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Applesoft BASIC

Applesoft BASIC is a dialect of Microsoft BASIC, developed by Marc McDonald and Ric Weiland, supplied with the Apple II series of computers. It supersedes Integer BASIC and is the BASIC in ROM in all Apple II series computers after the original Apple II model, it is referred to as FP BASIC because of the Apple DOS command used to invoke it, instead of INT for Integer BASIC. Applesoft BASIC was supplied by Microsoft and its name is derived from the names of both Apple and Microsoft. Apple employees, including Randy Wigginton, adapted Microsoft's interpreter for the Apple II and added several features; the first version of Applesoft was released in 1977 on cassette tape and lacked proper support for high-resolution graphics. Applesoft II, made available on cassette and disk and in the ROM of the Apple II Plus and subsequent models, was released in 1978, it is this latter version, which has some syntax differences and support for the Apple II high-resolution graphics modes, synonymous with the term "Applesoft."

An Applesoft compiler, TASC, was produced by Microsoft in 1981. When Steve Wozniak wrote Integer BASIC for the Apple II, he did not implement support for floating point math because he was interested in writing games, a task for which integers alone were sufficient. In 1976, Microsoft had developed Microsoft BASIC, a BASIC interpreter for the MOS Technology 6502, but at the time there was no production computer that used it. Upon learning that Apple had a 6502 machine, Microsoft asked if the company were interested in licensing BASIC, but Steve Jobs replied that Apple had one; the Apple II was unveiled to the public at the West Coast Computer Faire in April 1977 and became available for sale in June. One of the most common customer complaints about the computer was BASIC's lack of floating-point capability. Integer BASIC is limited to whole numbers between −32768 and 32767 and caused problems for users attempting to write business applications with it. Steve Wozniak had never added floating point capabilities to Integer BASIC as he did not consider them necessary for gaming and educational software, the two primary tasks he envisioned for the Apple II.

As Wozniak—the only person who understood Integer BASIC well enough to add floating point features—was busy with the Disk II drive and controller and with Apple DOS, Apple turned to Microsoft. Making things more problematic was that the rival Commodore PET personal computer had a floating point-capable BASIC interpreter from the beginning; the Applesoft license saved Microsoft from near-bankruptcy when they licensed BASIC to Commodore for the PET in an agreement that proved unexpectedly costly for them. Apple obtained an eight-year license for Applesoft BASIC from Microsoft for a flat fee of $31,000, renewing it in 1985 through an arrangement that gave Microsoft the rights and source code for Apple's Macintosh version of BASIC. Applesoft was designed to be backwards-compatible with Integer BASIC and uses the core of Microsoft's 6502 BASIC implementation, which includes using the GET command for detecting key presses and not requiring any spaces on program lines. While Applesoft BASIC is slower than Integer BASIC, it has many features that the older BASIC lacks: Atomic strings: A string is no longer an array of characters.

This allows for string arrays. Multidimensional arrays Single-precision floating point variables with an 8-bit exponent and a 31-bit significand and improved math capabilities, including trigonometry and logarithmic functions Commands for high-resolution graphics DATA statements, with READ and RESTORE commands, for representing numerical and string values in quantity CHR$, STR$, VAL functions for converting between string and numeric types User-defined functions: simple one-line functions written in BASIC, with a single parameter Error-trapping, allowing BASIC programs to handle unexpected errors by means of a subroutine written in BASICConversely, Applesoft lacks the MOD operator, present in Integer BASIC. Adapting BASIC for the Apple II was a tedious job as Apple received a source listing for Microsoft 6502 BASIC which proved to be buggy and required the addition of Integer BASIC commands. Since Apple had no 6502 assembler on hand, the development team was forced to send the source code over the phone lines to Call Computer, an outfit that offered compiler services.

This was an tedious, slow process and after Call Computer lost the source code due to an equipment malfunction, one of the programmers, Cliff Huston, used his own IMSAI 8080 computer to cross assemble the BASIC source. Applesoft is similar to Commodore's BASIC 2.0 aside from features inherited from Integer BASIC. There are a few minor differences such as Applesoft's lack of bitwise operators; the PR# statement is used to redirect output to an expansion card, IN# is used to redirect input from an expansion card. The slot number of the card is specified after the PR IN # within the statement; the computer will require a reboot. PR # 0 will restore output IN # 0 to the keyboard; the PR# statement can be used to redirect output to the printer where x is the slot number containing the printer port card. To send a BASIC program listing to the printer, the user would type PR#x:LIST. After outputting to the printer, it is necessary to execute a PR#0 statement to reset

