. Unlike preceding home microcomputers, it was sold as a finished consumer appliance rather than as a kit. VanLOVEs Apple Handbook and The Apple Educators Guide by Gerald VanDiver and Rolland Love reviewed more than 1,500 software programs that the Apple II series could use; the Apple dealer network used this book to emphasize the growing software developer base in education and personal use. The Apple II series had a keyboard built into the motherboard shell, with the exception of the Apple IIGS which featured an external keyboard.
The Apple II case was durable enough, according to a 1981 Apple ad, to protect an Apple II from a fire started when a cat belonging to one early user knocked over a lamp. Early II-series models were designated "Apple ]["; the first Apple II computers went on sale on June 10, 1977 with a MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor running at 1.023 MHz, 4 KB of RAM, an audio cassette interface for loading programs and storing data, the Integer BASIC programming language built into the ROMs. The video controller displayed 40 columns by 24 lines of monochrome, upper-case-only text on the screen, with NTSC composite video output suitable for display on a TV monitor, or on a regular TV set by way of a separate RF modulator; the original retail price of the computer was US$1298 and US$2638. To reflect the computer's color graphics capability, the Apple logo on the casing was represented using rainbow stripes, which remained a part of Apple's corporate logo until early 1998; the earliest Apple IIs were assembled in Silicon Valley, in Texas.
In radio communications, a radio receiver known as a receiver, wireless or radio is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form. It is used with an antenna; the antenna intercepts radio waves and converts them to tiny alternating currents which are applied to the receiver, the receiver extracts the desired information. The receiver uses electronic filters to separate the desired radio frequency signal from all the other signals picked up by the antenna, an electronic amplifier to increase the power of the signal for further processing, recovers the desired information through demodulation; the information produced by the receiver may be in the form of sound, moving data. A radio receiver may be a separate piece of electronic equipment, or an electronic circuit within another device. Radio receivers are widely used in modern technology, as components of communications, remote control, wireless networking systems. In consumer electronics, the terms radio and radio receiver are used for receivers designed to reproduce sound transmitted by radio broadcasting stations the first mass-market commercial radio application.
The most familiar form of radio receiver is a broadcast receiver just called a radio, which receives audio programs intended for public reception transmitted by local radio stations. The sound is reproduced either by a loudspeaker in the radio or an earphone which plugs into a jack on the radio; the radio requires electric power, provided either by batteries inside the radio or a power cord which plugs into an electric outlet. All radios have a volume control to adjust the loudness of the audio, some type of "tuning" control to select the radio station to be received. Modulation is the process of adding information to a radio carrier wave. Two types of modulation are used in analog radio broadcasting systems. In amplitude modulation the strength of the radio signal is varied by the audio signal. AM broadcasting is allowed in the AM broadcast bands which are between 148 and 283 kHz in the longwave range, between 526 and 1706 kHz in the medium frequency range of the radio spectrum. AM broadcasting is permitted in shortwave bands, between about 2.3 and 26 MHz, which are used for long distance international broadcasting.
In frequency modulation the frequency of the radio signal is varied by the audio signal. FM broadcasting is permitted in the FM broadcast bands between about 65 and 108 MHz in the high frequency range; the exact frequency ranges vary somewhat in different countries. FM stereo radio stations broadcast in stereophonic sound, transmitting two sound channels representing left and right microphones. A stereo receiver contains the additional circuits and parallel signal paths to reproduce the two separate channels. A monaural receiver, in contrast, only receives a single audio channel, a combination of the left and right channels. While AM stereo transmitters and receivers exist, they have not achieved the popularity of FM stereo. Most modern radios are "AM/FM" radios, are able to receive both AM and FM radio stations, have a switch to select which band to receive. Digital audio broadcasting is an advanced radio technology which debuted in some countries in 1998 that transmits audio from terrestrial radio stations as a digital signal rather than an analog signal as AM and FM do.
