Appomattox Court House National Historical Park
The Appomattox Court House is a National Historical Park of original and reconstructed 19th century buildings in Appomattox County, Virginia. The village is famous as the site of the Battle of Appomattox Court House and containing the house of Wilmer McLean, where the surrender of the Confederate army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant took place on April 9, 1865 ending the American Civil War; the McLean House was the site of the surrender conference, but the village itself is named for the presence nearby of what is now preserved as the Old Appomattox Court House. The park was established August 3, 1935; the village was made a national monument in 1940 and a national historical park in 1954. It is located about three miles east of Appomattox, the location of the Appomattox Station and the "new" Appomattox Court House, it is in the center of the state about 25 miles east of Virginia. The historical park was described in 1989 as having an area of 1,325 acres; the antebellum village started out as "Clover Hill" named after its oldest existing structure, the Clover Hill Tavern.
The village was a stagecoach stop along the Richmond-Lynchburg stage road. The activity in Clover Hill centered around Clover Hill Tavern; the tavern provided lodging to travelers. Fresh horses for the stage line were provided at the stop, done since the tavern was built, it was the site of organizational meetings and so when Appomattox County was established by an Act on February 8, 1845, Clover Hill village became the county seat. It was parts of Buckingham, Prince Edward and Campbell Counties; the jurisdiction took its name from the headwaters, the Appomattox River. Early Virginians believed. From about 1842, Hugh Raine owned most of the Clover Hill area, he obtained it from his brother John Raine. He sold the property to a Colonel Samuel D. McDearmon. Since his acquisition, it became the county seat and he surveyed 30 acres of the hamlet, he designated 2 acres to be used by the new county to build a courthouse and other government buildings. The courthouse was to be built across the Stage Road from the Clover Hill Tavern.
The jail was to be built behind the courthouse. McDearmon divided the remaining land surrounding the courthouse into 1-acre lots, he felt that with Clover Hill's new status as a county seat he would find professional people ready and willing to purchase the lots. His hopes were dashed in 1854 as the train depot stopped three miles west in Appomattox, Virginia; the American Civil War put the final nails in the coffin. The district once known as Clover Hill and renamed to Appomattox Court House continued to decline as businesses moved to the area of the Appomattox Station; the village contained 30 acres of the original Patteson's Clover Hill Tavern property of some 200 acres. Raine provided the Clover Hill Tavern for meeting space for the organization of the new county in May 1845 and naming the township "Clover Hill."The county records show: "And be it further enacted, that not exceeding thirthy acres of land, now occupied by Captain John Raine, in the now county of Prince Edward, lying on the stage road leading from or through said county to the town of Lynchburg, at the place called and known as Clover Hill, the proposed seat of justice for the said new county, so soon as the same shall be laid off into lots, with convenient streets and alleys, with back and cross streets if necessary, shall be and the same is hereby established a town by the name of Clover Hill."According to a Union writer at the time of the American Civil War the village consisted of about "five houses, a tavern, a courthouse — all on one street, boarded up at one end to keep the cows out."
There were more dwellings in this obscure hamlet, some of which were off the main village street. There were a large number of out-buildings; the hamlet had two stores, law offices, a saddler, three blacksmiths, other businesses. A tavern had been built by John Raine in 1848. Many rural counties in the Southern States had county seats whose names were formed by adding court house to the name of the county, hence the village name became Appomattox Court House, it presently has a couple of dozen restored buildings. Some of the notable buildings are the Peers House, McLean House, New County Jail, Jones Law Office, Clover Hill Tavern, Woodson Law Office, Bocock-Isbell House, Mariah Wright House, Plunkett-Meeks Store, Sweeney-Conner Cabin, Charles Sweeney Cabin, Sweeney Prizery and the Old Appomattox Court House. There are various ruins and cemeteries within the village. At the time of the Act of Congress that authorized the Appomattox Court House National Historical Park in 1935, the existing buildings were the Clover Hill Tavern, the Tavern guest house and kitchen, the Woodson Law office structure, the Plunkett-Meeks Store, the Bocock-Isbell House, several residences outside the village limits.
There are several markers throughout the field of the village that show points of interest within the Park. Some of these are General Grant's headquarters. There is a monument and two tablets that were erected by the state of N
Appomattox is a town in Appomattox County, United States. The population was 1,733 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Appomattox County. Appomattox is part of the Lynchburg Metropolitan Statistical Area; the town was named for the Appomattox River. The river was named after the Appomattoc Virginian Indian tribe, one of the Algonquian-speaking Powhatan Confederacy based in the coastal area and encountered by the English before the tribes of the Piedmont; the Appamatuck lived somewhat to the east of the present town, around the area of present-day Petersburg. At the time of European encounter, the area of Appomattox County above the Fall Line was part of the territory of the Manahoac tribe, who spoke Siouan; the town is located three miles west of the restored historic village of Appomattox Court House, the site of Confederate General Robert E. Lee's surrender to Union General Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865 ending the American Civil War; the area is preserved as Appomattox Court House National Historical Park and is administered by the National Park Service.