William & Mary Tribe women's soccer, 1981–89

The William & Mary Tribe women's soccer teams represent The College of William & Mary in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I competition. Located in Williamsburg, United States, the women's soccer program began its official participation as a varsity sport in 1981; the first head coach was John Charles, who led the program for five seasons and compiled a 50–29–11 overall record. In 1986, Englishman John Daly continued on his predecessor's success. Daly is still the head coach through the 2009 season. Starting in 1984, the Tribe earned berths into the NCAA Women's Soccer Championship in every season for the rest of the 1980s. In 1987 and 1989 they made their way to the Elite 8, making them one of only eight teams remaining in the college soccer season

Jacob M. Myers

Jacob Martin Myers was a Bible commentator and senior lecturer in the department of Hebrew and Old Testament at the Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. In 1930 he was ordained a pastor by the West Pennsylvania Synod of the United Lutheran Church in America. Myers was born on October 25, 1904 in West Manchester, Pennsylvania to Harvey A. Myers and his wife Annie, his academic education started at Gettysburg Seminary followed by the Temple University in Philadelphia. His PhD work was done at Johns Hopkins University in Semitics and completed in 1946. Whilst at Johns Hopkins he came under the profound influence of Professor W. F. Albright. 1 Chronicles. Anchor Yale Bible. 12. 1965. ISBN 978-0-3850-1259-1. 2 Chronicles. Anchor Yale Bible. 13. Yale University Press. 1965. ISBN 978-0-3850-3757-0. Ezra - Nehemiah. Anchor Yale Bible. 14. Yale University Press. 1965. ISBN 978-0-3850-4695-4. 1 and 2 Esdras. Anchor Yale Bible. 42. Yale University Press. 1974. ISBN 978-0-3850-0426-8; the World of the Restoration.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 1968. ISBN 978-0-1396-8214-8. Bream, Howard N.. A Light Into My path. Gettysburg Theological Studies IV. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. ISBN 978-0-87722-026-8. Invitation to the Old Testament: a Layman's Guide to Its Major Religious Messages. Doubleday. 1966. Grace and Torah. Philadelphia, PA: Fortress Press. 1975. ISBN 978-0-8006-1099-9. Bream, Howard N.. Search the Scriptures: New Testament studies in honor of Raymond T. Stamm. Leiden: Brill; the Layman's Bible Commentary: The Book of Hosea, the Book of Joel, the Book of Amos, the Book of Obadiah, the Book of Jonah. Westminster John Knox Press. 1960. ISBN 978-0-8042-3074-2; the Linguistic and Literary Form of the Book of Ruth. Leiden: Brill. 1955. "Ezra and Nehemiah". Encyclopedia Biblica. Festschrift profile for Myers

Alief Taylor High School

Alief Taylor High School is a public high school in the Alief Independent School District. It is located in an unincorporated area near Houston. Opened in 2001, Alief Taylor is the newest high school in the district, it is named after Edward "Doc" Taylor. According to the Texas Education Agency, Taylor covers grades 9-12 and has 500 or more students in each grade level; when it opened in the fall of 2001, it had only sophomores. During the 2002-2003 school year the 11th grade was added. Taylor added its first 12th grade class during the 2003-2004 school year. Alief Taylor is one of two schools in Alief ISD that does not include a Ninth Grade Center, a separate building for ninth grade students; the other is Kerr High School. Alief Taylor was referred to as "High School No. 4."It is located in the International District. In 2019 Taylor received a C grade from the Texas Education Agency. Alief Taylor High School opened on August 13, 2001; the school was designated for freshman and sophomores only, in an attempt to alleviate overcrowding at nearby Elsik and Hastings High Schools which, at the time, had a combined student population of over 9,000.

It expanded to accept students from 9th to 12th grades. Unlike Hastings or Elsik, Taylor hosts all grade levels on the same campus. In 2010, Taylor achieved the highest AP scores in the district, reporting that 77% of their students received a score of three or higher. Taylor's graduation rate was the highest in the district, its dropout rate was the lowest of comparable district high schools. According to the Texas Education Agency, Taylor High School exceeded all performance expectations in the 2016-2017 school year; the class of 2015 averaged a score of 18 on the ACT and 1148 on the SAT. For the 2018-2019 school year, the school received a C grade from the Texas Education Agency, with an overall score of 78 out of 100; the school received a C grade in two domains, Student Achievement and Closing the Gaps, a B grade in School Progress. The school did not receive any of the seven possible distinction designations. Alief Taylor has a rich sport history despite being somewhat young in tenure; the varsity team began 2003 with coach Gerber at the helm.