Its advantages are that DAB has the potential to provide higher quality sound than FM, has greater immunity to radio noise and interference, makes better use of scarce radio spectrum bandwidth, provides advanced user features such as electronic program guide, sports commentaries, image slideshows. Its disadvantage is that it is incompatible with previous radios so that a new DAB receiver must be purchased; as of 2017, 38 countries offer DAB, with 2,100 stations serving listening areas containing 420 million people. Most countries plan an eventual switchover from FM to DAB; the United States and Canada have chosen not to implement DAB. DAB radio stations work differently from AM or FM stations: a single DAB station transmits a wide 1,500 kHz bandwidth signal that carries from 9 to 12 channels from which the listener can choose. Broadcasters can transmit a channel at a range of different bit rates, so different channels can have different audio quality. In different countries DAB stations broadcast in either Band L band.
The signal strength of radio waves decreases the farther they travel from the transmitter, so a radio station can only be received within a limited range of its transmitter. The range depends on the power of the transmitter, the sensitivity of the receiver and internal noise, as well as any geographical obstructions such as hills between transmitter and receiver. AM broadcast band radio waves travel as ground waves which follow the contour of the Earth, so AM radio stations can be reliably received at hundreds of miles distance. Due to their higher frequency, FM band radio signals cannot travel far beyond the visual horizon; however FM radio has higher fidelity. So in many countries serious music is only broadcast by FM stations, AM stations specialize in radio news, talk radio, sports. Like FM, DAB signals travel by line of sight so reception distances are
Apple Bandai Pippin
The Apple Bandai Pippin, stylized PiP P! N, is a multimedia technology console, designed by Apple Computer; the console was based on the Apple Pippin platform – a derivative of the Apple Macintosh platform. Bandai produced the ATMARK and @WORLD consoles between 1996 and 1997; the goal of the Bandai Pippin was to create an inexpensive computer system aimed at playing CD-based multimedia software games, but functioning as a thin client. The operating system was a version of System 7.5.2, was based on a 66 MHz PowerPC 603 processor and a 14.4 kb/s modem. It featured a 4×-speed CD-ROM drive and a video output that could connect to a standard television display. In Japan, Bandai produced. Most of the Atmark systems used the same platinum color used on many of the Apple Macintosh models at the time. In the United States and most parts of Europe, Bandai named the system the Bandai Pippin @WORLD; the @WORLD had the same specifications as the Pippin Atmark, but ran an English version of Mac OS. Most of the western systems used a black color.
Bandai manufactured fewer than 100,000 Pippins, but sold 42,000 systems before discontinuing the line. Production of the system was so limited, there were more keyboard and modem accessories produced than actual systems. In May 2006, the Pippin placed 22nd in PC World's list of the "25 Worst Tech Products of All Time." Little software was produced for the Japanese version on release in early 1996. While some promised software may not have been released, the number, released is fewer than 80 games and applications; when Bandai released the U. S. version, it had only 18 games and applications sold separately, six CDs that came with the Pippin itself. Upgrades to the Pippin Browser were released as a new CD over time, so was an update to TV Works. AppleJack controller AppleJack Wireless controller Pippin keyboard with drawing tablet Pippin Modems Pippin memory Pippin Floppy Dock Pippin MO 256 MB optical disk Pippin ADB adapter Pippin to Macintosh adapter Pippin can use the Apple Color StyleWriter 2400 and 2500 series through its serial port.