At the time of the Civil War, the present community of Appomattox was the site of a railroad depot on the line between Petersburg and Lynchburg, a stop on the Southside Railroad. The town was first named "Nebraska" in 1855. In 1895 it was renamed "West Appomattox"; the first postmaster of "Nebraska, Virginia", was Samuel D. McDearmon. Near the end of the Civil War, Robert E. Lee made a last attempt to reach the depot, hoping to transport the Army of Northern Virginia south by railroad to meet Joseph E. Johnston's larger Army of Tennessee located in Greensboro, North Carolina; the arrival of Federal troops and their blocking Lee's army from the depot led to Lee's surrender in the home of Wilmer McLean, on April 9. Johnston surrendered 98,270 Confederate troops, marking the end of the conflict on April 26, 1865. Small bands of soldiers continued fighting until June 1865. Though President Lincoln had issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, slaves in the southern states were not freed until the surrender at Appomattox Court House on April 9.
Though the last of the slaves weren't freed until June 19, the surrender at Appomattox is the event that would hammer the final nail in slavery's coffin. Today, each April, the Appomattox Court House National Historical Park commemorates this event with a luminary ceremony, wherein a lantern is lit for each of the 4,600 slaves freed in Appomattox County alone; the railroad became the Atlantic and Ohio Railroad in 1870. The inconvenience of the railroad's location to the original Appomattox Court House in the village of Clover Hill led to the decline of the courthouse community. After fire destroyed the courthouse building in 1892, the county relocated the court to the depot area, which formally became the county seat in 1894; the railroad became a line in the Norfolk and Western Railway and the Norfolk Southern Railway. In 1990, there were 11,971 residents reported for Appomattox County. In addition to Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, the Appomattox River Bridge, Appomattox Historic District, Holiday Lake 4-H Educational Center, Holliday Lake State Park are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
The 2010 Appomattox shootings left eight people dead. Appomattox is located at 37°21′32″N 78°49′35″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.2 square miles. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,761 people, 716 households, 469 families residing in the town; the population density was 808.7 people per square mile. There were 767 housing units at an average density of 352.2/sq mi. The racial makeup of the town was 66.89% White, 32.14% African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.11% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.23% of the population. There were 716 households out of which 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.7% were married couples living together, 20.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.4% were non-families. 30.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.92.
In the town, the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, 19.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $24,167, the median income for a family was $29,188. Males had a median income of $26,515 versus $20,732 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,355. About 20.9% of families and 18.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.4% of those under age 18 and 22.9% of those age 65 or over. Watkins Abbitt, Jr. member of the Virginia House of Delegates Larry Robinson, former NFL player The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Appomattox has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Official County website Appomattox Court House National Historical Park website
The Appomattox Campaign was a series of American Civil War battles fought March 29 – April 9, 1865 in Virginia that concluded with the surrender of Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia to forces of the Union Army under the overall command of Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant, marking the effective end of the war; as the Richmond–Petersburg Campaign ended, Lee's army was outnumbered and exhausted from a winter of trench warfare over an 40 mi front, numerous battles, disease and desertion. Grant's well-equipped and well-fed army was growing in strength. On March 29, 1865, the Union Army began an offensive that stretched and broke the Confederate defenses southwest of Petersburg and cut their supply lines to Petersburg and the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia. Union victories at the Battle of Five Forks on April 1, 1865 and the Third Battle of Petersburg called the Breakthrough at Petersburg, on April 2, 1865, opened Petersburg and Richmond to imminent capture.
Lee ordered the evacuation of Confederate forces from both Petersburg and Richmond on the night of April 2–3 before Grant's army could cut off any escape. Confederate government leaders fled west from Richmond that night; the Confederates marched west, heading toward Danville, Virginia or Lynchburg, Virginia as an alternative. Lee planned to resupply his army at one of those cities and march southwest into North Carolina where he could unite his army with the Confederate army commanded by General Joseph E. Johnston. Grant's Union Army pursued Lee's fleeing Confederates relentlessly. During the next week, the Union troops fought a series of battles with Confederate units, cut off or destroyed Confederate supplies and blocked their paths to the south and to the west. On April 6, 1865, the Confederate Army suffered a significant defeat at the Battle of Sailor's Creek, where they lost about 7,700 men killed and captured and an unknown number wounded. Nonetheless, Lee continued to move the remainder of his battered army to the west.
