Apple Inc. sold a variety of LCD and CRT computer displays in the past. Apple stopped producing its own standalone displays in 2016 and partnered with LG to design displays for Macs, the only displays it sells. In the beginning, Apple did not manufacture or sell displays of any kind, instead recommending users plug-into their television sets or expensive third party monochrome monitors. However, in order to offer complete systems through its dealers, Apple began to offer various third party manufactured 12" monochrome monitors, re-badged as the Monitor II. Apple's manufacture history of CRT displays began in 1980, starting with the Monitor ///, introduced alongside and matched the Apple III business computer, it was a 12" monochrome screen that could display 80x24 text characters and any type of graphics, however it suffered from a slow phosphor refresh that resulted in a "ghosting" video effect. So it could be shared with Apple II computers, a plastic stand was made available to accommodate the larger footprint of the monitor.
4 years came the introduction of the Apple manufactured Monitor //, which as the name implies, was more suited in look and style for the Apple II line and at the same time added improvements in features and visual quality. In 1984 a miniature 9" screen, called the Monitor IIc, was introduced for the Apple IIc computer to help complement its compact size; this monitor was the first to use the brand new design style for Apple's products called Snow White, as well as being the first monitor not released in a beige color, but rather a bright, creamy off-white. By early 1985 came the first color CRT's, starting with the Monitor 100, a digital RGB display for the Apple III and Apple IIe, followed shortly by the 14" ColorMonitor IIe and ColorMonitor IIc, composite video displays for those respective models. All of the Apple monitors are capable of supporting the maximum Apple II Double Hi-Res standard of 560x192. In 1986 came the introduction of the AppleColor RGB Monitor, a 12" analog RGB display designed for the Apple IIGS computer.
It supported a resolution of 640x400 interlaced and could be used by the Macintosh II, in a limited fashion, with the Apple High Resolution Display Video Card. Introduced that year was the Apple Monochrome Monitor, which cosmetically was identical to the former model but was a black and white composite display suitable in external appearance for the Apple IIGS, Apple IIc or Apple IIc Plus; the second generation of displays were built into the Macintosh line of computers. At that time, the Macintosh had a high resolution 9-inch monochrome monitor that could display 512x342 pixels. All future models of the Classic style Macintosh featured this exact display. A new external AppleColor High-Resolution RGB Monitor was introduced in 1987 with the Macintosh II, it had a 13" fixed pixel resolution of 640x480 and the first Trinitron aperture grille CRT. The Macintosh II had a PC-style expandable case which required an external monitor, it was able to run up to six external displays using multiple video cards.
The desktop spanned multiple monitors and windows could be dragged from monitor to monitor, or straddle two or more. The Macintosh Color Display were introduced with resolutions of 640x480, 832x624 and 1152x870, with the 16 and 21 inch models being introduced in 1992, the 14 inch model coming out with the Macintosh LC III in 1993. Monochrome displays were introduced for the publishing industry, like the Macintosh Two Page Monochrome Monitor, able to display pages next to each other with identical resolution to the 21" color one; the Macintosh Portrait Display was introduced which had a vertical alignment of the screen and was able to display one page. Two 12" monochrome versions were introduced at the low end, as well as a 12" Macintosh RGB monitor that displayed a 512x384 resolution, meant for the Macintosh LC. There were the Performa Plus monitor for the Macintosh Performa series, the Apple Color Plus monitor, the Performa Plus monitor in a nicer case with a tilt & swivel stand; the third generation of displays marked the end of the monochrome display era and the beginning of the multimedia era.
The first display to include built-in speakers was introduced in 1993 as the Apple AudioVision 14 Display. Monitors were divided into two groups. There were the cheaper Multiple Scan monitors with standard shadow mask CRTs with a lower resolution. There was the AppleVision series of displays which were positioned to the professional market and included more expensive Trinitron CRTs. Many models didn't include built-in speakers because they were considered toys by some in the publishing industry; the AppleVision line of displays were renamed as ColorSync displays when Steve Jobs returned to Apple and consolidated the product lines. Only 17" and 20" models were left in the product line; the Macintosh Color Classic introduced a 10" color Trinitron display to the Classic compact Macintosh, with a enhanced resolution of 512x384. Apple continued the all-in-one series with the larger 14" Macintosh LC 520 family, featuring an 800x640 pixel resolution. However, in 1995, Apple switched to the cheaper shadow-mask CRT which continued through the 15" Power Macintosh 5200 LC series and boosting resolution to 832x624.
