Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
Macintosh Quadra 840AV
The Macintosh Quadra 840AV is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from July 1993 to July 1994. It was introduced alongside the Centris 660AV, the "AV" after both model numbers signifying video input and output capabilities, as well as enhanced audio; the 840AV has the same mini tower form factor as the Quadra 800, with a faster Motorola 68040 processor. The Quadra 840AV was discontinued shortly after the introduction of the PowerPC-based Power Macintosh; the Power Macintosh 8100/80AV provided the same functionality in the same form factor, albeit at a higher price point, while the 7100/66AV was priced comparably to the 840AV but in a IIvx-style desktop case. At the time of introduction, its 40 MHz Motorola 68040 CPU and interleaved RAM made it the fastest Macintosh available, topping both the nominally higher-end Quadra 950 and the Quadra 800 by 7 MHz, it remains both the fastest Quadra and the fastest 68k Macintosh of all time, since all high-end Macintoshes were PowerPC-based Power Macintoshes.
The 840AV is the only Mac to use the 40 MHz-clocked 68040. It sports a faster 66.7 MHz AT&T DSP 3210 Digital Signal Processor chip, compared with the 55 MHz variant in the 660AV. The on-board DSP was intended to speed up audio/video processing, although few Mac programs made use of this due to the complexity of programming it; the 840AV and its relative, the Centris/Quadra 660AV, marked a number of firsts for the Macintosh family. They were the first Macintoshes to include on-board 16-bit 48 kHz stereo audio playback and recording capability, as well as S-Video and composite video input and output. To improve video playback, two separate frame buffers were used: one for standard graphics, one for video; this enabled the live video input to be displayed as a scalable "window" within the Macintosh user interface. They were the first personal computers that supported speech recognition out-of-the-box; the Apple GeoPort Telecom Adapter Kit introduced with the AV Macs added many DSP-based telecommunication functions, such as modem and telephony.
The Quadra 840AV came in a similar case to the earlier Macintosh Quadra 800. Internally, the 840AV is different. Apart from the faster processor, the logic board lacks the 800's Processor Direct Slot and second ADB port, but has a DAV slot and the new GeoPort. Unlike the 800's 8 MiB of fixed RAM, all of the 840AV's memory is in SIMMs; the way in which the 840AV deals with its memory is different to the other machines of its generation in that 4, 8, 16, or 32 MB 72-pin 60ns SIMMs may be installed up to 128 MB and sizes can be mixed. However, the Quadra 840AV does not support 2 MB, or 64 MB SIMMs; the 840AV and 660AV are the first Macintosh computers to operate in 32-bit mode at all times, cannot be toggled back to 24-bit mode, which may be useful for using early Nubus cards that conform to the 24-bit addressing. The new AV machines were some of the first to ship standard with an internal CD-ROM drive; the operating system installation package came on CD-ROM rather than a series of floppy disks whenever the CD-ROM drive was included.
A hidden QuickTime video included on the original Quadra 840AV/Centris 660AV "Install Me First" CD-ROM, shows the jubilant Cyclone / Tempest design team in the midst of celebrating their accomplishment. In this video, a Cyclone prototype logic board is shown; the logic board is fitted with a 25 MHz 68040, a number of rework wires, most conspicuously, a daughter card nicknamed "Karma", on which the audio and video input/output ports are located. Notably, the audio and video ports on the card are front-facing, positioned as though they would protrude from an opening in the lower front of the case, where they are more accessible to the user. According to a member of the team, the "AV on a card" feature was omitted, because there was not enough room for it in the case. Coinciding with the introduction of both AV Macs, Apple introduced the Apple AudioVision 14 Display, featuring accessible audio input, audio output and video input ports of its own, which could be fed by an ADC adapter cable connected with the rear AV ports of the AV Macs.