Soon cornered, short of food and supplies and outnumbered, Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to Grant on April 9, 1865 at Appomattox Court House, Virginia. After the Overland Campaign, on June 15–18, 1864, two Union Army corps failed to seize Petersburg from a small force of Confederate defenders at the Second Battle of Petersburg known as Grant's first offensive at Petersburg. By June 18, the Army of Northern Virginia reinforced the Confederate defenders, ending the possibility of a quick Union victory. At the start of the campaign, the Union forces could pin down most of the Army of Northern Virginia to their trenches and fortifications running from northeast of Richmond to southwest of Petersburg but was not strong or large enough to surround the Confederate Army or to cut all supply routes to Petersburg and Richmond or to turn the Confederate Army out of its defenses; the smaller Confederate Army was strong enough to maintain their defenses and to detach some units for independent operations but not large enough to send a field army out to fight a major battle with the Union force that might compel a retreat.
Grant's strategy was to destroy or cut off sources of supply and sever supply lines to Petersburg and Richmond, which would result in extending to the breaking point the defensive lines of the outnumbered and declining Confederate force. In pursuit of these objectives, Grant launched five more offensives at Petersburg during the remaining months of 1864, another in February 1865, two more at the end of March and beginning of April 1865. During the fall of 1864 and the winter of 1864–1865, Grant extended the Union Army line south of Petersburg westward. Lee extended the Confederate line to match the Union moves, but the defenders were stretched thin. On February 5, 1865, Grant sent a large force of cavalry and the V Corps of infantry toward Dinwiddie Court House and Stony Creek Station to interrupt the Confederate's Boydton Plank Road supply route and capture large numbers of wagons with supplies reported to be en route; the raid on the supply route and supplies accomplished little as only 18 wagons were found on the road A significant result of the offensive was the extension of the Union line 4 miles to the west from Fort Sampson to the Vaughan Road crossing of Hatcher's Run and captured two key road crossings of Hatcher's Run near Armstrong's Mill.
The action of the II Corps, promptly joined by the V Corps, in moving to protect the attacking force and to defend their advanced positions, resulted in the extension of the lines. Fighting continued in bad weather on February 6 and 7 after which the Union force built trenches and fortifications to hold the extended line; the Confederates matched the Union works by extending their Boydton Plank Road Line to the south and their White Oak Road line to the west. With the additions, the lines of the armies south of Petersburg extended 15 miles from the Appomattox River to Hatcher's Run. After the Battle of Hatcher's Run, Lee knew his army lacked the number of men needed to continue extension of his line and he realized Grant would continue to press them to do just that. On February 22, 1865, Lee advised Confederate States Secretary of War John C. Breckinridge that he expected Grant to "draw out his left, with the intent of enveloping me." He told Breckinridge and Lieutenant General James Longstreet that supplies should be collected at Burkeville, Virginia in preparation for the army to move west.
Lee wanted to move when local roads became passable as spring rains decreased and before Union reinforcements from Sheridan's cavalry from the Shenandoah Valley
Appomattox is a bronze statue commemorating Confederate soldiers from Alexandria, Virginia It is positioned in the center of the intersection of South Washington Street and Prince Street in the Old Town neighborhood of Alexandria. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2017, it was created by sculptor M. Caspar Buberl and commissioned and erected by the Robert E. Lee camp of the United Confederate Veterans in 1889; the form of the soldier was designed by John Adams Elder, who modeled it after a painting of the same title that shows a lone Confederate viewing the aftermath of the battle of Appomattox Court House, where Gen. Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union general Ulysses S. Grant; the dedication ceremony was held on May 24, 1889, was attended by a vast crowd. It was noted that by noon of that day, a great influx of visitors had swarmed the town of Alexandria to take part in the ceremony, overseen by Fitzhugh Lee, governor of Virginia at that time. Joseph E. Johnston, former Confederate general of the Army of Tennessee, was in attendance.
The UCV foresaw the controversy. Thus, they petitioned the Virginia House of Delegates in the same year to have it protected by state law. On August 20, 1988 a car crash toppled over the statue though it was restored. During the same crash, a time capsule, placed at the base of the statue, was dislodged and a majority of its contents were lost. What little remains of the contents of the time capsule is housed in the 17th Virginia Infantry Regiment's Museum in the nearby R. E. Lee Camp Hall. In September 2016, after a period of public debate, the Alexandria City Council voted unanimously to move the statue to another location. However, state legislators declined to introduce legislation to make this possible, seeing its passage as unlikely. In August 2017, Democratic state lawmakers stated that they want to propose a bill to remove the statue once their legislature reconvenes; the statue stands upon a square stone base with inscriptions on each side. The figure is that of a lone Confederate soldier.
