Drayton, Vale of White Horse
Drayton is a village and civil parish about 2 miles south of Abingdon, Oxfordshire. It was part of Berkshire; the parish includes the hamlet of Sutton Wick. The 2011 Census recorded the parish population as 2,353. Two sites of former settlements in the parish are scheduled monuments. One is about 1⁄2 mile north of the village at Sutton Wick, overlapping the parish boundary with Abingdon; the other is around about 1⁄2 mile southeast of the village. An episode of the Channel 4 television series Time Team called "In the Halls of a Saxon King", first transmitted on 5 September 2010, investigated archaeological sites from various periods between Drayton and its eastern neighbour Sutton Courtenay, they included. In 1965 a late Saxon sword was found during ploughing on a field beside Barrow Lane, it is similar to swords found at Windsor and Gooderstone, Suffolk. The earliest known forms of Drayton's toponym are the Old English Drægtune and Draigtun from the 10th century, it evolved through Draitune in the 10th and 11th centuries, Draitun from the 11th to the 13th century and Drettun in the 12th century.
The current spelling of the name has been used since the 13th century. In AD 955 King Eadred granted 10 hides of land at Drayton to a thegn called Eadwold. Eadred's successors confirmed the grant. Eadwold left the estate to Abingdon Abbey but King Æthelred II, crowned in 978, seems to have held the manor, as in 983 he granted three hides of it to his butler, Wulfgar. In 1000 Æthelred granted the same three hides plus a watermill at Drayton to Abingdon Abbey. In the 11th century the land seems to have been divided into two manors: East Drayton; the oldest parts of Drayton's current Manor House are 15th century. A wing was added in the 18th century and the front is early 20th century; the house is a Grade II* listed building. The oldest parts of the Church of England parish church of Saint Peter are Norman, built about AD 1200; the Perpendicular Gothic west tower and four-bay north aisle were added in the 15th century. The south transept was rebuilt about 1855 and the chancel was rebuilt in 1872. In 1879 the church was restored and south porch added, both to designs by the Gothic Revival architect Edwin Dolby.
St Peter's was restored again in 1959. It is a Grade II* listed building; the tower has a ring of eight bells. Mears and Stainbank of the Whitechapel Bell Foundry cast a ring of six for the tower in 1871; the same founders added the present tenor bells in 1880, increasing the ring to eight. There is a sanctus bell that one of the Wells family of bellfounders of Aldbourne, cast in about 1780. A Baptist chapel is now Drayton Baptist Church. A Wesleyan chapel is no longer used for worship. Drayton had a watermill by AD 1000. From 1652 and 1823 Drayton had three watermills. One survives on 3⁄4 mile southeast of the village. Drayton is said to have had five dovecotes between 1793 and 1823. In 1517 an inquiry found that enclosure of arable land at Drayton had put 16 labourers and their families out of work. In 1810–11 Parliament passed an inclosure act for the remaining common land in the parish; the inclosure award was made in 1815.69 High Street is a 15th-century cruck cottage. In 1780 an extensive fire destroyed a number of homes in the village.
Drayton is on what used to be the main road between Oxford and Newbury. The section from Oxford and Abingdon through Drayton to Chilton Pond was turnpiked in 1755. From the 1920s it was classified the A34 road. In the 1970s the A34 was re-routed as a dual carriageway bypassing Abingdon and Steventon, the section between Steventon Hill and Abingdon was detrunked and reclassified as the B4017; the route of the abandoned Wilts & Berks Canal passes through the northwest of Drayton parish, about 1 mile northwest of the village. Building had begun in 1796 at Semington Junction in Wiltshire and reached West Challow in 1807; the final section, from West Challow through Drayton to Abingdon, was completed in 1810. The canal made a long descent from its summit pound near Swindon to the River Thames at Abingdon. Drayton Lock, in the parish 1 3⁄4 miles west of the village, was the final lock in the descent, bringing the canal down to the River Ock floodplain. Traffic on the canal had ceased by 1901 and the route was formally abandoned in 1914.
