Lost River (California)
Lost River begins and ends in a closed basin in northern California and southern Oregon in the United States. The river, 60 miles long, flows in an arc from Clear Lake Reservoir in Modoc County, through Klamath County, Oregon, to Tule Lake in Siskiyou County, California. About 46 mi of Lost River are in Oregon, 14 miles are in California. From its source, the river flows into Langell Valley. Near Bonanza, the river passes through Olene Gap, about 10 mi east of Klamath Falls; the river turns southeast and flows along the base of Stukel Mountain, where it provides diversion canals for small lakes including Nuss Lake for irrigation and flood control. It re-enters California south of Merrill. Dams, canals and other artificial structures on the Lost River, Clear Lake, Tule Lake are part of the Klamath Project of the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, which manages the basin's water flow for farming and flood control; the project provides water to about 210,000 acres of cropland, 62% of which are in Oregon and 38% in California.
Water from the Lost River basin enters the Klamath River basin through the Lost River Diversion Channel, about 4 mi downstream of Olene. The 8 mi channel can supply water by reverse flow from the Klamath when irrigation water is needed for farms in drained parts of Tule Lake. After 1846, the Applegate Trail crossed the river on a natural bridge of stepping-stones covered by a Bureau of Reclamation dam, near Merrill. Earlier in that year, explorer John C. Frémont had named the stream McCrady River after a boyhood friend, but over time the Lost River name prevailed. A Lost River post office operated probably in the vicinity of Olene, Oregon, in 1875–76. A sluggish stream, Lost River offers fishing opportunities for bass, up to 7 lb, brown bullhead, yellow perch, Sacramento perch. Trout are uncommon in this river. Battle of Lost River List of longest streams of Oregon List of rivers of California List of rivers of Oregon
The Micca House, on Bridge St. in Paradise Valley, Nevada, is a historic house, built in 1885. It includes Stick/Eastlake architecture; the building served as a department store, as a post office, as a government office. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In its NRHP nomination, written by its owner, it was argued to be "locally significant to its community for the great diversity of functions it contained, all vital in their time to the life of Paradise Valley." It was listed on the NRHP in 1975
Nevada is a state in the Western United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast and Utah to the east. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 32nd most populous, but the 9th least densely populated of the U. S. states. Nearly three-quarters of Nevada's people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area where three of the state's four largest incorporated cities are located. Nevada's capital, however, is Carson City. Nevada is known as the "Silver State" because of the importance of silver to its history and economy, it is known as the "Battle Born State", because it achieved statehood during the Civil War. Nevada is desert and semi-arid, much of it within the Great Basin. Areas south of the Great Basin are within the Mojave Desert, while Lake Tahoe and the Sierra Nevada lie on the western edge. About 86% of the state's land is managed by various jurisdictions of the U. S. federal government, both civilian and military.
Before European contact, Native Americans of the Paiute and Washoe tribes inhabited the land, now Nevada. The first Europeans to explore the region were Spanish, they called the region Nevada because of the snow. The area formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, became part of Mexico when it gained independence in 1821; the United States annexed the area in 1848 after its victory in the Mexican–American War, it was incorporated as part of Utah Territory in 1850. The discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1859 led to a population boom that became an impetus to the creation of Nevada Territory out of western Utah Territory in 1861. Nevada became the 36th state on October 31, 1864, as the second of two states added to the Union during the Civil War. Nevada has a reputation for its libertarian laws. In 1940, with a population of just over 110,000 people, Nevada was by far the least-populated state, with less than half the population of the next least-populated state. However, legalized gambling and lenient marriage and divorce laws transformed Nevada into a major tourist destination in the 20th century.
Nevada is the only U. S. state where prostitution is legal, though it is illegal in Clark County, Washoe County and Carson City. The tourism industry remains Nevada's largest employer, with mining continuing as a substantial sector of the economy: Nevada is the fourth-largest producer of gold in the world; the name "Nevada" comes from meaning "snow-covered", after the Sierra Nevada. Most Nevadans pronounce the second syllable of their state name using the TRAP vowel. Many from outside the Western United States pronounce it with the PALM vowel. Although the latter pronunciation is closer to the Spanish pronunciation, it is not the pronunciation preferred by most Nevadans. State Assemblyman Harry Mortenson proposed a bill to recognize the alternate pronunciation of Nevada, though the bill was not supported by most legislators and never received a vote; the Nevadan pronunciation is the de facto official one, since it is the one used by the state legislature. At one time, the state's official tourism organization, TravelNevada, stylized the name of the state as "Nevăda", with a breve mark over the a indicating the locally preferred pronunciation, available as a license plate design.
