IPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. All generations of the iPhone use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software; the first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases have been released since. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard; the iPhone can connect to cellular networks. An iPhone can shoot video, take photos, play music and receive email, browse the web and receive text messages, follow GPS navigation, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, receive visual voicemail. Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps; as of January 2017, Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone. Apple has released twelve generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the twelve major releases of the iOS operating system.
The original first-generation iPhone was a GSM phone and established design precedents, such as a button placement that has persisted throughout all releases and a screen size maintained for the next four iterations. The iPhone 3G added 3G network support, was followed by the 3GS with improved hardware, the 4 with a metal chassis, higher display resolution and front-facing camera, the 4S with improved hardware and the voice assistant Siri; the iPhone 5 featured Apple's newly introduced Lightning connector. In 2013, Apple released the 5S with improved hardware and a fingerprint reader, the lower-cost 5C, a version of the 5 with colored plastic casings instead of metal, they were followed by the larger iPhone 6, with models featuring 4.7-and-5.5-inch displays. The iPhone 6S was introduced the following year, which featured hardware upgrades and support for pressure-sensitive touch inputs, as well as the SE—which featured hardware from the 6S but the smaller form factor of the 5S. In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which add water resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new rear dual-camera setup on the Plus model, new color options, while removing the 3.5 mm headphone jack found on previous models.
The iPhone 8 and 8 Plus were released in 2017, adding a glass back and an improved screen and camera. The iPhone X was released alongside the 8 and 8 Plus, with its highlights being a near bezel-less design, an improved camera and a new facial recognition system, named Face ID, but having no home button, therefore, no Touch ID. In September 2018, Apple again released 3 new iPhones, which are the iPhone XS, an upgraded version of the since discontinued iPhone X, iPhone XS Max, a larger variant with the series' biggest display as of 2018 and iPhone XR, a lower end version of the iPhone X; the original iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry. Subsequent iterations of the iPhone have garnered praise; the iPhone is one of the most used smartphones in the world, its success has been credited with helping Apple become one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies. Development of what was to become the iPhone began in 2004, when Apple started to gather a team of 1,000 employees to work on the confidential "Project Purple."
Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet towards a phone. Apple created the device during a secretive collaboration with Cingular Wireless at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months. According to Steve Jobs, the "i" word in "iMac" stands for internet, instruct and inspire. Apple rejected the "design by committee" approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, a unsuccessful collaboration with Motorola. Among other deficiencies, the ROKR E1's firmware limited storage to only 100 iTunes songs to avoid competing with Apple's iPod nano. Cingular gave Apple the liberty to develop the iPhone's hardware and software in-house and paid Apple a fraction of its monthly service revenue, in exchange for four years of exclusive US sales, until 2011. Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007, at the Macworld 2007 convention at the Moscone Center in San Francisco; the two initial models, a 4 GB model priced at US$499 and an 8 GB model at US$599, went on sale in the United States on June 29, 2007, at 6:00 pm local time, while hundreds of customers lined up outside the stores nationwide.
The passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone resulted in sections of the media dubbing it the'Jesus phone'. Following this successful release in the US, the first generation iPhone was made available in the UK, Germany in November 2007, Ireland and Austria in the spring of 2008. On July 11, 2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G including the original six. Apple released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty territories. Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8, 2009, along with plans to release it in June and August, starting with the US, Canada and major European countries on June 19. Many would-be users objected to the iPhone's cost, 40% of users had household incomes over US$100,000; the back of the original first generation iPhone was made of aluminum with a black plastic accent. The iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to increase the strength of the GSM signal; the iPhone 3G was available in
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
Web analytics is the measurement, collection and reporting of web data for purposes of understanding and optimizing web usage. However, Web analytics is not just a process for measuring web traffic but can be used as a tool for business and market research, to assess and improve the effectiveness of a website. Web analytics applications can help companies measure the results of traditional print or broadcast advertising campaigns, it helps one to estimate how traffic to a website changes after the launch of a new advertising campaign. Web analytics provides information about the number of visitors to a website and the number of page views, it helps gauge traffic and popularity trends, useful for market research. Most web analytics processes come down to four essential stages or steps, which are: Collection of data: This stage is the collection of the basic, elementary data; these data are counts of things. The objective of this stage is to gather the data. Processing of data into information: This stage take counts and make them ratios, although there still may be some counts.