The Power Macintosh 6100, 7100, 8100 returned to the "AV on a card" concept, abandoned with the 7500/8500 series machines, re-introduced with the "Wings" AV "personality card" of the Power Macintosh G3 "Gossamer" / "Artemis" machines. Stored inside spare ROM space are two JPEG images of the Quadra 840AV development team. Early Quadra 840AV logic boards featured a 2 MB ROM SIMM slot located below the RAM SIMM slots, it was planned that the 840AV ROM would contain a bootable image of System 7 within a larger 4 MB ROM space, but Apple dropped this idea before the 840AV shipped. Revisions of the 840AV logic board included all 2 MB of ROM soldered onto the logic board. New Mac Blazes Technology Trails review from BYTE Magazine Quadra 840AV at apple-history.com Quadra 840AV profile at Low End Mac Quadra 840AV at EveryMac.com
Macintosh Quadra 605
The Macintosh Quadra 605 is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from October 1993 to July 1996. The model names reflect a decision made at Apple in 1993 to follow an emerging industry trend of naming product families for their target customers – Quadra for business, LC for education, Performa for home. Accordingly, the Performa 475 and 476 was sold in department stores and electronics stores such as Circuit City, whereas the Quadra was purchased through an authorized Apple reseller; when introduced, the Quadra 605 was the least expensive new computer in Apple's lineup. The Quadra 605 reuses the Macintosh LC III's pizza box form factor with minor modifications; the Quadra 605 was discontinued in October 1994, the LC 475 variant continued to be sold to schools until July 1996. Apple offered no direct replacement for these machines, making it the final Macintosh to use the LC's lightweight slim-line form factor. Apple would not release another desktop computer under 10 pounds until the Mac Mini, nearly ten years later.
All models come standard with a 68LC040 CPU running at 25 MHz, 4 MB RAM on board, 512 KB of VRAM, 1 LC III-style Processor Direct Slot, 1 ADB and 2 serial ports, external SCSI port, a manual-inject floppy drive. Introduced October 18, 1993: Macintosh Performa 475: 4 MB RAM, 160 MB HDD. Bundled with a keyboard and Apple Color Plus 14" Display. Macintosh Performa 476: 4 MB RAM, 230 MB HDD. Bundled with a keyboard and Apple Color Plus 14" Display. Introduced October 21, 1993: Macintosh Quadra 605: 4 MB RAM, 80 MB HDD. Different case design, the only variant that does not have a case screw. Not available in Europe. Macintosh LC 475: 4 MB RAM, 80 MB HDD. Bundled with a keyboard and optionally with an Apple Macintosh Color Display. Central processing unit: 25 MHz MC68LC040, 32-bit bus. 8 KB of on-chip L1 cache is divided into 4 KB of instruction cache. There are no other caches; the 68LC040 can be replaced with a 68040. This will triple the speed of floating point operations. Random access memory: 4 MB on the motherboard, one 72-pin SIMM socket for 80 ns or faster SIMMs.
The official supported maximum RAM is 36 MB in one 32 MB 72-pin SIMM plus 4 MB on the motherboard, but larger SIMMs do work—up to 128 MB may be used, with some limits on RAM type. Physical limits might apply if the side of the SIMM facing the CPU has thicker chips, as the clips on the SIMM socket will not close around it automatically, it should be possible to manually push the clips enough to hold the SIMM in place. The DJMEMC memory controller used in the Quadra 605's predecessors will only recognize SIMMs up to 32 MB, while the newer MEMCjr used in the Quadra 605 recognizes the larger sizes. Video: Video out is provided by one DA15F connector, is compatible with VGA monitors through the use of an adaptor. Two internal Video RAM slots can take either two 256 KB 80 ns 68-pin VRAM SIMMs, or two 512 KB SIMMs. Installing one 512 KB and one 256 KB VRAM SIMM garbles the display. Resolutions and colors available with the two VRAM configurations are shown in the table below: Audio: Out: stereo 8-bit, 11 kHz or 22 kHz.