Apple TV Apple Interactive Television Box Mac gaming Apple's original Pippin site Katz Media mission statement on the Pippin Bandai Pippin Museum & Archive, including PDF Technical Notes Overview Pippin screenshots The Computer Chronicles' coverage of CES 1996, including Apple's demonstration of the Pippin Gil Amelio's gold-finish Pippin at the Computer History Museum Top 10 Apple products that flopped
Macintosh Classic II
The Macintosh Classic II is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from October 1991 to September 1993. Like the Macintosh SE/30 it replaces, the Classic II was powered by a 16 MHz Motorola 68030 CPU and 40 or 80 MB hard disk, but in contrast to its predecessor, it was limited by a 16-bit data bus and a 10 MB memory ceiling; the slower data bus resulted in the Classic II being 30% slower than the SE/30. While the Classic II shares a case with the earlier Classic, architecturally it is more similar to the Macintosh LC; the use of custom ICs, identical to those used in the LC, enabled the Classic II to have a lower component count than older Macs. Unlike the LC and the SE/30 before it, the Classic II does not have an internal Processor Direct Slot, making it the first slotless desktop Macintosh since the Macintosh Plus; the Classic II was one of the three machines Apple repackaged as a Macintosh Performa when the brand was introduced in September 1992. Called the "Performa 200", it was sold with the same specifications as the original Classic II, with the addition of a speaker grille on the left side for enhanced sound.
A number of changes to the packaged software were included, such as the At Ease desktop alternative which aimed to provide a simpler user interface than the standard Macintosh Finder. The exact software included tended to vary from one retailer to the next, it was offered at a retail price of about $1,250 USD. The Classic II is the last black-and-white compact Macintosh, the last desktop Macintosh to include an external floppy disk drive port. Apple discontinued support for the Classic II on January 1, 2001. Macintosh Classic II: Sold in two configurations:2/40: 2 MB RAM, 40 MB HDD. USD $1,899. 4/80: 4 MB RAM, 80 MB HDD. USD $2,399. Macintosh Performa 200: Processor: 16 MHz Motorola 68030, with an optional Motorola 68882 FPU RAM: 2 MB, expandable to 10 MB using two 100 ns 30-pin SIMMs Display: 9" b&w screen, 512 x 342 pixels Audio: 8-bit mono 22kHz Hard drive: 40 or 80 MB Floppy: 1.4 MB double sided Addressing: 24-bit or 32-bit Battery: 3.6 V lithium Expansion: Connectors on the rear panel include an ADB port for keyboard and mouse, two mini-DIN-8 RS-422 serial ports, DB-25 SCSI, DB-19 External floppy drive, two 3.5 mm minijack audio sockets for audio in and headphone out.
The Classic II has a 50-pin internal expansion slot intended for either an FPU co-processor or additional ROM. The socket is not designed to be used for any other purpose and is not suitable for use as a general expansion slot. Apple never produced an expansion card of any kind for this slot, although at least one third-party FPU was available: the FastMath Classic II by Applied Engineering, and Sonnet offered a synchronous and asynchronous 68882 FPU. In 2016, a group of hobbyists at the 68k Mac Liberation Army forums produced an expansion card with sockets for an FPU and a bootable, rewriteable ROM. Classic II Information pages at Mac512.com
The Apple III is a business-oriented personal computer produced and released by Apple Computer in 1980. It was intended as the successor to the Apple II series, but was considered a failure in the market. Development work on the Apple III started in late 1978 under the guidance of Dr. Wendell Sander, it had the internal code name of "Sara", named after Sander's daughter. The machine was first announced and released on May 19, 1980, but due to serious stability issues that required a design overhaul and a recall of existing machines, it was formally reintroduced in the second half of 1981. Development stopped and the Apple III was discontinued on April 24, 1984, its last successor, the III Plus, was dropped from the Apple product line in September 1985; the Apple III could be viewed as an enhanced Apple II – the newest heir to a line of 8-bit machines dating back to 1976. However, the Apple III was not part of the Apple II line, but rather a close cousin; the key features business users wanted in a personal computer were a true typewriter-style upper/lowercase keyboard and an 80-column display.
In addition, the machine had to pass U. S. Federal Communications Commission radio frequency interference qualifications for business equipment. In 1981, International Business Machines unveiled the IBM Personal Computer – a new 16-bit design soon available in a wide range of inexpensive clones; the business market moved towards the PC DOS/MS-DOS platform pulling away from the Apple 8-bit computer line. After numerous stability issues and a recall that included the first 14,000 units from the assembly line, Apple was able to produce a reliable version of the machine. However, damage to the computer's reputation had been done and it failed to do well commercially as a direct result. In the end, an estimated 65,000–75,000 Apple III computers were sold; the Apple III Plus brought this up to 120,000. Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak stated that the primary reason for the Apple III's failure was that the system was designed by Apple's marketing department, unlike Apple's previous engineering-driven projects.