The objective of this stage is to take the data and conform it into information metrics. Developing KPI: This stage focuses on using the ratios and infusing them with business strategies, referred to as key performance indicators. Many times, KPIs deal with conversion aspects, but not always, it depends on the organization. Formulating online strategy: This stage is concerned with the online goals and standards for the organization or business; these strategies are related to making money, saving money, or increasing marketshare. Another essential function developed by the analysts for the optimization of the websites are the experiments Experiments and testings: A/B testing is a controlled experiment with two variants, in online settings, such as web development; the goal of A/B testing is to identify changes to web pages that increase or maximize a statistically tested result of interest. Each stage can impact the stage preceding or following it. So, sometimes the data, available for collection impacts the online strategy.
Other times, the online strategy affects. There are at least two categories of web analytics. Off-site web analytics refers to web measurement and analysis regardless of whether you own or maintain a website, it includes the measurement of a website's potential audience, share of voice, buzz, happening on the Internet as a whole. On-site web analytics, the more common of the two, measure a visitor's behavior once on your website; this includes its conversions. On-site web analytics measures the performance of your website in a commercial context; this data is compared against key performance indicators for performance and is used to improve a website or marketing campaign's audience response. Google Analytics and Adobe Analytics are the most used on-site web analytics service. Web analytics has been used to refer to on-site visitor measurement. However, this meaning has become blurred because vendors are producing tools that span both categories. Many different vendors provide services. There are two main technical ways of collecting the data.
External data: can be combined with on-site data to help augment the website behavior data described above and interpret web usage. For example, IP addresses are associated with Geographic regions and internet service providers, e-mail open and click-through rates, direct mail campaign data and lead history, or other data types as needed. Web servers record some of their transactions in a log file, it was soon realized that these log files could be read by a program to provide data on the popularity of the website. Thus arose web log analysis software. In the early 1990s, website statistics consisted of counting the number of client requests made to the web server; this was a reasonable method since each website consisted of a single HTML file. However, with the introduction of images in HTML, websites that spanned multiple HTML files, this count became less useful; the first true commercial Log Analyzer was released by IPRO in 1994. Two units of measure were introduced in the mid-1990s to gauge more the amount of human activity on web servers
History of Apple Inc.
Apple Inc. Apple Computer, Inc. is a multinational corporation that creates consumer electronics, personal computers and computer software, is a digital distributor of media content. The company has a chain of retail stores known as Apple Stores. Apple's core product lines are the iPhone smartphone, iPad tablet computer, iPod portable media players, Macintosh computer line. Founders Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak created Apple Computer on April 1, 1976, incorporated the company on January 3, 1977, in Cupertino, California. For more than three decades, Apple Computer was predominantly a manufacturer of personal computers, including the Apple II, Power Mac lines, but it faced rocky sales and low market share during the 1990s. Jobs, ousted from the company in 1985, returned to Apple in 1996 after his company NeXT was bought by Apple; the following year he became the company's interim CEO, which became permanent. Jobs subsequently instilled a new corporate philosophy of recognizable products and simple design, starting with the original iMac in 1998.
With the introduction of the successful iPod music player in 2001 and iTunes Music Store in 2003, Apple established itself as a leader in the consumer electronics and media sales industries, leading it to drop "Computer" from the company's name in 2007. The company is now known for its iOS range of smart phone, media player, tablet computer products that began with the iPhone, followed by the iPod Touch and iPad; as of 30 June 2015, Apple was the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization, with an estimated value of US$1 trillion as of August 2, 2018. Apple's worldwide annual revenue in 2010 totaled US$65 billion, growing to US$127.8 billion in 2011 and $156 billion in 2012. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak had withdrawn from Reed College and UC Berkeley by 1975. Wozniak designed a video terminal. Alex Kamradt sold a small number of them through his firm. Aside from their interest in up-to-date technology, the impetus for Jobs and Wozniak referred to collectively as "the two Steves", seems to have had another source.