The input socket is a stereo socket, can input two channels of a stereo signal—however, these are mixed and only accessible to the hardware as a combined mono 8-bit signal. An Apple PlainTalk Microphone provides line-level input by using a longer 4-contact plug which receives power from a 5 V supply within the input jack. Other microphones only give a mic-level input, do not work with the Quadra 605. Recording is possible at 11,000 or 22,000 samples/second, with filters applied at 3.5 kHz and 7 kHz while recording. Floppy Drive: 1.4 MB SuperDrive, manual-inject. Hard Drive: 80 MB, 160 MB or 230 MB SCSI hard drive, depending on model. Battery: Quadra 605s take a lithium half-AA cell 3.6 V battery. If the battery is drained, the video will not start up. To start up a Quadra 605 with a flat or missing battery, it can be turned on for a few seconds turned off for a second on again; this leaves enough charge in the system's capacitors for video to start up. Power supply: 30 watts standard, but many second-hand machines come with replacement PSUs, either third-party, Apple replacement, or stripped from earlier LC models.
Some of these go up to 45 watts. The Quadra 605 is a registered Energy Star-Compliant product. Weight: 8.8 lb / 4 kg standard. A Quadra 605 can support a monitor up to 35 lb / 15.9 kg. Dimensions: 2.9" high x 12.2" wide x 15.3" deep / 7.4 cm high x 31 cm wide x 38.8 cm deep. The Quadra 605 contains. While this is mechanically compatible with previous models' LC PDS it is not a true LC PDS, but emulates the previous machine's 68030 slot. Due to the success of the LC PDS in earlier Macs and with many expansion options manufactured, Apple kept the same slot type in these 68040 machines. While the Quadra 605's LC PDS is 68030-compatible, expansion cards made for'030 processors, such as 68881 or 68882 FPUs, will not work. In addition it can utilize the Apple IIe Card; the Quadra 605 has one SCSI bus, with a 50-pin internal connector (with space for one low-profile 3.5" SC
Macintosh LC 500 series
The Macintosh LC 500 series is a series of personal computers that were a part of Apple Computer's Macintosh LC family of Macintosh computers. It was Apple's mid-1990s mainstream education-market Macintosh, featuring an all-in-one desktop design with a built-in 14" CRT display, CD-ROM drive, stereo speakers. Designed as a successor to the compact Macintosh family of computers, the case is similar to the recently introduced Macintosh Color Classic, but larger and heavier due to its larger screen and a bulging midsection to house the larger electronics; the 500 series included four main models, the 520, 550, 575, 580, with the 520 and 550 both using different speeds of the Motorola 68030, the 575 and 580 sharing the 33MHz Motorola 68LC040 processor but differing on the rest of the hardware. All of these computers were sold to the consumer market through department stores under the Macintosh Performa brand, with similar model numbers; the LC models, in particular, became popular in schools for their small footprint, lack of cable clutter, durability.
The Macintosh TV, while not branded as an LC, uses the LC 520's case and a logic board similar to the LC 550. The compact Color Classic series shares many components, is able to swap logic boards, with the early 500 series machines; the Macintosh LC 520 was introduced in June 1993. The case design was larger than the compact Macintosh models that precede it, due in large part to the larger screen; the LC 520 got its start as a design project codenamed "Mongo". Following the success of the Color Classic, The Apple Industrial Design Group began exploring the adaptation of the Color Classic's design language, dubbed Espresso, for a larger display version that would include a CD-ROM drive. However, IDg hated the design so much. In 1992, Apple CEO John Sculley demanded a large screen all-in-one design to fill out his market strategy in less than 6 months. Over IDg's objections, Apple's engineering team retrieved the shelved design and promptly put it into production; because IDg universally detested the design, they began the re-design project that would become the Power Macintosh 5200 LC series less than two years later.