Nevada is entirely within the Basin and Range Province, is broken up by many north-south mountain ranges. Most of these ranges have endorheic valleys between them, which belies the image portrayed by the term Great Basin. Much of the northern part of the state is within the Great Basin, a mild desert that experiences hot temperatures in the summer and cold temperatures in the winter. Moisture from the Arizona Monsoon will cause summer thunderstorms; the state's highest recorded temperature was 125 °F in Laughlin on June 29, 1994. The coldest recorded temperature was −52 °F set in San Jacinto in 1972, in the northeastern portion of the state; the Humboldt River crosses the state from east to west across the northern part of the state, draining into the Humboldt Sink near Lovelock. Several rivers drain from the Sierra Nevada eastward, including the Walker and Carson rivers. All of these rivers are endorheic basins, ending in Walker Lake, Pyramid Lake, the Carson Sink, respectively. However, not all of Nevada is within the Great Basin.
Tributaries of the Snake River drain the far north, while the Colorado River, which forms much of the boundary with Arizona, drains much of southern Nevada. The mountain ranges, some of which have peaks above 13,000 feet, harbor lush forests high above desert plains, creating sky islands for endemic species; the valleys are no lower in elevation than 3,000 feet, while some in central Nevada are above 6,000 feet. The southern third of the state, where the Las Vegas area is situated, is within the Mojave Desert; the area is closer to the Arizona Monsoon in the summer. The terrain is lower below 4,000 feet, creating conditions for hot summer days and cool to chilly winter nights. Nevada and California have by far the longest diagonal line as a state boundary at just over 400 miles; this line begins in Lake Tahoe nearly
The Barlow Road is a historic road in what is now the U. S. state of Oregon. It was built in 1846 by Sam Barlow and Philip Foster, with authorization of the Provisional Legislature of Oregon, served as the last overland segment of the Oregon Trail, its construction allowed covered wagons to cross the Cascade Range and reach the Willamette Valley, nearly impossible. So, it was by far the most harrowing 100 miles of the nearly 2,000-mile Oregon Trail. Before the opening of the Barlow Road, pioneers traveling by land from the east followed the Oregon Trail to Wascopam Mission and floated down the Columbia River to Fort Vancouver a perilous and expensive journey, it was possible to drive livestock over Lolo Pass on the north side of Mount Hood, but that trail was too rugged for vehicles and unsuitable for wagons. A trading post had been built where river crossings could be made along with the disassembly of wagons to make rafts suitable for floating down the remainder of the Columbia; the Barlow Road begins at Wascopam Mission and heads south to Tygh Valley turns west and parallels the White River on the north and west, crosses the south shoulder of Mount Hood at Barlow Pass, follows Camp Creek and the Sandy River for some way, leads to Oregon City.
The road was rendered irrelevant in the early 1900s by the construction of the Mount Hood Highway. It still exists as a dirt road in some places, while many other parts have been paved over by newer streets and highways; when Sam Barlow arrived at The Dalles late September 1845, as many as sixty families were waiting for river transport. The expected wait was more than ten days, the transportation "exorbitantly" priced. Local inquiries turned up little information about traveling over the mountains except that water and grazing were plentiful. Barlow and H. M. Knighton set out to determine the feasibility of a route, seeking a more expedient and less expensive way to the Willamette Valley. Knighton decided it returned. Barlow forged on with a train of seven wagons, intending to return for river transport if the mountain passage proved impractical. On October 1, 1845, Barlow and three men scouted ahead of their company and entered Mount Hood's foothills from the east near Tygh Creek, about 35 miles from the mouth of the Deschutes River.
They came within 12 miles of Mount Hood. They thought they had glimpsed the Willamette Valley, learned from the Indians of a trail leading to Oregon City, but returned to Tygh Creek about five days after their departure. There Joel Palmer was waiting for him with a 23 wagon party. Palmer had followed Barlow for a better route, had just returned from exploring the same area; the combined company organized road clearing through the forest by burning. The clearing party made it to the top of a ridge, now known as Barlow Pass, where they were lost. Barlow, a man named Harrison Porter Locke hiked the south face of Mount Hood west of Palmer Glacier to scout a westward route off the mountain. Palmer, in better physical condition than his companions, climbed high on the glacier, took detailed notes on the surrounding ridges and rivers, they returned to the group, arranged for guards for their wagons at a place. Several families in wagons ill-suited for travel through the wilderness remained at Fort Deposit, while the remainder returned to The Dalles.