The Apple III's failure led Apple to reevaluate its plan to phase out the Apple II, prompting the eventual continuation of development of the older machine. As a result Apple II models incorporated some hardware, such as the thermal Apple Scribe printer, software technologies of the Apple III. Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs expected hobbyists to purchase the Apple II, but because of VisiCalc and Disk II, small businesses purchased 90% of the computers; the Apple III was designed to be a successor. While the Apple II contributed to the inspirations of several important business products, such as VisiCalc and Apple Writer, the computer's hardware architecture, operating system, developer environment were limited. Apple management intended to establish market segmentation by designing the Apple III to appeal to the 90% business market, leaving the Apple II to home and education users. Management believed that "once the Apple III was out, the Apple II would stop selling in six months", Wozniak said.
The Apple III is powered by a 1.8 MHz Synertek 6502A or B 8-bit CPU and, like some of the machines in the Apple II family, uses bank switching techniques to address memory beyond the 6502's traditional 64KB limit, up to 256 K in the IIIs case. Third-party vendors produced memory upgrade kits that allow the Apple III to reach up to 512 KB. Other Apple III built-in features include an 80-column, 24-line display with upper and lowercase characters, a numeric keypad, dual-speed cursor control keys, 6-bit audio, a built-in 140 KB 5.25" floppy disk drive. Graphics modes include 560x192 in black and white, 280x192 with 16 colors or shades of gray. Unlike the Apple II, the Disk III controller is part of the logic board; the Apple III is the first Apple product to allow the user to choose both a screen font and a keyboard layout: either QWERTY or Dvorak. These choices cannot be changed while programs were running, unlike the Apple IIc, which has a keyboard switch directly above the keyboard, allowing the user to switch on the fly.
A major limitation of the Apple II and DOS 3.3 is the way it addresses resources, which makes it desirable for peripherals to be installed in standardized locations This forces the user to identify a peripheral by its physical location, such as PR#6, CATALOG, D1, so on. The Apple III introduced an advanced operating system called Apple SOS, pronounced "apple sauce", its ability to address resources by name instead of a physical location allows the Apple III to be more scalable than the Apple II. Apple SOS allows the full capacity of a storage device to be used as a single volume, such as the Apple ProFile hard disk drive. Apple SOS supports a hierarchical file system; some of the features and code base of Apple SOS were migrated into the Apple II's ProDOS and GS/OS operating systems, as well as Lisa 7/7 and Macintosh system software. With a starting price between $4,340 to $7,800 US, the Apple III was more expensive than many of the CP/M-based business computers that were available at the time.
Few software titles besides VisiCalc were available for the computer. Because Apple did not view the Apple III as suitable for hobbyists, it did not provide much of the technical software information that accompanied the Apple II
Nintendo Co. Ltd. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto. Nintendo is one of the world's largest video game companies by market capitalization, creating some of the best-known and top-selling video game franchises, such as Mario, The Legend of Zelda, Pokémon. Founded on 23 September 1889 by Fusajiro Yamauchi, it produced handmade hanafuda playing cards. By 1963, the company had tried several small niche businesses, such as cab services and love hotels. Abandoning previous ventures in favor of toys in the 1960s, Nintendo developed into a video game company in the 1970s becoming one of the most influential in the industry and one of Japan's most-valuable companies with a market value of over $37 billion in 2018. Nintendo was founded as a playing card company by Fusajiro Yamauchi on 23 September 1889. Based in Kyoto, the business marketed Hanafuda cards; the handmade cards soon became popular, Yamauchi hired assistants to mass-produce cards to satisfy demand.