The logic board of the 520 is broadly the same as the Macintosh LC III, with a Motorola 68030 CPU and an optional Motorola 68882 FPU. A New York Times review of the LC 520 was positive, with columnist Peter Lewis noting that its $1,599 price point is "perhaps the best value in the entire Macintosh product line... it would be difficult to put together a Windows-based PC with the same features for that price, Windows computers are much less expensive than Macs." Lewis noted that the unit's 40-pound weight would make it difficult to carry home at night -- an attribute that Apple had marketed as a feature of compact Macintosh models in the 1980s. MacWEEK wrote that the timing of the LC 520's release coincided with purchasing timelines for schools, that the decision to market the computer to the education market was part of a strategic shift to move the LC brand away from the retail market; the 520 was discontinued in February 1994, when it was replaced by both the faster but otherwise unchanged Macintosh LC 550 and the new, 68LC040-equipped Macintosh LC 575.
Apple sold upgrade kits for the LC 520 that brought it to the same specifications as the LC 550 or 575. Sold only in Japan and Canada, to U. S. educational institutions. The computer was discontinued in February 1994. Featured a caddy-loaded CD-ROM drive. Introduced June 28, 1993: Macintosh LC 520: 5 MB RAM, 80 MB HDD. U. S. educational institutions only. $1,599 USD. Macintosh Performa 520 The Macintosh LC 550 replaced the LC 520 in February 1994; the Performa variants were introduced earlier, the 550 in October 1993 and the 560 in January 1994, remained available for more than a year longer, until April 1996. The main difference between the 550 and the 520 is the faster 68030 CPU, clocked at 33 MHz instead of 25 MHz, with the bus speed increasing from 25 to 33 MHz. Like the 520, the optical drive did not use a loading tray, but instead utilized a caddy in which the disk was first inserted, the caddy was loaded into the drive; the logic board in the 550 is the same one used in the Macintosh Color Classic II, an upgrade to the original Color Classic not available in the United States.
Apple offered the same upgrade package for the 520 to the LC 575 logic board. Two Performa variants were introduced, varying only in the software bundle, included; the 550 included only consumer applications. The Performa 560 was called the "Money Edition" owing to a partnership between Apple and Money magazine. In addition to some consumer and education software, it included more than a dozen business software applications; the LC 575 was discontinued in favor of either the LC 580 on the lower end or the PowerPC-based Power Macintosh 5200 LC models at the higher end. Introduced October 18, 1993: Macintosh Performa 550: 160 MB HDD. Introduced January 15, 1994: Macintosh Performa 560 Money Edition: The Performa 550 with bundled business software. Sold only in the United States through Circuit City locations and direct order from Apple. $2,199 USD. Introduced February 2, 1994: Macintosh LC 550 The Macintosh LC 575 was available from 1994 to 1996, it retains the "all-in-one" case of the LC 520/550, but uses the LC 475's motherboard with a Motorola 68LC040 CPU and a tray-loading optical drive.
It included a high density floppy disk drive. The CPU clock is sometimes given as 66 MHz, since the clock signal is of that frequency - however, the processor itself only runs
Apple II Plus
The Apple II Plus is the second model of the Apple II series of personal computers produced by Apple Computer, Inc. It was sold from June 1979 to December 1982. 380,000 II Pluses were sold during its four years in production before being replaced by the IIe in 1983. The Apple II Plus shipped with 16 KB, 32 KB or 48 KB of main RAM, expandable to 64 KB by means of the Language Card, an expansion card that could be installed in the computer's slot 0; the Apple's 6502 microprocessor could support a maximum of 64 KB of address space, a machine with 48KB RAM reached this limit because of the additional 12 KB of read-only memory and 4 KB of I/O addresses. For this reason, the extra RAM in the language card was bank-switched over the machine's built-in ROM, allowing code loaded into the additional memory to be used as if it were ROM. Users could thus load Integer BASIC into the language card from disk and switch between the Integer and Applesoft dialects of BASIC with DOS 3.3's INT and FP commands just as if they had the BASIC ROM expansion card.