Barlow's group followed the Sandy River west on foot. Palmer noted an intersection with a trail coming from The Dalles by way of Lolo Pass, around the north side of Mount Hood, the only overland trail traversed by pioneers. Near the present-day city of Sandy, they turned southwest to reach Eagle Creek and Philip Foster's farm near present-day Clackamas; that autumn, Barlow considered the route over the mountains and petitioned the Provisional Legislature of Oregon for permission to build a road on December 9, 1845, claiming that his estimated cost of $4000 was lower than that of others familiar with the route. Permission was granted with a vote of 8-2 on December 17, 1845, approved by Speaker pro-tem Henry A. G. Lee, signed into law by Governor George Abernethy; the road's toll was authorized for two years effective January 1, 1846 and specified toll rates at five dollars for each wagon and ten cents for each head of horse, ass, or horned cattle. The grant named the route "Mount Hood Road"—but it was known as the "Barlow Road."The road was built with the financial backing of Philip Foster and a crew of forty men.
Five toll gates were built along the route. Barlow's estimate of $4000 had underestimated the number of trees to be cut down and forgotten the numerous challenging bridges that would have to be built over rivers such as the Sandy, Zigzag and Salmon; the White River continues to challenge its bridges to this day. In its first season of operation, Barlow recorded the passage of 152 wagons, 1300 sheep, 1559 mules and cattle. Despite ongoing maintenance, the general condition of the road was considered to vary from "rough to passable." The direction of travel was one-way until 1861, when a better road was blasted through Laurel Hill. Despite the expense and difficulties of passage, the road was popular, with more than a thousand immigrants and 145 wagons recorded in the first year of operation. Three-quarters of the pioneers entering the Willamette Valley trav
Rickreall is an unincorporated community in Polk County, United States. For statistical purposes, the United States Census Bureau has defined Rickreall as a census-designated place; the census definition of the area may not correspond to local understanding of the area with the same name. The population of the CDP was 57 at the 2000 census. Rickreall is part of the Salem Metropolitan Statistical Area. Rickreall Creek runs along the community's southern edge. "Rickreal" post office was established in 1851 with Nathaniel Ford as postmaster. It was discontinued in 1857, but reestablished in 1866 with the spelling "Rickreall". Ford was again postmaster; the office has continued to operate to the present day. Rickreall was referred to as Dixie during the Civil War and for some time after, because of the Southern sympathies of the local populace. Dixie was never the official name of the post office. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.2 square miles, all of it land.
As of the census of 2000, there were 57 people, 26 households, 17 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 335.6 people per square mile. There were 26 housing units at an average density of 153.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 98.25% White, 1.75% from two or more races. There were 26 households out of which 19.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.7% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.8% were non-families. 23.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.56. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 15.8% under the age of 18, 1.8% from 18 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 38.6% from 45 to 64, 19.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 50 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 71.4 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $27,222, the median income for a family was $26,389. Males had a median income of $41,250 versus $21,250 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $12,846. None of the population and none of the families were below the poverty line; the Jefferson Institute, located a mile west of the Nathaniel Ford house, was founded in 1846. There were two elementary schools in the Rickreall School District. One was Oak Grove Elementary, east of the community, the other was Rickreall Elementary. In 2003, Rickreall Elementary was shut down by the Dallas School District, the school building was leased to Our Jubilee Church and Academy. Students who were attending Rickreall Elementary were sent to Whitworth Elementary in Dallas; as of 2007, the church ended their lease on the Rickreall Elementary building. Oak Grove Elementary closed in the fall of 2005. Water service for the Rickreall area is provided by Rickreall Community Water Association, a non-profit water association serving 525 homes, 64 businesses, 2 schools in the greater Rickreall area.
Media related to Rickreall, Oregon at Wikimedia Commons
The Golconda School, located at Morrison and Fourth Sts. in Golconda, Nevada, is a historic building built in 1888. It includes vernacular Second Empire style architectural elements; the school was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1991. It was deemed significant for association with the economic development of Golconda, for "documenting the history of education in Nevada", "as an unusually well-preserved 19th century wood-frame vernacular school."