In his essay From Satori to Silicon Valley, cultural historian Theodore Roszak made the point that the Apple Computer emerged from within the West Coast counterculture and the need to produce print-outs, letter labels, databases. Roszak offers a bit of background on the development of the two Steves' prototype models. In 1975, Wozniak started attending meetings of the Homebrew Computer Club. New microcomputers such as the Altair 8800 and the IMSAI inspired him to build a microprocessor into his video terminal and have a complete computer. At the time the only microcomputer CPUs available were the $179 Intel 8080, the $170 Motorola 6800. Wozniak preferred the 6800. So he watched, learned, designed computers on paper, waiting for the day he could afford a CPU; when MOS Technology released its $20 6502 chip in 1976, Wozniak wrote a version of BASIC for it began to design a computer for it to run on. The 6502 was designed by the same people who designed the 6800, as many in Silicon Valley left employers to form their own companies.
Wozniak's earlier 6800 paper-computer needed only minor changes to run on the new chip. Wozniak took it to Homebrew Computer Club meetings to show it off. At the meeting, Wozniak met his old friend Jobs, interested in the commercial potential of the small hobby machines; the two Steves had been friends for some time, having met in 1971, when their mutual friend, Bill Fernandez, introduced 21-year-old Wozniak to 16-year-old Jobs. They began their partnership when Wozniak, a talented, self-educated electronics engineer, began constructing boxes which enabled one to make long-distance phone calls at no cost, sold several hundred models. Jobs managed to interest Wozniak in assembling a computer machine and selling it. Jobs approached a local computer store, The Byte Shop, who said they would be interested in the machine, but only if it came assembled; the owner, Paul Terrell, went further, saying he would order 50 of the machines and pay US $500 each on delivery. Jobs took the purchase order that he had been given from the Byte Shop to Cramer Electronics, a national electronic parts distributor, ordered the components he needed to assemble the Apple I Computer.
The local credit manager asked Jobs how he was going to pay for the parts and he replied, "I have this purchase order from the Byte Shop chain of computer stores for 50 of my computers and the payment terms are COD. If you give me the parts on a net 30-day terms I can build and deliver the computers in that time frame, collect my money from Terrell at the Byte Shop and pay you."The credit manager called Paul Terrell, attending an IEEE computer conference at Asilomar in Pacific Grove, verified the validity of the purchase order. Amazed at the tenacity of Jobs, Terrell assured the credit manager if the computers showed up in his stores, Jobs would be paid and would have more than enough money to pay for the parts order; the two Steves and their small crew spent day and night building and testing the computers, delivered to Terrell on time to pay his suppliers and have a tidy profit left over for their celebration and next order. Steve Jobs had found a way to finance his soon-to-be multimillion-dollar company without giving away one share of stock or ownership.
The machine had only a few notable features. One was the use of a TV as the display system, whereas
Texture is a digital magazine app launched in 2012. The service has a monthly subscription fee; the service was established by Next Issue Media, a joint-venture between Condé Nast, Hearst Magazines, Meredith Corporation, News Corp, Rogers Media, Time Inc.. Reading apps are available on iOS, Android and Kindle Fire HD. Rogers Communications brought the service to Canada in late 2013; the following year, a French version of the app was launched. In December 2014, Next Issue Media, which The Wall Street Journal described as a Netflix-like subscription service for magazines, secured $50 million in financing from Kohlberg Kravis Roberts. Next Issue rebranded itself as Texture and relaunched in September 2015; that same year, Texture paid out $15 million in subscription revenue to publishers. On March 12, 2018, Apple Inc. announced it had signed an agreement to acquire Texture for an undisclosed sum. Texture announced on their website that they will shut down on May 28, 2019, due to the release of the Apple News+ subscription service for iOS devices
Apple Daily is a Hong Kong-based newspaper founded in 1995 by Jimmy Lai Chee Ying and published by Next Digital. A sister publication of the same name is published in Taiwan under a joint venture between Next Media and other Taiwanese companies. Apple Daily tends to favour the pan-democracy camp in its commentaries. However, this position has resulted in backlashes - ostensibly led by the Chinese government, which opposes democracy in Hong Kong - involving advertising boycotts, online hacking attacks and torchings of their newspapers. Apple Daily's popularity as Hong Kong's second best selling newspaper, according to AC Nielsen, is derived from its concentration on celebrity coverage, brash news style, sensationalist news reportage and its anti-government political positions. Apple Daily was founded by Jimmy Lai Chee Ying on 20 June 1995. Founder Jimmy Lai brainstormed the name of this newspaper, stating that "if Adam and Eve didn't eat the apple, there would be no evil or wrongdoings in this world, which made news a non-existing term".