The Language Card was required to use LOGO, Apple Pascal, FORTRAN 77. Apple Pascal and FORTRAN ran under a non-DOS operating system based on UCSD P-System, which had its own disk format and included a "virtual machine" that allowed it to run on many different types of hardware. First-year Apple II Pluses retained the original Apple II's jumper blocks to select the RAM size, but a drop in memory prices during 1980 resulted in all machines being shipped with 48k and the jumper blocks being removed. Shortly after the introduction of the II Plus in 1979, Microsoft came out with the Z-80 SoftCard, an expansion card for the Apple II line that allowed the use of CP/M and contained its own Z80 CPU and logic to adapt the Z80 CPU to the Apple bus; the SoftCard was popular and Microsoft's single most successful product for two years, although on the downside, it was limited to using the Apple II's GCR disk format and thus CP/M software either had to be obtained on Apple format disks or transferred via serial link from a different machine running CP/M.
The SoftCard shipped with CP/M 2.2 and a special version of MBASIC that supported a subset of Applesoft BASIC's graphics commands. Other third party CP/M cards for the Apple II offered additional memory, CP/M 3.0, CPU speeds up to 8Mhz. The II Plus had the so-called "Autostart ROMs", meaning that it will attempt to boot from disk on power-up. If no system disk is present, Drive 0 will spin endlessly until the user presses Ctrl+Reset to enter Applesoft BASIC. If DOS has not been booted up, the user will only be able to load and save files to cassette from BASIC; the II Plus had a revised version of BASIC known as Applesoft II which incorporated most of the functionality from Integer BASIC, including HGR graphics commands. Most II Pluses came with a "language card"; this was different from the language card sold for the original II, which contained Applesoft BASIC in ROM. Since the II Plus had Applesoft present in the ROMs on the system board, its language card contained RAM rather than ROM and if installed will boost the system to 64k.
While on the original II, Integer BASIC resided in ROM at $E000, this area contains RAM on the II Plus if a language card is present. Integer BASIC is not in ROM on the II Plus and is instead loaded by DOS 3.x during boot up into the RAM at $D000. The RAM containing Integer BASIC is banked out and the Applesoft ROM is present at $D000. If the user types "INT", Integer BASIC is activated by swapping out the Applesoft ROM and switching in the RAM with Integer BASIC. By typing "FP", Integer BASIC is switched out and Applesoft switched back in; the machine language monitor at $F800 may be banked out for RAM. Like the Apple II, the Apple II Plus has no lowercase functionality. All letters from the keyboard are upper-case, there is no caps lock key, there are no lowercase letters in the text-mode font stored in the computer's ROM. To display lowercase letters, some applications run in the slower hi-res graphics mode and use a custom font, rather than running in the fast text mode using the font in ROM.
Other programs those where both capitalization and text movement were important, such as word processors, use inverse text mode to represent text that would be uppercase when printed. Alternatively, users can install a custom ROM chip that contained lowercase letters in the font, or purchase one of several third-party 80-column cards that enable a text mode that can display 80-column, upper- and lower-case text; the Videx Videoterm and its many clones were popular. For lowercase input, since it is not possible to detect whether the keyboard's Shift keys are in use, the common "shift-key mod" connects the Shift key to one of the pins on the motherboard's paddle connector. Compatible applications, including nearly all word processors, can detect whether the shift key was being pressed; this modification involves adding wires inside the Apple II. Most applications that support lower-case letters can use the ESC key as a substitute lowercase toggle if the modification is not installed; the Apple II Plus, like its predecessor the Apple II, features a repeat key on its keyboard.
The key is located just to the left of the "RETURN" key. The II Plus is the last Apple Computer to have this key, as Apple computers would incorporate the ability to hold down a key for a period of time to repeat the key; the II Plus has a plastic case with a brass mesh running along
An image scanner—often abbreviated to just scanner, although the term is ambiguous out of context —is a device that optically scans images, printed text, handwriting or an object and converts it to a digital image. Used in offices are variations of the desktop flatbed scanner where the document is placed on a glass window for scanning. Hand-held scanners, where the device is moved by hand, have evolved from text scanning "wands" to 3D scanners used for industrial design, reverse engineering and measurement, orthotics and other applications. Mechanically driven scanners that move the document are used for large-format documents, where a flatbed design would be impractical. Modern scanners use a charge-coupled device or a contact image sensor as the image sensor, whereas drum scanners, developed earlier and still used for the highest possible image quality, use a photomultiplier tube as the image sensor. A rotary scanner, used for high-speed document scanning, is a type of drum scanner that uses a CCD array instead of a photomultiplier.