In 1998, the G3 All-In-One boosted the resolution to 1024x768, which continued through the introduction of the
The Mac Pro is a series of workstation and server computer cases designed and sold by Apple Inc. since 2006. The Mac Pro, in most configurations and in terms of speed and performance, is the most powerful computer that Apple offers, it is a high-end model of the four desktop computers in the current Mac lineup, the other three being the iMac, iMac Pro, Mac Mini. The first-generation Mac Pro has a rectangular tower case which outwardly resembles the last version of the Power Mac G5, has similar expansion capabilities; the first Mac Pro offered a dual Dual-core Xeon Woodcrest processor. It was replaced by a dual Quad-core Xeon Clovertown model on April 4, 2007, again on January 8, 2008 by a dual Quad-core Xeon Harpertown model; the 2012 Mac Pro is nearly identical to a model, announced on July 27, 2010. It features Nehalem/Westmere architecture Intel Xeon processors; these CPUs offer optionally twelve processing cores. The machine itself at its most evolved is able to accommodate up to four 2 TB hard disk drives or 512 GB solid state drives, as well as the ATI Radeon HD 5770/5870 GPU units, one per slot.
The second-generation design of Mac Pro was announced at the 2013 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference opening keynote on June 10, 2013. Apple states; the redesigned Mac Pro takes up less than one eighth the volume of previous model, being shorter and lighter. The machine supports one central processing unit, four 1866 MHz DDR3 slots, dual AMD FirePro D series GPUs, PCIe-based flash storage. There is updated wireless communication and support for six Thunderbolt displays through the Thunderbolt 2 ports. Reviews have been positive, with caveats. Apple stated that an Intel-based replacement for the PowerPC-based Power Mac G5 machines had been expected for some time before the Mac Pro was formally announced on August 7, 2006 at the annual Apple Worldwide Developers Conference; the iMac, Mac Mini, MacBook, MacBook Pro had moved to an Intel-based architecture starting in January 2006, leaving the Power Mac G5 as the only machine in the Mac lineup still based on the PowerPC processor architecture Apple had used since 1993.
Apple had dropped the term "Power" from the other machines in their lineup, started using "Pro" on their higher-end laptop offerings. As such, the name "Mac Pro" was used before the machine was announced; the Mac Pro is in the Unix workstation market. Although the high-end technical market has not traditionally been an area of strength for Apple, the company has been positioning itself as a leader in non-linear digital editing for high-definition video, which demands storage and memory far in excess of a general desktop machine. Additionally, the codecs used in these applications are processor intensive and threadable, which Apple's ProRes white paper describes as scaling linearly with additional processor cores. Apple's previous machine aimed at this market, the Power Mac G5, has up to two dual-core processors, but lacks the storage expansion capabilities of the newer design. Original marketing materials for the Mac Pro referred to the middle-of-the-line model with 2 × dual-core 2.66 GHz processors.
Apple featured the base model with the words "starting at" or "from" when describing the pricing, but the online US Apple Store listed the "Mac Pro at $2499", the price for the mid-range model. The system could be configured at US$2299, much more comparable with the former base-model dual-core G5 at US$1999, although offering more processing power. Post revision, the default configurations for the Mac Pro includes one quad-core Xeon 3500 at 2.66 GHz or two quad-core Xeon 5500s at 2.26 GHz each. Like its predecessor, the Power Mac G5, the pre-2013 Mac Pro was Apple's only desktop with standard expansion slots for graphics adapters and other expansion cards. Apple received criticism after an incremental upgrade to the Mac Pro line following the 2012 WWDC; the line received more default memory and increased processor speed but still used Intel's older Westmere-EP processors instead of the newer E5 series. The line lacked then-current technologies like SATA III, USB 3, Thunderbolt, the last of, added to every other Macintosh at that point.