The Willamette Valley is a 150-mile long valley in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The Willamette River flows the entire length of the valley, it is surrounded by mountains on three sides – the Cascade Range to the east, the Oregon Coast Range to the west, the Calapooya Mountains to the south, it forms the cultural and political heart of Oregon, is home to 70 percent of its population including its six largest cities: Portland, Salem, the state capital, the cities of Gresham and Beaverton in the Portland metropolitan area. Eight of Oregon's ten – and 16 of its 20 – largest cities are located in the Willamette Valley; the valley's numerous waterways the Willamette River, are vital to the economy of Oregon, as they continuously deposit fertile alluvial soils across its broad, flat plain. A massively productive agricultural area, the valley was publicized in the 1820s as a'promised land of flowing milk and honey'. Throughout the 19th century it was the destination of choice for the oxen-drawn wagon trains of emigrants who made the perilous journey along the Oregon Trail.
Today the valley is considered synonymous with "Oregon Wine Country", as it contains more than 19,000 acres of vineyards and 500+ wineries. Much of the Willamette's fertility is derived from a series of massive ice-age floods that came from Lake Missoula in Montana and scoured across Eastern Washington, sweeping its topsoil down the Columbia River Gorge; when floodwaters met log- and ice-jams at Kalama in southwest Washington, the water caused a backup that filled the entire Willamette Valley to a depth of 300 to 400 feet above current sea level. Some geologists suggest that the Willamette Valley flooded in this manner multiple times during the last ice age. If floodwaters of that magnitude covered Portland in 2010, only the tops of the West Hills, Mount Tabor, Rocky Butte, Kelley Butte and Mount Scott would be visible, as would only some of the city's tallest skyscrapers. Elevations for other cities in the valley are Newberg, 175 feet; the lake drained away, leaving layered sedimentary soils on the valley floor to a height of about 180 to 200 feet above current sea level throughout the Tualatin and Willamette valleys.
Geologists have come to refer to the resulting lake as Lake Allison, named for Oregon State University geologist Ira S. Allison, who first described Willamette Silt soil in 1953 and noted its similarity to soils on the floor of former Lake Lewis in Eastern Washington. Allison is known for his work in the 1930s documenting the hundreds of non-native boulders washed down by the floods, rafted on icebergs and deposited on the valley bottom and in a ring around the lower hills surrounding the Willamette Valley. One of the most prominent of these is the Bellevue Erratic, just off Oregon Route 18 west of McMinnville, it is believed that the Willamette Meteorite was rafted by flood and ice to the location near West Linn where it was found in 1902. The valley may be loosely defined as the broad plain of the Willamette, bounded on the west by the Oregon Coast Range and on the east by the Cascade Range, it is bounded on the south by the Calapooya Mountains, which separate the headwaters of the Willamette from the Umpqua River valley about 25 miles south of Hidden Valley.
Interstate 5 runs the length of the valley. Because of differing cultural and political interests, the Portland metropolitan area and Tualatin River valley are not included in the local use of the term. Additionally, the east slopes of the Coast Ranges and the west slopes of the Cascade Range from Oakridge to Detroit Lake can be considered part of the Willamette Valley in a cultural sense, despite being mountainous areas. Cities in the valley include, from south to north, Cottage Grove, Corvallis, Dallas, Keizer, McMinnville, Oregon City, Portland, St. Helens. Parts of the following counties, from south to north, lie within the valley: Douglas, Linn, Polk, Clackamas, Washington and Columbia. Sometimes the area around Albany and Corvallis and surrounding Benton and Linn counties is referred to locally as the Mid-Valley. Marion and other counties are sometimes included in the definition of the Mid-Valley; the climate of the Willamette Valley is Mediterranean with oceanic features. This climate is characterized by dry and cloudless summers, ranging from warm to very hot, followed by cool and cloudy winters.
The precipitation pattern is distinctly Mediterranean, with little to no rainfall occurring during the summer months and over half of annual precipitation falling between November and February. Temperatures are predictable throughout the year, with daytime highs reaching the low to mid 80s in the summer and the mid 40s in the winter. Lengthy stretches of 90 °F days occur every summer reaching 100 °F. Cold days where the daytime high fails to rise above freezing are rare and may occur only two or three days per year, not at all in the lowest elevations of the valley. Temperatures of 5 °F or lower occur only about once every 25 years. Spring and fall days are between 50 and 70 degrees, with occasional surges of summer-like or winter-like temperatures that last more than a week. Precipitation varies across the valley and is correlated with elevation. Annual totals range from 36 inches (