Non-contact planetary scanners photograph delicate books and documents. All these scanners produce two-dimensional images of subjects that are flat, but sometimes solid. Digital cameras can be used for the same purposes as dedicated scanners; when compared to a true scanner, a camera image is subject to a degree of distortion, shadows, low contrast, blur due to camera shake. Resolution is sufficient for less demanding applications. Digital cameras offer advantages of speed and non-contact digitizing of thick documents without damaging the book spine; as of 2010 scanning technologies were combining 3D scanners with digital cameras to create full-color, photo-realistic 3D models of objects. In the biomedical research area, detection devices for DNA microarrays are called scanners as well; these scanners are high-resolution systems. The detection is done via a photomultiplier tube. Modern scanners are considered the successors of early fax input devices; the pantelegraph was an early form of facsimile machine transmitting over normal telegraph lines developed by Giovanni Caselli, used commercially in the 1860s, the first such device to enter practical service.
It used electromagnets to drive and synchronize movement of pendulums at the source and the distant location, to scan and reproduce images. It could transmit handwriting, signatures, or drawings within an area of up to 150 × 100 mm. Édouard Belin's Belinograph of 1913, scanned using a photocell and transmitted over ordinary phone lines, formed the basis for the AT&T Wirephoto service. In Europe, services similar to a wirephoto were called a Belino, it was used by news agencies from the 1920s to the mid-1990s, consisted of a rotating drum with a single photodetector at a standard speed of 60 or 120 rpm. They send a linear analog AM signal through standard telephone voice lines to receptors, which synchronously print the proportional intensity on special paper. Color photos were sent as three separated RGB filtered images consecutively, but only for special events due to transmission costs. Drum scanners capture image information with photomultiplier tubes, rather than the charge-coupled device arrays found in flatbed scanners and inexpensive film scanners.
"Reflective and transmissive originals are mounted on an acrylic cylinder, the scanner drum, which rotates at high speed while it passes the object being scanned in front of precision optics that deliver image information to the PMTs. Modern color drum scanners use three matched PMTs, which read red and green light, respectively. Light from the original artwork is split into separate red and green beams in the optical bench of the scanner with dichroic filters." Photomultipliers offer superior dynamic range and for this reason drum scanners can extract more detail from dark shadow areas of a transparency than flatbed scanners using CCD sensors. The smaller dynamic range of the CCD sensors, versus photomultiplier tubes, can lead to loss of shadow detail when scanning dense transparency film. While mechanics vary by manufacturer, most drum scanners pass light from halogen lamps though a focusing system to illuminate both reflective and transmissive originals; the drum scanner gets its name from the clear acrylic cylinder, the drum, on which the original artwork is mounted for scanning.
Depending on size, it is possible to mount originals up to 20 by 28 inches, but maximum size varies by manufacturer. "One of the unique features of drum scanners is the ability to control sample area and aperture size independently. The sample size is the area; the aperture is the actual opening. The ability to control aperture and sample size separately is useful for smoothing film grain when scanning black-and-white and color negative originals."While drum scanners are capable of scanning both reflective and transmissive artwork, a good-quality flatbed scanner can produce good scans from reflective artwork. As a result, drum scanners are used to scan prints now that high-quality, inexpensive flatbed scanners are available. Film, however, is; because film can be wet-mounted to the scanner drum, which enhances sharpness and masks dust and scratches, because
The PowerBook is a family of Macintosh laptop computers designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1991 to 2006. During its lifetime, the PowerBook went through several major revisions and redesigns being the first to incorporate features that would become standard in competing laptops; the PowerBook line was targeted at the professional market, received numerous awards in the second half of its life, such as the 2001 Industrial Design Excellence Awards "Gold" status, Engadget's 2005 "Laptop of the Year". In 1999, the line was supplemented by education-focused iBook family; the PowerBook was replaced by the MacBook Pro in 2006 as part of Apple's transition to Intel processors. In October 1991 Apple released the first three PowerBooks: the low-end PowerBook 100, the more powerful PowerBook 140, the high end PowerBook 170, the only one with an active matrix display; these machines caused a stir in the industry with their compact dark grey cases, built-in trackball, the innovative positioning of the keyboard that left room for palmrests on either side of the pointing device.