Unlike newspapers at that time, it used colour printing on all pages of the newspaper and did not allow advertisements covering the complete front page. Since it has attracted a large readership. Other newspapers followed suit, a few were forced to close due to intense competition from Apple Daily. Techniques used by Apple Daily to gain readership included price warring, extensive use of written Cantonese, at a time when most Hong Kong newspapers used written vernacular Chinese, a focus on reporting crime, celebrity news, eroticism and drug use; the newspaper uncovered many political scandals, including a former member of the Legislative Council not reporting conflict of interest in 2000, a former Financial Secretary Antony Leung for tax evasion on a Lexus LS 430 which saved him HK$50,000, many others, leading to the convictions or forced resignations of those individuals. In 2000, an Apple Daily reporter was sentenced to 10 months in jail for bribing police officers for information concerning criminal cases.
Apple Daily criticizes the Central Government of China and pro-China governments in Hong Kong. Just prior to 1 July 2003, the newspaper encouraged people to take to the street and protest against the government. On that day of protest, it prepared banners and newspaper front pages for the public to carry and protest; the 2003 protest drew 500,000 citizens to the Hong Kong 1 July marches. Since it has been viewed as the newspaper that helped carry the message of protest against the government. In particular, it was at the forefront of the pro-democracy Umbrella Movement protests in 2014, helping to rally support for the Occupy Central with Love and Peace protests and pushing back against the Chinese government's proposal for full suffrage. Editor-in-chief and largest shareholder of parent company Next Media Jimmy Lai was forced to step down in 2014 after his arrest for refusing to leave a key protest site in the central business district of Hong Kong. Ip Yut-kin, print media CEO of Next Media, succeeded him.
In March 2015, Chan Pui-man became the first female chief editor of the journal, replacing Ip Yut-kin. Apple Daily was sometimes accused for introducing tabloid journalism to Hong Kong, according to The Wall Street Journal. Professor Paul Lee of School of Journalism and Communication, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, in the first chapter of his book New Perspectives on Hong Kong Media, described the establishment of Apple Daily had changed the habitat of Hong Kong newspapers, which he used the word Chinese: 大報小報化; the high circulated newspaper Apple Daily, The Sun and Oriental Daily are known for its tabloid journalism as well as making main stream reporting. According to Professor Lee, the general public criticized the Hong Kong newspapers the aforementioned one, for example on breach of privacy and paparazzi; the Newspaper Society of Hong Kong had established a self-governing panel to response to the criticism, Apple Daily, The Sun and Oriental Daily did not join the panel. Other author, such as Wong Tin-Chi, Senior Lecturer of the School of Communication, Hong Kong Baptist University credited Apple Daily for its success and its tabloid journalism.
However, Wong credited the newspaper on coverage of breaking news and current affairs. An article in Far Eastern Economic Review, used "lurid journalism", "saturation marketing", "willingness to offend Beijing", "racy tabloid" to describe Apple Daily as well as Next Media, the publisher of the newspaper. Next Media was owned by Jimmy Lai. Columbia Journalism Review used "Chinese-language tabloid" to describe the newspaper. Columbia Journalism Review credited Apple Daily for battling self-censored culture of the Hong Kong newspapers, as well as honest reporting to news and current affairs that related to China, as well as allocating a significant portion of the staff to report crime and life-style respectively; the pro-democracy and anti-government editorial stance has led to it suffering advertising boycotts. In 2003, several major property developers in Hong Kong ceased advertising with the journal. An executive at the paper said it was due to pressure from central government's liaison office, but this was denied by the latter.
As well as adverti