In computing, an applet is any small application that performs one specific task that runs within the scope of a dedicated widget engine or a larger program as a plug-in. The term is used to refer to a Java applet, a program written in the Java programming language, designed to be placed on a web page. Applets are typical examples of transient and auxiliary applications that don't monopolize the user's attention. Applets are not full-featured application programs, are intended to be accessible; the word applet was first used in 1990 in PC Magazine. However, the concept of an applet, or more broadly a small interpreted program downloaded and executed by the user, dates at least to RFC 5 by Jeff Rulifson, which described the Decode-Encode Language, designed to allow remote use of the oN-Line System over ARPANET, by downloading small programs to enhance the interaction; this has been credited as a forerunner of Java's downloadable programs in RFC 2555. In some cases, an applet does not run independently.
These applets must run either in a container provided by a host program, through a plugin, or a variety of other applications including mobile devices that support the applet programming model. Applets were used to provide interactive features to web applications that could not be provided by HTML alone, they could capture mouse input and had controls like buttons or check boxes. In response to the user action an applet could change the provided graphic content; this made applets well suitable for demonstration and teaching. There were online applet collections for studying various subjects, from physics to heart physiology. Applets were used to create online game collections that allowed players to compete against live opponents in real-time. An applet could be a text area only, for instance, a cross platform command-line interface to some remote system. If needed, an applet could run as a separate window. However, applets had little control over web page content outside the applet dedicated area, so they were less useful for improving the site appearance in general.
Applets could play media in formats that are not natively supported by the browser. HTML pages could embed parameters. Hence the same applet could appear differently depending on the parameters. Examples of Web-based Applets include: QuickTime movies Flash movies Windows Media Player applets, used to display embedded video files in Internet Explorer 3D modeling display applets, used to rotate and zoom a model Browser games that were applet-based, though some developed into functional applications that required installation. A larger application distinguishes its applets through several features: Applets execute only on the "client" platform environment of a system, as contrasted from "servlet"; as such, an applet provides functionality or performance beyond the default capabilities of its container. The container restricts applets' capabilities. Applets are written in a language different from the HTML language that invokes it; the applet is written in a compiled language, whereas the scripting language of the container is an interpreted language, hence the greater performance or functionality of the applet.
Unlike a subroutine, a complete web component can be implemented as an applet. A Java applet is a Java program, launched from HTML and run in a web browser, it can provide web applications with interactive features that cannot be provided by HTML. Since Java's bytecode is platform-independent, Java applets can be executed by browsers running under many platforms, including Windows, macOS, Linux; when a Java technology-enabled web browser processes a page that contains an applet, the applet's code is transferred to the client's system and executed by the browser's Java Virtual Machine. An HTML page references an applet either via the deprecated <applet> tag or via its replacement, the <object> tag. Recent developments in the coding of applications including mobile and embedded systems have led to the awareness of the security of applets. Applets in an open platform environment should provide secure interactions between different applications. A compositional approach can be used to provide security for open platform applets.
Advanced compositional verification methods have been developed for secure applet interactions. A Java applet contains different security models: unsigned Java applet security, signed Java applet security, self signed Java applet security. In an applet-enabled web browser, many methods can be used to provide applet security for malicious applets. A malicious applet can infect a computer system in many ways, including denial of service, invasion of privacy, annoyance. A typical solution for malicious applets is to make the web browser to monitor applets' activities; this will result in a web browser that will enable the manual or automatic stopping of malicious applets. Application posture Bookmarklet Java applet Widget engine Abstract Window Toolkit
The Shadow Secretary of State for Northern Ireland is a member of the British Shadow Cabinet responsible for the scrutiny of the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland and their department, the Northern Ireland Office. The post is held by Tony Lloyd, following the dismissal of Owen Smith by leader Jeremy Corbyn; the holder is assisted in the Lords. Until there had been a'bi-partisan' attitude to Northern Ireland affairs in the House of Commons but the role is influenced by the relationship between the main Official Opposition and parties in the country; the Conservative Party, for example supports the unionist cause and in 2008 re-formalised a link with the Ulster Unionist Party and relies on the support of the Democratic Unionist Party in the House of Commons, while Labour has traditionally supported Irish nationalism and is loosely allied to the Social Democratic and Labour Party. The Liberal Democrats are linked with the cross-community Alliance Party. Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Office UK Shadow Cabinet Liberal Democrat Frontbench Team Northern Ireland Affairs Committee Northern Ireland Grand Committee Conservative Northern Ireland branch Conservative Northern Ireland news Conservative Northern Ireland Education Spokesman David Lidington MP Lembit Öpik MP
The Yale Film Study Center is a film archive located in the Whitney Humanities Center at Yale University, is part of the Yale University Library. The film collection consists of more than 5,000 35mm, 16mm, 8mm, Super 8mm prints and the video collection includes more than 35,000 items on DVD, Blu-ray, LaserDisc, VHS; the Film Study Center engages in the conservation, preservation and circulation of moving image materials. The Film Study Center is an Associate of the International Federation of Film Archives. Founded in 1982, the Film Study Center archive traces its roots to film collections at Yale dating back to the 1960s, including the historic archives of a number of prominent film collectors; the FSC is involved in efforts to preserve film on film and to share its collection through public screenings, to ensure that films can continue to be presented as they were seen by audiences. The film collection of the Film Study Center is made up of a wide range of holdings, from Hollywood features to experimental shorts, from home movies to Bollywood musicals.