Portable PC computers at the time were still oriented toward DOS, tended to have the keyboard forward towards the user, with empty space behind it, used for function key reference cards. In the early days of Microsoft Windows, many notebooks came with a clip on trackball that fit on the edge of the keyboard molding; as usage of DOS gave way to the graphical user interface, the PowerBook's arrangement became the standard layout all future notebook computers would follow. The PowerBook 140 and 170 were the original PowerBook designs, while the PowerBook 100 was the result of Apple having sent the schematics of the Mac Portable to Sony, who miniaturized the components. Hence the PowerBook 100's design does not match those of the rest of the series, as it was designed after the 140 and 170 and further benefited from improvements learned during their development; the PowerBook 100, did not sell well until Apple dropped the price substantially. The 100 series PowerBooks were intended to tie into the rest of the Apple desktop products utilizing the corporate Snow White design language incorporated into all product designs since 1986.
Unlike the Macintosh Portable, a battery-powered desktop in weight and size, the light colors and decorative recessed lines did not seem appropriate for the scaled-down designs. In addition to adopting the darker grey colour scheme that coordinated with the official corporate look, they adopted a raised series of ridges mimicking the indented lines on the desktops; the innovative look not only unified their entire product line, but set Apple apart in the marketplace. These early series would be the last to utilize the aging Snow White look, with the 190 adopting a new look along with the introduction of the 500 series; the first series of PowerBooks were hugely successful. Despite this, the original team left setting back updated versions for some time; when attempting to increase processing power, Apple was hampered by the overheating problems of the 68040. For several years, new PowerBook and PowerBook Duo computers were introduced that featured incremental improvements, including color screens, but by mid-decade, most other companies had copied the majority of the PowerBook's features.
Apple was unable to ship a 68040-equipped PowerBook until the PowerBook 500 series in 1994. The original PowerBook 100, 140, 170 were replaced by the 145, 160, 180 in 1992; the 160 and 180 having video output allowing them to drive an external monitor. In addition, the PowerBook 180 had a superb-for-the-time active-matrix grayscale display, making it popular with the Mac press. In 1993, the PowerBook 165c was the first PowerBook with a color screen followed by the 180c. In 1994, the last true member of the 100-series form factor introduced was the PowerBook 150, targeted at value-minded consumers and students; the PowerBook 190, released in 1995, bears no resemblance to the rest of the PowerBook 100 series, is in fact a Motorola 68LC040-based version of the PowerBook 5300. Like the 190, the 150 used the 5300 IDE-based logic-board architecture. From the 100's 68000 processor, to the 190's 68LC040 processor, the 100 series PowerBooks span the entire Apple 68K line, with the 190 upgradable to a PowerPC processor.
In 1992 Apple released a hybrid portable/desktop computer, the PowerBook Duo, continuing to streamline the subnotebook features introduced with the PowerBook 100. The Duos were a series of thin and lightweight laptops with a minimum of features, which could be inserted into a docking station to provide the system with extra video memory, storage space and could be connected to a monitor. 1994 saw the introduction of the Motorola 68LC040-based PowerBook code-named Blackbird. These models of PowerBooks were much sleeker and faster than the 100 series, which they replaced as the mid and high-end models; the 500 series featured DSTN or active-matrix LCD displays, stereo speakers, was the first computer to use a trackpad. The PowerBook 500 series was the mainstay of the product line until the PowerBook 5300; the 500 series was the first