An email from Apple CEO Tim Cook promised a more significant update to the line in 2013. Apple stopped shipping the first-generation Mac Pro in Europe on March 1, 2013 after an amendment to a safety regulation left the professional Mac non-compliant; the last day to order was February 18, 2013. The first generation Mac Pro was removed from Apple's online store following unveiling of the redesigned second generation Mac Pro at a media event on October 22, 2013; the 2009 and Mac Pro systems were available with one or two central processing units with options giving four, eight, or twelve cores. As an example, the eight core standard configuration Mac Pro uses two Quad core ×8 Intel E5620 Xeon CPUs at 2.4 GHz, but could be configured with two Hexa Core Intel Xeon X5670 CPUs at 2.93 GHz. The 2008-2009 model CPUs use the LGA 771 socket, while the 2010 and use the LGA 1366 socket, meaning either can be removed and replaced with compatible 64-bit Intel Xeon CPUs; the newer LGA 1366 sockets utilize Intel's QuickPath Interconnect integrated into the CPU in lieu of an independent system bus.
LG Corporation Lucky-Goldstar, is a South Korean multinational conglomerate corporation. It is the fourth-largest chaebol in South Korea, it is headquartered in the LG Twin Towers building in Yeongdeungpo District, Seoul. LG makes electronics and telecom products and operates subsidiaries such as LG Electronics, Zenith, LG Display, LG Uplus, LG Innotek and LG Chem in over 80 countries. LG Corp. established as Lak Hui Chemical Industrial Corp. in 1947. In 1952, Lak Hui became the first South Korean company to enter the plastics industry; as the company expanded its plastics business, it established GoldStar Co. Ltd. in 1958. Both companies Lucky and GoldStar merged and formed Lucky-Goldstar in 1983. GoldStar produced South Korea's first radio. Many consumer electronics were sold under the brand name GoldStar, while some other household products were sold under the brand name of Lucky; the Lucky brand was famous for hygiene products such as soaps and HiTi laundry detergents, but the brand was associated with its Lucky and Perioe toothpaste.
LG continues to manufacture some of these products for the South Korean market, such as laundry detergent. Koo Bon-moo renamed the company to LG in 1995; the company associates the letters LG with the company's tagline "Life's Good". Since 2009, LG has owned the domain name LG.com. Since 2000, LG and Hitachi created. In 2001, LG had two joint ventures with Royal Philips Electronics: LG Philips Display and LG Philips LCD, but Philips sold off its shares in late 2008. In 2005, LG entered into a joint venture with Nortel Networks. On 30 November 2012, comScore released a report of the October 2012 U. S. Mobile Subscriber Market Share that found LG lost its place as second in the U. S. mobile market share to Apple Inc. On 20 January 2013, Counterpoint Research announced that LG has overtaken Apple to become second largest in U. S. market share. On 7 August 2013, comScore released a report of the June 2013 U. S. Smartphone Subscriber Market Share that found LG fell to fifth place in the U. S mobile market share.
The company logo of LG features a circle containing the letters "L" and "G", presented in the form of a smiling human face. The audio logo is used in radio commercial and TV commercial, 7 note jingle for LG. GS Group LG CNS India LS Group LIG Group Lejel Group Heesung Group SPC Group LG Corporation is a holding company that operates worldwide through more than 30 companies in the electronics and telecom fields, its electronics subsidiaries manufacture and sell products ranging from electronic and digital home appliances to televisions and mobile telephones, from Thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal displays to security devices and semiconductors. In the chemical industry, subsidiaries manufacture and sell products including cosmetics, industrial textiles, rechargeable batteries and toner products, polycarbonates and surface decorative materials, its telecom products include long-distance and international phone services and broadband telecommunications services, as well as consulting and telemarketing services.