The collection spans more than 120 years of cinema history, includes films from around the globe as well as a number of films made by Yale alumni and about Yale and New Haven. Researchers can view films on site in the Film Study Center’s two screening rooms, which are capable of showing 16mm film and multiple video formats. One of these rooms is equipped for screening 3D Blu-rays; the FSC has two flatbed film viewing stations and twelve private video viewing booths for individual use. The FSC screens its 35mm prints for the public in the Whitney Humanities Center Auditorium, the last 35mm-equipped public venue in New Haven County. Film Study Center staff consult on special film projects around the University, including the preservation of film material in the Benny Goodman Collection in the Irving Gilmore Music Library of the Yale University Library. In 1968, Yale began collecting 16mm film with the purchase of several hundred prints known as the John Griggs Collection of Classic Films; the Griggs films came to Yale through the efforts of experimental filmmaker Standish Lawder Assistant Professor in Yale’s History of Art Department, Yale alumnus Spencer Berger, a film collector and historian of the Barrymore family.
The purchase was funded by three alumni: Fred W. Beinecke, Richard E. Fuller, Chester J. LaRoche Jr. all graduates of the University. Although modest, this acquisition encouraged other collectors to donate their films, which became part a vital part of film curricula. Over the next 15 years, film as an academic discipline grew immensely, leading to the formation of both the Film Studies Program and the Film Study Center in 1982. During the 1980s, the 16mm archive burgeoned with film donations by Yale alumni Spencer Berger, Ralph Hirshorn, others, while Yale’s 35mm archive was born with hundreds of rare prints of television programs produced by Herbert Brodkin, collections such as those of the pioneering experimental director Mary Ellen Bute, a 1926 alumna of the Yale School of Drama. In 2013, the Film Study Center began its monthly screening series "Treasures from the Yale Film Archive," showcasing 35mm prints from the archive's collection; the screenings feature introductions by Film Study Center staff as well as Yale faculty, have included guest filmmakers such as Michael Roemer, Warrington Hudlin, Tamar Simon Hoffs, Norman Weissman, Frank and Caroline Mouris, as well as musical accompaniment for silent films by Donald Sosin.
In July, 2017, the Yale Film Study Center formally became part of the Yale University Library. Films preserved by the Film Study Center include Passages from James Joyce's Finnegans Wake and The Boy Who Saw Through. Chemical Architecture, Coney Island Eats. In 2018, the Film Study Center completed preservation of director Nicholas Doob's 1979 film "Street Music," which features performances by 19 street musicians including "Oliver "Pork Chop" Anderson," Brother Blue, Bongo Joe Coleman, Jimmy Davis, Guy Mosley, Gene Palma, "The Automatic Human Jukebox." The Film Study Center preserved 2-inch videotapes containing a 1972 broadcast by WTIC of "What's Happening," a local news program that covered the visit to Yale by Duke Ellington and other jazz musicians including Eubie Blake, Dizzy Gillespie, Jo Jones, Charles Mingus, Max Roach, Mary Lou Williams. The Film Study Center film archive is made up of a number of individual collections of the films of various filmmakers and film collectors, some of which are listed below.