The Wilts & Berks Canal Trust is restoring the canal. In June 1840 the Great Western Railway reached Steventon, 1 3⁄4 miles south of Drayton. Steventon station was the nearest station to Drayton until British Railways closed it in 1964; the nearest main line station is now about 4 miles southeast of Drayton. In 1924 Drayton still held traditional celebrations on May Day and performed a Mummers play at Christmas. Drayton has the Red Lion and the Wheatsheaf. Morland Brewery of Abingdon, which Greene King took over and closed down in 2000, used to control both pubs. Drayton has a community primary school. Since 2000 Drayton has been twinned with Lesparre-Médoc, a commune in the French département of Gironde. Dalby, L. J.. The Wilts and Berks Canal. Usk: Oakwood Press. ISBN 0-85361-562-4. Fletcher, John. "Crucks In the West Berkshire and Oxford Region". Oxoniensia. Oxford Architectural and Historical Society. XXXIII: 86. Hinton, David A. "Two Late Saxon Swords". Oxoniensia. Oxford Architectural and Historical Society.
XXXV: 1–5. Page, W. H.. H. eds.. A History of the County of Berkshire. Victoria Co
Abingdon-on-Thames AB-ing-dən-, known just as Abingdon between 1974 and 2012, is an historic market town and civil parish in the ceremonial county of Oxfordshire, England. The county town of Berkshire, since 1974 Abingdon has been administered by the Vale of White Horse district within Oxfordshire; the area was occupied from the early to middle Iron Age and the remains of a late Iron Age and Roman defensive enclosure lies below the town centre. Abingdon Abbey was founded around AD 676. In the 13th and 14th centuries, Abingdon was an agricultural centre with an extensive trade in wool, alongside weaving and the manufacture of clothing. Charters for the holding of markets and fairs were granted by various monarchs, from Edward I to George II; the town survived the dissolution of the abbey in 1538, by the 18th and 19th centuries, with the building of Abingdon Lock in 1790, Wilts & Berks Canal in 1810, was a key link between major industrial centres such as Bristol, London and the Black Country.
In 1856 the Abingdon Railway opened. The Wilts & Berks Canal was abandoned in 1906 but a voluntary trust is now working to restore and re-open it. Abingdon railway station was closed to passengers in September 1963; the line remained open for goods until 1984, including serving the MG car factory, which operated from 1929 to October 1980. Abingdon's brewery, whose most famous ale, Old Speckled Hen, was named after an early MG car, was taken over and closed down by Greene King Brewery in 1999, with production moving to Bury St Edmunds in Suffolk; the site of the brewery has been redeveloped into housing. The rock band Radiohead formed in 1985; the 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 33,130. This is 2,504 more than in the 2001 Census total of 30,626, represents just over 8% growth in the population. Abingdon is 6 miles south of Oxford, 15 miles south-east of Witney and 19 miles north of Newbury in the flat valley of the Thames on its west bank, where the small river Ock flows in from the Vale of White Horse.
It is on the A415 between Witney and Dorchester, adjacent to the A34 trunk road, linking it with the M4 and M40 motorways. The B4017 and A4183 link the town, both being part of the old A34 and heavily congested. Local bus services to Oxford and the surrounding areas are run by Stagecoach Oxfordshire, Thames Travel, the Oxford Bus Company and smaller independent companies. Abingdon has no rail service. However, in recent years, urban expansion has brought Radley railway station close to town's northeastern limits; the small stopping-service, railway stations at Culham and Radley are both just over two miles from the town centre. Abingdon's eastern ring-road and newest suburbs are connected by footpath and cycleway from Radley railway station; the Radley to Abingdon railway station branch line closed to passengers in 1963. The nearest major stations with taxi ranks are Didcot Parkway. All are managed by Great Western Railway. Frequent express buses operate between the local railway stations and Abingdon, run by Oxford Bus Company and its sister company Thames Travel.
A Neolithic stone hand axe was found at Abingdon. Petrological analysis in 1940 identified the stone as epidotised tuff from Stake Pass in the Lake District, 250 miles to the north. Stone axes from the same source have been found at Sutton Courtenay, Alvescot and Minster Lovell. Abingdon has been occupied from the early to middle Iron Age and the remains of a late Iron Age defensive enclosure lies below the town centre; the oppidum was in use throughout the Roman occupation. Abingdon Abbey was founded in Saxon times around AD 676, but its early history is confused by numerous legends, invented to raise its status and explain the place name; the name seems to mean'Hill of a man named Æbba, or a woman named Æbbe' the saint to whom St Ebbe's Church in Oxford was dedicated. However, Abingdon stands in a valley and not on a hill, it is thought that the name was first given to a place on Boars Hill above Chilswell, the name was transferred to its present site when the Abbey was moved. In 1084, William the Conqueror celebrated Easter at the Abbey and left his son, the future Henry I, to be educated there.