LG operates the Coca-Cola Korea Bottling Company, manages real estate, offers management consulting, operates professional sports clubs. LG Lever Korea Food & Beverages Home Care Personal Care LG has owned the LG Twins and Changwon LG Sakers. 2013 Special Olympics World Winter Games Bayer 04 Leverkusen Changwon LG Sakers Copa América FIS Snowboard World Cup Formula One Swansea City A. F. C. Manchester City FC International Cricket Council LG Cup LG Cup LG Twins Los Angeles Dodgers Texas Rangers Millonarios Fútbol Club NCAA Son Heung-min Son Yeon-jae Akshay Kumar David Warner BTS Media related to LG Group at Wikimedia Commons Official website —
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement. Various definitions have been used; the international standard symbol for the avoirdupois pound is lb. The unit is descended from the Roman libra; the English word pound is cognate with, among others, German Pfund, Dutch pond, Swedish pund. All derive from a borrowing into Proto-Germanic of the Latin expression lībra pondō, in which the word pondō is the ablative case of the Latin noun pondus. Usage of the unqualified term pound reflects the historical conflation of weight; this accounts for the modern distinguishing terms pound-force. The United States and countries of the Commonwealth of Nations agreed upon common definitions for the pound and the yard. Since 1 July 1959, the international avoirdupois pound has been defined as 0.45359237 kg. In the United Kingdom, the use of the international pound was implemented in the Weights and Measures Act 1963; the yard or the metre shall be the unit of measurement of length and the pound or the kilogram shall be the unit of measurement of mass by reference to which any measurement involving a measurement of length or mass shall be made in the United Kingdom.
An avoirdupois pound is equal to 16 avoirdupois ounces and to 7,000 grains. The conversion factor between the kilogram and the international pound was therefore chosen to be divisible by 7, an grain is thus equal to 64.79891 milligrams. In the UK, the process of metrication and European units of measurement directives were expected to eliminate the use of the pound and ounce, but in 2007 the European Commission abandoned the requirement for metric-only labelling on packaged goods there, allowed for dual metric–imperial marking to continue indefinitely; when used as a measurement of body weight the UK practice remains to use the stone of 14 pounds as the primary measure e.g. "11 stone 4 pounds", rather than "158 pounds", or "72 kilograms" as used elsewhere. The US has not adopted the metric system despite many efforts to do so, the pound remains used as one of the key United States customary units. In different parts of the world, at different points in time, for different applications, the pound has referred to broadly similar but not identical standards of mass or force.
The libra is an ancient Roman unit of mass, equivalent to 328.9 grams. It was divided into ounces; the libra is the origin of the abbreviation for pound, "lb". A number of different definitions of the pound have been used in Britain. Amongst these were the avoirdupois pound and the obsolete Tower, merchant's and London pounds. Troy pounds and ounces remain in use only for the weight of certain precious metals in the trade; the pound sterling was a Tower pound of silver. In 1528, the standard was changed to the Troy pound; the avoirdupois pound known as the wool pound, first came into general use c. 1300. It was equal to 6992 troy grains; the pound avoirdupois was divided into 16 ounces. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the avoirdupois pound was redefined as 7,000 troy grains. Since the grain has been an integral part of the avoirdupois system. By 1758, two Elizabethan Exchequer standard weights for the avoirdupois pound existed, when measured in troy grains they were found to be of 7,002 grains and 6,999 grains.
In the United Kingdom and measures have been defined by a long series of Acts of Parliament, the intention of, to regulate the sale of commodities. Materials traded in the marketplace are quantified according to accepted units and standards in order to avoid fraud; the standards themselves are defined so as to facilitate the resolution of disputes brought to the courts. Quantifying devices used by traders are subject to official inspection, penalties apply if they are fraudulent; the Weights and Measures Act of 1878 marked a major overhaul of the British system of weights and measures, the definition of the pound given there remained in force until the 1960s. The pound was defined thus "The... platinum weight... deposited in the Standards department of the Board of Trade... shall continue to be the imperial standard of... weight... and the said platinum weight shall continue to be the Imperial Standard for determining the Imperial Standard Pound for the United Kingdom". Paragraph 13 states that the weight in vacuo of this standard shall be called the Imperial Standard Pound, that all other weights mentioned in the act and permissible for commerce shall be ascertained from it alone.