Ashish Avikunthak, filmmaker Steve Benson and filmmaker Spencer Berger, film collector Mary Ellen Bute, animator Phyllis Chillingworth, filmmaker Kathleen Collins, filmmaker Nicholas Doob, documentary filmmaker Herb Graff, film collector John Griggs and film collector Warrington Hudlin, filmmaker Alexis Krasilovsky, writer, professor Carl Marzani and publisher Jordan Mechner and video game designer Josh Morton, filmmaker Frank Mouris, animator Leopold Pospisil and filmmaker Paul Preuss and filmmaker Willie Ruff and filmmaker Norman Weissman and author Robert Withers, filmmaker The Yale Film Study Center
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Mallika Badrinath is an award winning Indian food writer, cookbook author and host of cooking shows. She is the author of 29 cookery books in English and 30 books in Tamil, together containing more than 4,000 recipes; some of her books have been translated into Telugu and Hindi. Her books include the Tamil “Siru Dhaniya Samayal” series, containing recipes using traditional nutritious ingredients and millets such as Sirudhaniyangal Ragi, Saamai, varagu and kudhiraivali. Born and brought up in Salem, a town in Tamilnadu, Mallika completed her Bachelors in Home Science from Salem. In the late 1980s, at the age of 21, she married Badrinath a chartered accountant from Chennai. In an interview with The Hindu, she admitted to have cooked before marriage as they lived in a large joint family of 25, had a cook and an assistant cook to do the cooking. However, she was collected them in a scrap book, handwriting all of them. In Chennai, Badrinath continued to collect recipes; these included recipes that she had received from her mother and aunt, which she would rewrite into notebooks, with variations based on her experience.
Soon, she had 10 such handwritten books, including 80 recipes for side dishes. Her husband encouraged her to publish these recipes, resulting in her first book "100 Vegetarian Recipes" published in 1988; as her books became popular she took up writing full-time, publishing books through her own publishing house "Pradeep enterprises". Her husband too reduced his work to help her market her books; the 1990s saw an increase in access to cable television in India, however there were few cookery programs in regional language such asTamil. As a result, Badrinath began to get offers for television shows on cookery with Doordarshan and with Sun TV. Badrinath says. To date, she is a number of cookery articles. In 1999, Badrinath started to market masalas under the company "Mallika Home Products" known as MHP, she continues to write articles related to cooking in magazines including Kungumam, Mangaiyar Malar, Snegithi and Gokulam kadir. She has hosted cookery shows on Jaya TV where her shows have run for more than 15 years.
She has featured in cookery shows in Polimer TV and Sakthi TV-Sri Lanka. She hosts her own YouTube channel called "Mallika's cookery". Badrinath lives in Chennai with her husband, they have three grandchildren. Badrinath has received a number of awards including the “Priyadarshini Award” in 1998, given to women entrepreneurs in India, her other awards include: “Mahila Ratna” Award - presented by the Tamil Nadu Arya Vysya Mahila Sabha in 1998 “Arusuvai Gnaana Kalamani” Award presented by the Thenn Indhiya Samayal Kalaignargal Sangam “Acharya Award” in the field of cooking presented by Call Chennai in 2006 “Best Cookery Show Host” Award presented by the Mylapore Academy in 2006 “Arusuvai Arasi” Award presented by International Lions Clubs in 2008 “Nala Maharani” conferred by Kungumam – Tamil magazine “Professional Excellence Award” by Rotary Club – Tirunagar & My Madurai “Sigaram Thotta Penmani” Award by Vijay TV on Women`s Day 2012
'National Examinations Board is the board that organizes the Higher Secondary and Secondary education in Nepal. It is transformed from previous Higher Secondary Education Board according to the Education Act of 2073 B. S, it is located in Bhaktapur. Its main aim is to prepare skilled human power for the development of the country. National Examination Board is responsible for conducting and managing 11th and 12th grade-Higher Secondary exam, 10th grade SEE Exam, 8th grade District Level Examination; the jurisdiction of the previous Higher Secondary Education Board was limited to 11th and 12th-grade high school education HSEB only. It was established in 1989 under the Higher Secondary Education Act. School Leaving Certificate District Level Examination MeroSpark - Reference Notes for Students, Bachelor Level Notes, Question Papers Official website