In the following season, now having its first senior class, the team went 6 and 0 before its first loss. The team swept Elsik and Hastings, finishing the season 8 and 2 and making the playoffs for the first time in the program's young history. In the 2004-05 season, the team had a 5-4 record during which they came from behind to upset the Katy Tigers 23-21; the 2005-06 season was less successful. They won 3 games and lost 5, they bounced back in the 2006-07 season with a 6-5 record, for the first time went to the playoffs, where they lost to Cy-Falls in the first round. The 2007-08 season was the least successful, with the team winning 3 games from 10. Over that summer coach Gerber resigned and Coach Trevor White stepped in; this era established Alief Taylor as a growing competitive athletic program. It made inroads to laying the path to future success by dominating the playing field. In the 2008-09 season they had 6 wins, 5 defeats, a victory against Alief Elsik that brought the Lions back into the playoffs against Cinco Ranch.

The 2009-10 season saw the team once again qualify for playoffs. They beat rival Katy Taylor 17-10 and continued into the second round against Aldine, in which Ismael Becerra provided the winning field goal to win 38-35. In the third round, they lost to Brazoswood 19-45, ending the season with 4 defeats. Over the summer, Coach White resigned and took the head coaching position at George Ranch High School. Coach J. D. Jordan took over; the team finished that season with 2 defeats. Having only lost one game against Katy High School, they again headed into the playoffs, beating Cy-Ridge in a 37–36 victory, they headed into round two against past district rival Spring Branch Memorial, but lost 28-35. The 2011-12 season was a roller coaster ride, they began with an unexpected loss to Pasadena Dobie and a shutout from rival Katy High School, but the team bounced back with a six-game win streak, beating rivals Alief Elsik nine years in a row and Alief Hastings four years in a row, along with Fort Bend Dulles, Conroe and MacArthur's football teams Then they suffered defeats from Aldine Nimitz and Aldine, lost the District Championship, but they still qualified for the Texas 5A Division II Playoffs.

They went up against Langham Creek High School in an intense game, with an offensive shootout going back and forth culminating to a 48-47 win over Langham Creek. They once again lost to Memorial at Home; the Lions had success on the JV level, with the JV White Team finishing the season winning a district title with eight wins, a loss, a tiebreaker in the season, with offensive standout Devonta Locks, defensive standout Noah Iheanacho, Lendalle Johnson. 2011-2012 varsity star Greg Allen committed to Kansas University to compete his college career as a Jay Hawk. As an established contender, there were many expectations of Alief Taylor football program in 2012-2013. Many sports publications such as Vype magazine, Dave Campbell's Texas Football, Texas 5A football.com and The Houston Chronicle predicted Alief Taylor would finish first in the 18-5A district in 2012. The Lions' roster included five seniors with Division One football offers: Torrodney Prevot, Ogbonnia Okoronkwo (Oklaho

HMAS Melbourne (R21)

HMAS Melbourne was a Majestic-class light aircraft carrier operated by the Royal Australian Navy from 1955 until 1982, was the third and final conventional aircraft carrier to serve in the RAN. Melbourne was the only Commonwealth naval vessel to sink two friendly warships in peacetime collisions. Melbourne was laid down for the Royal Navy as the lead ship of the Majestic class in April 1943, was launched as HMS Majestic in February 1945. At the end of the Second World War, work on the ship was suspended until she was purchased by the RAN in 1947. At the time of purchase, it was decided to incorporate new aircraft carrier technologies into the design, making Melbourne the third ship to be constructed with an angled flight deck. Delays in construction and integrating the enhancements meant that the carrier was not commissioned until 1955. Melbourne never fired a shot in anger during her service career, having only peripheral, non-combat roles in relation to the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation and the Vietnam War.

She was, involved in two major collisions with allied vessels. The first collision occurred on the evening of 10 February 1964, in which Melbourne rammed and sank the RAN destroyer HMAS Voyager, when the latter altered course across her bow. 82 of Voyager's personnel were killed, two Royal Commissions were held to investigate the incident. The second collision occurred in the early morning of 3 June 1969, when Melbourne rammed the United States Navy destroyer USS Frank E. Evans in similar circumstances. 74 American personnel died, a joint USN–RAN Board of Inquiry was held. These incidents, along with several minor collisions, shipboard accidents and aircraft losses, led to the reputation that Melbourne was jinxed. Melbourne was paid off from RAN service in 1982. A proposal to convert her for use as a floating casino failed, a 1984 sale was cancelled, before she was sold for scrap in 1985 and towed to China for breaking; the scrapping was delayed so Melbourne could be studied by the People's Liberation Army Navy as part of a secret project to develop a Chinese aircraft carrier and used to train PLAN aviators in carrier flight operations.