The First Schedule of the Act gave more details of the standard pound: it is a platinum cylinder nearly 1.35 inches high, 1.15 inches diameter, the edges are rounded off. It has a groove about 0.34 inches from the top, to allow the cylinder to be lifted
IEEE 1394 is an interface standard for a serial bus for high-speed communications and isochronous real-time data transfer. It was developed in early 1990s by Apple, which called it FireWire; the 1394 interface is known by the brands i. LINK, Lynx; the copper cable it uses in its most common implementation can be up to 4.5 metres long. Power is carried over this cable, allowing devices with moderate power requirements to operate without a separate power supply. FireWire is available in Cat 5 and optical fiber versions; the 1394 interface is comparable to USB. USB gained much greater market share. USB requires a master controller whereas IEEE 1394 is cooperatively managed by the connected devices. FireWire is Apple's name for the IEEE 1394 High Speed Serial Bus, it was initiated by Apple and developed by the IEEE P1394 Working Group driven by contributions from Apple, although major contributions were made by engineers from Texas Instruments, Digital Equipment Corporation, IBM, INMOS/SGS Thomson. IEEE 1394 is a serial bus architecture for high-speed data transfer.
FireWire is a serial bus. Parallel buses utilize a number of different physical connections, as such are more costly and heavier. IEEE 1394 supports both isochronous and asynchronous applications. Apple intended FireWire to be a serial replacement for the parallel SCSI bus, while providing connectivity for digital audio and video equipment. Apple's development began in the late 1980s presented to the IEEE, was completed in January 1995. In 2007, IEEE 1394 was a composite of four documents: the original IEEE Std. 1394-1995, the IEEE Std. 1394a-2000 amendment, the IEEE Std. 1394b-2002 amendment, the IEEE Std. 1394c-2006 amendment. On June 12, 2008, all these amendments as well as errata and some technical updates were incorporated into a superseding standard, IEEE Std. 1394-2008. Apple first included on-board FireWire in some of its 1999 Macintosh models, most Apple Macintosh computers manufactured in the years 2000 through 2011 included FireWire ports. However, in February 2011 Apple introduced the first commercially available computer with Thunderbolt.
Apple released its last computers featuring FireWire late 2012. By 2014, Thunderbolt had become a standard feature across Apple's entire line of computers becoming the spiritual successor to FireWire in the Apple ecosystem. Sony's implementation of i. LINK, used a smaller connector with only four signal conductors, omitting the two conductors that provide power for devices in favor of a separate power connector; this style was added into the 1394a amendment. This port is sometimes labeled S400 to indicate speed in Mbit/s; the system was used to connect data storage devices and DV cameras, but was popular in industrial systems for machine vision and professional audio systems. Many users preferred it over the more common USB 2.0 for its greater effective speed and power distribution capabilities. Benchmarks show that the sustained data transfer rates are higher for FireWire than for USB 2.0, but lower than USB 3.0. Results are marked on Apple Mac OS X but more varied on Microsoft Windows. Implementation of IEEE 1394 is said to require use of 261 issued international patents held by 10 corporations.
Use of these patents requires licensing. Companies holding IEEE 1394 IP formed a patent pool with MPEG LA, LLC as the license administrator, to whom they licensed patents. MPEG LA sublicenses these patents to providers of equipment implementing IEEE 1394. Under the typical patent pool license, a royalty of US$0.25 per unit is payable by the manufacturer upon the manufacture of each 1394 finished product. A person or company may review the actual 1394 Patent Portfolio License upon request to MPEG LA. Implementors would thereby ordinarily reveal some interest to MPEG LA early in the design process. MPEG LA does not provide assurance of protection to licensees beyond its own patents. At least one licensed patent is known to be removed from the pool, other hardware patents exist that reference 1394-related hardware and software functions related to use in IEEE 1394. In total, over 1770 patents issued in the 20 years preceding 2011 contain "IEEE 1394" in their titles alone, placing 1500 unavailable from MPEG LA.