In the 13th and 14th centuries, Abingdon was a flourishing agricultural centre with an extensive trade in wool and a famous weaving and clothing manufacturing industry. The abbot seems to have held a market from early times and charters for the holding of markets and fairs were granted by various sovereigns, from Edward I to George II. In 1337 there was a famous riot in protest at the Abbot's control of this market in which several of the monks were killed. After the abbey's dissolution in 1538, the town sank into decay and, in 1556, upon receiving a representation of its pitiable condition, Mary I granted a charter establishing a mayor, two bailiffs, twelve chief burgesses and sixteen secondary burgesses, the mayor to be clerk of the market, coroner and a JP; the present Christ's Hospital belonged to the Guild of the Holy Cross, on the dissolution of which Edward VI founded the almshouses instead, under its present name. The council was empowered to elect one burgess to parliament and this right continued until the Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885.
A town clerk and other officers were appointed and the town boundaries described in great detail. Charters, from Elizabeth I, James I, James II, George II and George III, made no considerable change. James II changed the style of the corporation to that of a mayor, twelve
Faringdon is a historic market town in the Vale of White Horse, England. Within the historic boundaries of Berkshire, it is 18 miles southwest of Oxford, 10 miles northwest of Wantage and 12 miles east-northeast of Swindon, it is a large parish, its lowest parts extending to the River Thames in the north and its highest ground reaching the Ridgeway in the south. Faringdon was the westernmost town in Berkshire until the 1974 boundary changes transferred it to Oxfordshire for the purposes of administration; the civil parish is formally called Great Faringdon, to distinguish it from Little Faringdon in West Oxfordshire. The 2011 Census recorded its population as 7,121. On 1 February 2004, Faringdon was granted Fairtrade Town status, becoming the first Fairtrade Town in South East England. Faringdon is the base for the Faringdon Enterprise Gateway, run by the South East England Development Agency to help and advise businesses in rural west Oxfordshire; the toponym "Faringdon" means "fern covered hill".
Claims that King Edward the Elder died. The town was granted a weekly market in 1218, as a result came to be called Chipping Faringdon; the weekly market is still held today. King John established an abbey in Faringdon in 1202, but it soon moved to Beaulieu in Hampshire. In 1417 the aged Archbishop of Dublin, Thomas Cranley, died in Faringdon; the Church of England parish church of All Saints may date from the 12th century, the clerestorey and the west end of the nave survive from this period. A Norman doorway survives, in the baptistery; the chancel and north transept are 13th century and the west chapel is 14th century. The north chapel is a late medieval Perpendicular Gothic addition with 15th century windows. All Saints has a central bell tower, reduced in height in 1645 after it was damaged by a cannonball in the English Civil War. Faringdon was fought over; the tower now has a ring of eight bells. The three oldest bells were cast in 1708. James Wells of Aldbourne, Wiltshire cast the tenor bell in 1779 and another bell in 1803.
The three youngest bells, including the treble, were cast in 1874 by Stainbank. The churchyard is haunted by the headless ghost of naval officer Hampden Pye. According to local legend, Pye was decapitated in a battlefield explosion while fighting in the War of the Spanish Succession after being convinced to enlist by his mother who sought to separate him from a local girl she considered an unsuitable match. An alternate local legend states that Pye was an unfaithful husband, decapitated by his wife with a gun; the ghost was exorcised shortly after Pye's death. The Old Town Hall in the Market Place dates from the late 17th or early 18th century and is a Grade II* listed building. Just east of the town is Faringdon Hill, a Greensand outcrop. In common with Badbury Hill to the west of the town, it has an ancient ditched defensive ring; this was fortified by supporters of Matilda sometime during the Anarchy – her campaign to claim the throne from King Stephen – but was soon razed to the ground by Stephen.