Melbourne was constructed by Vickers-Armstrongs at their Naval Construction Yard in Barrow-in-Furness, North West England. The ship was laid down as HMS Majestic on 15 April 1943, was launched on 28 February 1945 by Lady Anderson, the wife of Sir John Anderson, the British Chancellor of the Exchequer. Following the end of World War II, the Admiralty ordered the suspension of many British shipbuilding projects, including the fitting out of Majestic and her five sister ships. Construction resumed in 1946, major modifications to the design were incorporated. A review by the Australian Government's Defence Committee held after World War II recommended that the post-war forces of the RAN be structured around a Task Force incorporating multiple aircraft carriers. Initial plans were for three carriers, with two active and a third in reserve, although funding cuts led to the purchase of only two carriers in June 1947: Majestic and sister ship HMS Terrible, for the combined cost of AU£2.75 million, plus stores and ammunition.

As Terrible was the closer of the two ships to completion, she was finished without modification, was commissioned into the RAN on 16 December 1948 as HMAS Sydney. Work progressed on Majestic at a slower rate, as she was upgraded with the latest technology and equipment; the Colossus-class carrier HMS Vengeance was loaned to the RAN from 13 November 1952 until 12 August 1955 to cover Majestic's absence. Labour difficulties, late delivery of equipments, additional requirements for Australian operations, the prioritisation of merchant ships over naval construction delayed the completion of Majestic. Incorporation of new systems and enhancements caused the cost of the RAN carrier acquisition program to increase to AU£8.3 million. Construction and fitting out did not finish until October 1955; as the carrier neared completion, a commissioning crew was formed in Australia and first used to return Vengeance to the United Kingdom. The completed carrier was commissioned into the RAN as HMAS Majestic on 26 October 1955.

Two days the ship was renamed Melbourne by Lady White, the wife of Sir Thomas White, the Australian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, recommissioned. As the lead ship of the Majestic-class of light aircraft carriers, Melbourne was conceived as a modified version of the Colossus-class carrier, incorporating improvements in flight deck design and habitability. Majestic- and Colossus-class carriers were identical in hull design and both were considered subclasses of the "1942 design" light aircraft carrier program; these carriers were intended as "disposable warships": to be disposed of at the end of World War II or within three years of entering service. Melbourne had a standard displacement of 15,740 long tons, which increased to 20,000 long tons at full load. At launch, the carrier was 213.97 metres long overall, but this was increased by 2.43 metres during a refit in 1969. She had a beam of 24.38 metres, a draught of 7.62 metres. Melbourne's two propellers were driven by two Parsons single-reduction geared turbine sets providing 40,000 shp, which were powered by four Admiralty 3-drum boilers.

The carrier could achieve a top speed of 24 knots, a range of 12,000 nautical miles at 14 knots or 6,200 nautical miles at 23 knots. The size of the ship's company averaged 1,350 officers and sailors, including 350 personnel from the embarked Fleet Air A

2004 Harrogate Borough Council election

The 2004 Harrogate Council election took place on 10 June 2004 to elect members of Harrogate Borough Council in North Yorkshire, England. One third of the council was up for election and the Conservative party stayed in overall control of the council. After the election, the composition of the council was Conservative 29 Liberal Democrat 21 Independent 4 Before the election the Conservatives ran the council with 28 seats, while the Liberal Democrats had 21 seats and there were 4 independents; the Conservatives had gained a majority after 2 Liberal Democrats defected to the Conservatives in autumn 2003. 16 seats were contested in all from the rural areas of the council. The candidates in the election were 16 Conservatives, 16 Liberal Democrats, 2 independents and 1 candidate from the British National Party; the election was held for the first time in Harrogate. A significant issue in the election was the future of the Royal Hall in Harrogate; the Conservative administration refused to fund the restoration of the building and said they would consider financing other projects elsewhere in the council area from the money saved.

However the Liberal Democrats would have put 2.6 million pounds towards restoring it, as they said future generations would have to spend more if the council did not take action. The results saw the Conservatives stay in control, with no change in the party composition of the council; the Conservatives gained Lower Nidderdale from the Liberal Democrats, but Conservative cabinet member Brian Lumsden was defeated in Boroughbridge by Liberal Democrat Peter Phillips, in what had been considered a safe seat. The Conservatives won 62.5% of the vote, compared to 34.2% for the Liberal Democrats. As a result, the Conservatives remained on the Liberal Democrats on 21 and 4 independents. Meanwhile, the British National Party came in last in the only seat they contested in Nidd Valley with 131 votes, with Leslie Ellington holding the seat for the Conservatives, after having defected from the Liberal Democrats since the 2003 election. Overall turnout in the election was 55.2%, an increase on the 34.7% in the 2003 election and the 38.7% at the 2002 election