The 1394 High Performance Serial Bus Trade Association was formed to aid marketing of IEEE 1394. Its bylaws prohibit dealing with intellectual property issues; the 1394 Trade Association operates on an individual no cost membership basis to further enhancements to 1394 standards. The Trade Association is the library source for all 1394 documentation and standards available. FireWire can connect up to 63 peripherals in a daisy-chain topology, it allows peer-to-peer device communication — such as communication between a scanner and a printer — to take place without using system memory or the CPU. FireWire supports multiple hosts per bus, it is designed to support hot swapping. The copper cable it uses in its most common implementation can be up to 4.5 metres long and is more flexible than most parallel SCSI cables. In its six-conductor or nine-conductor variations, it can supply up to 45 watts of power per port at up to 30 volts, allowing moderate-consumption devices to operate without a separate power supply.
FireWire devices implement
Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit. Colors can be quantified in various ways. In essence, different people see the same illuminated light source in different ways. Isaac Newton discovered that white light, after being split into its component colours when passed through a dispersive prism, could be recombined to make white light by passing them through a different prism; the characteristic colours are, from long to short wavelengths, orange, green and violet. Sufficient differences in wavelength cause a difference in the perceived hue. Although the human eye can distinguish up to a few hundred hues, when those pure spectral colors are mixed together or diluted with white light, the number of distinguishable chromaticities can be quite high. In low light levels, vision is scotopic: light is detected by rod cells of the retina. Rods are maximally sensitive to wavelengths near 500 nm, play little, if any, role in colour vision.
In brighter light, such as daylight, vision is photopic: light is detected by cone cells which are responsible for colour vision. Cones are most sensitive to wavelengths near 555 nm. Between these regions, mesopic vision comes into play and both rods and cones provide signals to the retinal ganglion cells; the shift in colour perception from dim light to daylight gives rise to differences known as the Purkinje effect. The perception of "white" is formed by the entire spectrum of visible light, or by mixing colours of just a few wavelengths in animals with few types of colour receptors. In humans, white light can be perceived by combining wavelengths such as red and blue, or just a pair of complementary colours such as blue and yellow. Perception of color begins with specialized retinal cells containing pigments with different spectral sensitivities, known as cone cells. In humans, there are three types of cones sensitive to three different spectra, resulting in trichromatic color vision; each individual cone contains pigments composed of opsin apoprotein, covalently linked to either 11-cis-hydroretinal or more 11-cis-dehydroretinal.
The cones are conventionally labeled according to the ordering of the wavelengths of the peaks of their spectral sensitivities: short and long cone types. These three types do not correspond well to particular colors. Rather, the perception of color is achieved by a complex process that starts with the differential output of these cells in the retina and it will be finalized in the visual cortex and associative areas of the brain. For example, while the L cones have been referred to as red receptors, microspectrophotometry has shown that their peak sensitivity is in the greenish-yellow region of the spectrum; the S- and M-cones do not directly correspond to blue and green, although they are described as such. The RGB color model, therefore, is a convenient means for representing color, but is not directly based on the types of cones in the human eye; the peak response of human cone cells varies among individuals with so-called normal color vision. Some sources assert; the main range has its maximum at 600 nm.
The tiny range is between 380 450 nm, peaking at 420 nm. This small maximum is said to explain why the visible light with the shortest wavelength looks violet, while the visible light with the longest wavelength looks dark red. Two complementary theories of color vision are the trichromatic theory and the opponent process theory; the trichromatic theory, or Young–Helmholtz theory, proposed in the 19th century by Thomas Young and Hermann von Helmholtz, as mentioned above, states that the retina's three types of cones are preferentially sensitive to blue and red. Ewald Hering proposed the opponent process theory in 1872, it states that the visual system interprets color in an antagonistic way: red vs. green, blue vs. yellow, black vs. white. Both theories are now accepted as valid, describing different stages in visual physiology, visualized in the adjacent diagram. Green ←→ Magenta and Blue ←→ Yellow are scales with mutually exclusive boundaries. In the same way that there cannot exist a "slightly negative" positive number, a single eye cannot perceive a bluish-yellow or a reddish-green.
A range of wavelengths of light stimulates each of these receptor types to varying degrees. Yellowish-green light, for example, stimulates both L and M cones strongly, but only stimulates S-cones weakly. Red light, on the other hand, stimulates L cones much more than M cones, S cones hardly at all; the brain combines the information from each type of receptor to give rise to different perceptions of different wavelengths of light. The opsins present in the L and M cones are encoded on the X chromosome.