In 1949, the company adopted the name Nintendo Karuta Co. Ltd. doing business as The Nintendo Playing Card Co. outside Japan. Nintendo continues to manufacture playing cards in Japan and organizes its own contract bridge tournament called the "Nintendo Cup"; the word Nintendo can be translated as "leave luck to heaven", or alternatively as "the temple of free hanafuda". In 1956, Hiroshi Yamauchi, grandson of Fusajiro Yamauchi, visited the U. S. to talk with the United States Playing Card Company, the dominant playing card manufacturer there. He found. Yamauchi's realization that the playing card business had limited potential was a turning point, he acquired the license to use Disney characters on playing cards to drive sales. In 1963, Yamauchi renamed Nintendo Playing Card Co. Ltd. to Nintendo Co. Ltd; the company began to experiment in other areas of business using newly injected capital during the period of time between 1963 and 1968. Nintendo set up a taxi company called Daiya; this business was successful.
However, Nintendo was forced to sell it because problems with the labour unions were making it too expensive to run the service. It set up a love hotel chain, a TV network, a food company and several other ventures. All of these ventures failed, after the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, playing card sales dropped, Nintendo's stock price plummeted to its lowest recorded level of ¥60. In 1966, Nintendo moved into the Japanese toy industry with the Ultra Hand, an extendable arm developed by its maintenance engineer Gunpei Yokoi in his free time. Yokoi was moved from maintenance to the new "Nintendo Games" department as a product developer. Nintendo continued to produce popular toys, including the Ultra Machine, Love Tester and the Kousenjuu series of light gun games. Despite some successful products, Nintendo struggled to meet the fast development and manufacturing turnaround required in the toy market, fell behind the well-established companies such as Bandai and Tomy. In 1973, its focus shifted to family entertainment venues with the Laser Clay Shooting System, using the same light gun technology used in Nintendo's Kousenjuu series of toys, set up in abandoned bowling alleys.
Following some success, Nintendo developed several more light gun machines for the emerging arcade scene. While the Laser Clay Shooting System ranges had to be shut down following excessive costs, Nintendo had found a new market. Nintendo's first venture into the video gaming industry was securing rights to distribute the Magnavox Odyssey video game console in Japan in 1974. Nintendo began to produce its own hardware in 1977, with the Color TV-Game home video game consoles. Four versions of these consoles were produced, each including variations of a single game. A student product developer named, he worked for Yokoi, one of his first tasks was to design the casing for several of the Color TV-Game consoles. Miyamoto went on to create and produce some of Nintendo's most famous video games and become one of the most recognizable figures in the video game industry. In 1975, Nintendo moved into the video arcade game industry with EVR Race, designed by their first game designer, Genyo Takeda, several more games followed.
Nintendo had some small success with this venture, but the release of Donkey Kong in 1981, designed by Miyamoto, changed Nintendo's fortunes dramatically. The success of the game and many licensing opportunities gave Nintendo a huge boost in profit and in addition, the game introduced an early iteration of Mario known in Japan as Jumpman, the eventual company mascot. In 1979, Gunpei Yokoi conceived the idea of a handheld video game, while observing a fellow bullet train commuter who passed the time by interacting idly with a portable LCD calculator, which gave birth to Game & Watch. In 1980, Nintendo launched Watch -- a handheld video game series developed by Yokoi; these systems do not contain interchangeable cartridges and thus the hardware was tied to the game. The first Game & Watch game, was distributed worldwide; the modern "cross" D-pad design was developed by Yokoi for a Donkey Kong version. Proven to be popular, the design was patented by Nintendo, it earned a Technology & Engineering Emmy Award.