Oliver Cromwell fortified it in his unsuccessful campaign to defeat the Royalist garrison at Faringdon House. The Pye family had Scots pines planted around the summit, around the time that Faringdon House was rebuilt in the late 18th century; this is a conspicuous and recognisable landmark that can be seen from afar, including from the Vale of White Horse, White Horse Hill, the Berkshire Downs near Lockinge and the Cotswolds to the north. The folly on Folly Hill was designed by Lord Gerald Wellesley 7th Duke of Wellington, for Lord Berners and built in 1935, it affords panoramic views of the Vale of White Horse. It once had a sign saying "Members of the public committing suicide from this tower do so at their own risk". During the Second World War the Home Guard used it as an observation post. In 1982 Robert Heber-Percy gave it to the town in trust, it has been a Grade II listed building since 1986. Near the top of London Street near Faringdon Folly is the pub bearing the same name. There is a manor house and estate, close to the edge of Faringdon, called Faringdon House.
The original house was damaged during the civil war. Its owner at the time, Sir Robert Pye, a Royalist, was put under siege by his own son Robert, a Parliamentarian colonel. Building of the current, house began about 1780 and was not completed until after 1785; the house was bought in 1787 by William Hallett Esq. It was the home of Lord Berners in the middle part of the 20th century, it is now owned by the writer Sofka Zinovieff, the granddaughter of Berners' companion, Robert Heber-Percy, who inherited it on Berners' death in 1950, though she does not live there. Faringdon is the site of the noted Faringdon Sponge Gravel Member, part of the Cretaceous Lower Greensand Group, it is rich in fossil sponges, other invertebrates, a few vertebrate bones and teeth, good examples of bioerosion. The £1.6 million 3 miles A420 Faringdon Bypass was opened in July 1979. Faringdon is linked with Swindon and Oxford by a frequent service operated seven days a week by Stagecoach in Swindon, an hourly service to Wantage, continuing on to Didcot and Abingdon, run by Thames Travel and operating Mondays to Saturdays.
A 3.5 miles Faringdon branch line was opened in 1864, between Faringdon and the Great Western Railway at Uffington, with construction funded by the Faringdon Railway Company (bought outright by the GWR in
Boars Hill is a hamlet 3 miles southwest of Oxford, straddling the boundary between the civil parishes of Sunningwell and Wootton. Part of Berkshire until the 1974 boundary changes transferred it to Oxfordshire; the earliest known record of Boars Hill is from the 12th century. The greater part of Boars Hill was a manor of the parish of Cumnor until the 19th century when the parish of Wootton was formed; until the late 19th century the hill was bare and had fine views - northwards to the city of Oxford, southwards to the Downs and westwards to the upper Thames valley. At that time many houses were built on Boars Hill, the new residents planted trees and erected fences and walls. Boars Hill does not have its own Church of England parish church; as it straddles two parishes the respective parts of Boars Hill are served by St. Peters, Wootton and St. Leonard's, Sunningwell. St. Thomas More Roman Catholic chapel in Boars Hill is part of the Roman Catholic parish of North Hinksey; the first poet to leave a record of a visit to the hill was Arthur Hugh Clough.
In his diary for 1841, edited by Anthony Kenny, he describes how a walk across the hill inspired the ninth of his'Blank misgivings of a creature moving about in worlds not realized'. When Matthew Arnold came up to Oxford in 1841, Clough introduced him to Boars Hill, which provided the inspiration and setting for two of his best-known poems, The Scholar Gipsy and Thyrsis, the latter written in memory of Clough; the famous phrase in the latter "the dreaming spires" encouraged people to visit the hill and settle there. Three prominent poets lived on the first being Margaret Louisa Woods in the 1880s, she was followed by successive Poets Laureate. For a couple of years after World War I, they were joined by three of the war poets: Robert Graves - Masefield's tenant - and Edmund Blunden, both future Oxford Professors of Poetry and Robert Nichols. Bridges' daughter, the poet Elizabeth Daryush, continued to live on the hill until her death in 1977. Robert Bridges lived at Chilswell House, purchased circa 1963 by the Carmelite order for use as a priory and retreat.