Flat-panel displays are electronic viewing technologies used to enable people to see content in a range of entertainment, consumer electronics, personal computer, mobile devices, many types of medical and industrial equipment. They are far lighter and thinner than traditional cathode ray tube television sets and video displays and are less than 10 centimetres thick. Flat-panel displays can be divided into two display device categories: static. Volatile displays require that pixels be periodically electronically refreshed to retain their state. A volatile display only shows an image when it has AC mains power. Static flat-panel displays rely on materials whose color states are bistable, as such, flat-panel displays retain the text or images on the screen when the power is off; as of 2016, flat-panel displays have completely replaced old CRT displays. In many 2010-era applications small portable devices such as laptops, mobile phones, digital cameras, point-and-shoot cameras, pocket video cameras, any display disadvantages of flat-panels are made up for by portability advantages.
Most 2010s-era flat-panel displays use LCD and/or LED technologies. Most LCD screens are back-lit. Flat-panel displays are thin and lightweight and provide better linearity and they are capable of higher resolution than typical consumer-grade TVs from earlier eras; the highest resolution for consumer-grade CRT TVs was 1080i. As of 2016, some devices that use flat-panels, such as tablet computers, smartphones and, less laptops, use touchscreens, a feature that enables users to select onscreen icons or trigger actions by touching the screen. Many touchscreen-enabled devices can display a virtual QWERTY or numeric keyboard on the screen, to enable the user to type words or numbers. A multifunctional monitor is a flat-panel display that has additional video inputs and is designed to be used with a variety of external video sources, such as VGA input, HDMI input from a VHS VCR or video game console and, in some cases, a USB input or card reader for viewing digital photos). In many instances, an MFM includes a TV tuner, making it similar to a LCD TV that offers computer connectivity.
The first engineering proposal for a flat-panel TV was by General Electric as a result of its work on radar monitors. Their publication of their findings monitors, but GE did not continue with the R&D required and never built a working flat panel at that time. The first production flat-panel display was the Aiken tube, developed in the early 1950s and produced in limited numbers in 1958; this saw some use in military systems as a heads up display, but conventional technologies overtook its development. Attempts to commercialize the system for home television use ran into continued problems and the system was never released commercially; the Philco Predicta featured a flat cathode ray tube setup and would be the first commercially released "flat panel" upon its launch in 1958. The plasma display panel was invented in 1964 at the University of Illinois, according to The History of Plasma Display Panels; the first active-matrix addressed display was made by T Peter Brody's Thin-Film Devices department at Westinghouse Electric Corporation in 1968.
In 1977, James P Mitchell prototyped and demonstrated what was the earliest monochromatic flat panel LED television display LED Display. As of 2012, 50% of global market share in flat-panel display production is by Taiwanese manufacturers such as AU Optronics and Chimei Innolux Corporation. Liquid crystal displays are lightweight, portable, more reliable, easier on the eyes than cathode ray tube screens. LCD screens use a thin layer of a liquid that exhibits crystalline properties, it is sandwiched between two electrically conducting plates. The top plate has transparent electrodes deposited on it, the back plate is illuminated so that the viewer can see the images on the screen. By applying controlled electrical signals across the plates, various segments of the liquid crystal can be activated, causing changes in their light diffusing or polarizing properties; these segments can either block light. An image is produced by passing light through selected segments of the liquid crystal to the viewer.
They are used in various electronics like watches and notebook computers. Some LCD screens are backlit with a number of light-emitting diodes. LEDs are two-lead semiconductor light source that resembles a basic "pn-junction" diode, except that an LED emits light; this form of LCD is the most prevalent in the 2010s. The image is still generated by the LCD. A plasma display consists of two glass plates separated by a thin gap filled with a gas such as neon; each of these plates has several parallel electrodes running across it. The electrodes on the two plates are at right angles to each other. A voltage applied between the two electrodes one on each plate causes a small segment of gas at the two electrodes to glow; the glow of gas segments is maintained by a lower voltage, continuously applied to all electrodes. In the 2010s, plasma displays have been discontinued by numerous manufacturers. In an electroluminescent display, the image is cre