In 1983, Nintendo launched the Family Computer home video game console in Japan, alongside ports of its most popular arcade games. In 1985, a cosmetically reworked version of the system known
Disneyland Park Disneyland, is the first of two theme parks built at the Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, opened on July 17, 1955. It is the only theme park designed and built to completion under the direct supervision of Walt Disney, it was the only attraction on the property. Walt Disney came up with the concept of Disneyland after visiting various amusement parks with his daughters in the 1930s and 1940s, he envisioned building a tourist attraction adjacent to his studios in Burbank to entertain fans who wished to visit. After hiring a consultant to help him determine an appropriate site for his project, Disney bought a 160-acre site near Anaheim in 1953. Construction began in 1954 and the park was unveiled during a special televised press event on the ABC Television Network on July 17, 1955. Since its opening, Disneyland has undergone expansions and major renovations, including the addition of New Orleans Square in 1966, Bear Country in 1972, Mickey's Toontown in 1993. Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge is due to open in 2019.
Opened in 2001, Disney California Adventure Park was built on the site of Disneyland's original parking lot. Disneyland has a larger cumulative attendance than any other theme park in the world, with 708 million visits since it opened. In 2017, the park had 18.3 million visits, making it the second most visited amusement park in the world that year, behind only Magic Kingdom. According to a March 2005 Disney report, 65,700 jobs are supported by the Disneyland Resort, including about 20,000 direct Disney employees and 3,800 third-party employees. Disney Announced "Project Stardust" in 2019, which includes major structural renovations to the park to account for higher attendance numbers. Major renovations include widening Main Street, U. S. A. and changing the color scheme and forced perspective of Sleeping Beauty Castle. The concept for Disneyland began when Walt Disney was visiting Griffith Park in Los Angeles with his daughters Diane and Sharon. While watching them ride the merry-go-round, he came up with the idea of a place where adults and their children could go and have fun together, though his dream lay dormant for many years.
He may have been influenced by his father's memories of the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago. The Midway Plaisance there included a set of attractions representing various countries from around the world and others representing various periods of man. Another influence was Benton Harbor, Michigan's nationally famous House of David's Eden Springs Park. Disney visited the park and bought one of the older miniature trains used there; the earliest documented draft of Disney's plans was sent as a memo to studio production designer Dick Kelsey on August 31, 1948, where it was referred to as a "Mickey Mouse Park", based on notes Disney made during his and Ward Kimball's trip to Chicago Railroad Fair the same month, with a two-day stop in Henry Ford's Museum and Greenfield Village, a place with attractions like a Main Street and steamboat rides, which he had visited eight years earlier. While people wrote letters to Disney about visiting the Walt Disney Studios, he realized that a functional movie studio had little to offer to visiting fans, began to foster ideas of building a site near the Burbank studios for tourists to visit.
His ideas evolved to a small play park with other themed areas. The initial concept, the Mickey Mouse Park, started with an 8-acre plot across Riverside Drive, he started to visit other parks for inspiration and ideas, including Tivoli Gardens in Denmark, Efteling in the Netherlands, Greenfield Village and Children's Fairyland in the United States. His designers began working on concepts, though the project grew much larger than the land could hold. Disney hired Harrison Price from Stanford Research Institute to gauge the proper area to locate the theme park based on the area's potential growth. Based on Price's analysis, Disney acquired 160 acres of orange groves and walnut trees in Anaheim, southeast of Los Angeles in neighboring Orange County; the Burbank site considered by Disney is now home to Walt Disney Animation Studios and ABC Studios. Difficulties in obtaining funding prompted Disney to investigate new methods of fundraising, he decided to create a show named Disneyland, it was broadcast on then-fledgling ABC.
In return, the network agreed to help finance the park. For its first five years of operation, Disneyland was owned by Disneyland, Inc., jointly owned by Walt Disney Productions, Walt Disney, Western Publishing and ABC. In addition, Disney rented out many of the shops on Main Street, U. S. A. to outside companies. By 1960, Walt Disney Productions bought out all other shares, a partnership which would lead to the Walt Disney Corporation's acquisition of ABC in the mid-1990s. In 1952, the proposed project had been called Disneylandia, but Disney followed ABC's advice and changed it to Disneyland two years when excavation of the site began. Construction began on July 16, 1954