The hill was the home of Gilbert Murray, famous for his verse translations of classical Greek drama, the classicist Leighton Durham Reynolds, Emeritus Professor of Classical Languages and Literature, until his death in 1999. Other notable residents were the sculptor Oscar Nemon who fled from Nazi rule in Vienna in 1938 and the archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans who lived on Boars Hill from 1894 until his death in 1941, his house,'Youlbury', notable for its Minoan decoration, has since been burnt down. Herbert Edward Douglas Blakiston, for many years President of Trinity College and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford, lived in Boar's Hill from his retirement in 1938 until his death in 1942, after he was struck by a car while walking in Boar's Hill. Arthur Evans had Jarn Mound built, built to create a viewpoint from which to see the famous vistas, hidden by development; the surrounding trees have continued to grow taller, the views are again obscured. Evans left most of his estate to the Boy Youlbury Camp is still available for their use.
Several sites on Boars Hill, including Jarn Mound, Matthew Arnold Field and land on the north side of the hill with views of the "dreaming spires" of Oxford, are now owned by the Oxford Preservation Trust. From 1933 to 1975 Boars Hill was the home of Ripon Hall; when Ripon Hall moved to Cuddesdon, the site became known as Foxcombe Hall, was the regional headquarters of the Open University. In 2016 the site was purchased by Peking University. From 1955 to the mid-1970s, Boar's Hill was home to Plater College. From 1976 to 1996, Warnborough College, occupied the former Plater College facilities, the Bishop's palace of the Diocese of Oxford, Yatscombe Hall, having moved from Warnborough Road in North Oxford; the college attracted controversy due to alleged links to Oxford University and was sued with the site repossessed. Soon after the repossession squatters moved in and the site of the former Bishop's palace and Yatscombe Hall has been subject to numerous planning disputes since. Yatscombe Hall was destroyed by fire in December 2003 and all the buildings on the site were demolished and a retirement village was planned.
However a development of a four large country homes was built on the site by Millgate Homes. Boars Hill is twice mentioned in the 1945 novel Brideshead Revisited by Evelyn Waugh. First, Cousin Jasper advises the young Charles Ryder upon his coming up to Oxford to "... Keep clear of Boar's Hill." In contrast, Sebastian Flyte describes a model student at Oxford as one who "smokes a great pipe and plays hockey and goes out to tea on Boar's Hill and to lectures at Keble..." Ann Paludan Bright Rix, Mary. Boars Hill, Oxford. Oxford: Hall the Printer. Candy, James S. A Tapestry of Life: An Autobiography. Merlin Books. ISBN 0-86303-188-9. Hopkins, Claire. Trinity: 450 years of an Oxford college community. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-951896-3. Clough, Arthur Hugh. Kenny, Anthony, ed; the Oxford Diaries of Arthur Hugh Clough. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-811739-6. Evans, Arthur. Jarn Mound. With Its Panorama And Wild Garden Of British Plants. Oxford: Joseph Vincent. Boars Hill Association
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Ardington is a village and civil parish about 2 miles east of Wantage in the Vale of White Horse. It was part of Berkshire. Since 2012 responsibility for Ardington and the neighbouring parish of Lockinge has been combined in a joint single parish council for Ardington and Lockinge. Ardington is a downland village, with its parish stretching from the loam rich north to the chalk downlands to the south; the ancient path of the Ridgeway runs through the southern part of the parish, along the North Wessex Downs AONB section of the route. Racing stables are around the village most of which use the Downs for gallops. Being set in the Lockinge Estate, most of Ardington parish and nearby of East and West Lockinge are owned by Thomas Loyd and managed by Adkin Rural and Commercial. Local amenities include a public house - The Boar's Head, a sports club, village store, post office and tearoom, the Loyd-Lindsay Rooms - a set of rooms which are let out to the community and on a commercial basis for weddings and conferences.
Local charities can use the rooms to hold events to raise money. The oldest part of the Church of England parish church of Holy Trinity is the chancel arch, built about 1200; the Gothic Revival architect Joseph Clarke added the tower and spire in 1856. Somers Clarke remodelled the remainder of the church in 1887. Ardington House was built for Edward Clarke in 1721 and has three tall storeys and seven window bays in breadth, not being deep rectangular, it has small wings without bays to each side topped by a classical triangular pediment framing a weathered mid-19th century coat of arms in stone. Its windows and central door are faced in complimentary coloured brickwork dressings to its general grey brick façade, it is open to the public in the summer months. Page, W. H.. H. eds.. A History of the County of Berkshire, Volume 4. Victoria County History. Pp. 269–272. Pevsner, Nikolaus. Berkshire; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Pp. 66–68. Media related to Ardington at Wikimedia Commons Ardington in the Domesday Book