His wide-brimmed hat is clasped in his right hand and he is looking down toward the ground with a somber expression on his face. The soldier is facing the general direction of the battlefields of the Civil War; the base bears several inscriptions. The north side of the base reads, "They died in the consciousness of duty faithfully performed." The south side reads, "Erected to the memory of Confederate dead of Alexandria, Va. by their Surviving Comrades, May 24th 1889." The east and west sides bear the names of those from Alexandria. A short way from the statue is a stone historic marker with a bronze plaque upon, engraved the following: THE CONFEDERATE STATUEThe unarmed Confederate soldier standing in the intersection of Washington and Prince Streets marks the location where units from Alexandria left to join the Confederate Army on May 24, 1861; the soldier is facing the battlefields to the South where his comrades fell during the War Between the States. The names of those Alexandrians who died in service for the Confederacy are inscribed on the base of the statue.
The title of the sculpture is "Appomattox" by M. Casper Buberl; the statue was erected in 1889 by the Robert E. Lee Camp United Confederate Veterans." Media related to Appomattox by Caspar Buberl at Wikimedia Commons
The Appomattox River is a tributary of the James River 157 miles long, in central and eastern Virginia in the United States, named for the Appomattocs Indian tribe who lived along its lower banks in the 17th century. It drains a cotton and tobacco-growing region of the Piedmont and coastal plain southwest of Richmond; the English colonists in Virginia at first tried to rename the Appomattox as the "Bristoll River", however this name did not catch on, while the native one did. There are numerous historical spelling variants, such as Apamatuck, Appamattuck and Apumetecs, among others; the Appomattox River rises in the Piedmont of northeastern Appomattox County 10 miles northeast of the town of Appomattox. It flows southeast through the Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest to Farmville. From Farmville it flows in a large arc northeast southeast across the coastal plain, passing southwest of Richmond and passing through the Lake Chesdin reservoir, it flows through Petersburg, its head of navigation, through the Tri-cities area joins the James River from the west at City Point in Hopewell.
The Appomattox River was cleared for transportation from Farmville, Virginia to Petersburg, Virginia for batteaux from 1745 to 1890 as the Upper Appomattox Canal Navigation System. Eppington Plantation had docks for larger boats that could carry seven tons to Petersburg in a four-day round trip. Petersburg had a port below the Fall Line that could hold ships which carry 200 tons down river to the Atlantic Ocean. Port Walthall, six miles downstream could hold larger ships and at City Point, where the Appomattox ran into the James River larger ships could dock in the 19th century. In April 1865 during the Appomattox Campaign of the American Civil War, the Confederate forces attempted to burn the High Bridge over the river northwest of Burkeville in order to escape the pursuing Union Army after the fall of Petersburg; the Union capture of the bridge was a contributing factor in the forcing of General Robert E. Lee's surrender at nearby Appomattox Court House, ending the war in Virginia; the river is a popular destination for whitewater rafting and canoeing down stream of the small Abutment Dam in the village of Matoaca to Petersburg near Virginia State University.
List of Virginia rivers VirginiaPlaces.org Appomattox River Basin Appomattox High Bridge Appomattox Campaign 1865
Appomattox Manor is a former plantation house in Hopewell, United States. It is best known as the Union headquarters during the Siege of Petersburg in 1864-65; the restored circa 1751 manor house on a bluff overlooking the confluence of the James River and Appomattox River, the grounds are managed by the National Park Service. The museum there, Grant's Headquarters at City Point Museum, is a unit of the Petersburg National Battlefield Park; the Eppes family home was a century old by the time Union forces occupied the site in 1864. It had been built on a large tract of land acquired by Captain Francis Eppes in 1635 and by the time of the American Civil War it was the center of a plantation covering more than 2,300 acres. In 1861 Appomattox Plantation was owned by Dr. Richard Eppes. Though he owned three plantations and nearly 130 slaves, Dr. Eppes was not a strong secessionist, yet when Virginia cast her lot with the South he took up arms by joining a local cavalry unit. He soon left the army to become a contract surgeon at a Confederate hospital in Petersburg.
The Eppes family remained at their home until 1862 when the arrival of Union gunboats on the James River forced them to flee their home for the safety of Petersburg. Soon thereafter nearly all of their slaves left with those Union forces; when the war came to Petersburg two years Mrs. Eppes and the children fled again, this time to her mother's home in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Appomattox Plantation was used as the offices of U. S. Quartermaster Rufus his staff during the siege. City Point was a port on the James River. During the last years of the Civil War, from the port there, the City Point Railroad was used to support the Union forces during the Siege of Petersburg 1864–65; the successful capture of Petersburg and its network of railroads was the key to the fall of the Confederate capital city of Richmond, ending the war less than a week later. After the surrender, when Dr. Eppes returned he found his house in near ruin and his plantation nearly destroyed. Not until March 1866 with the last Union regiments gone and the property back in his name did his wife and children return home to pick up the pieces and start anew.
It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1969. The manor house and surrounding land was donated to the National Park Service by the Eppes family, it is located in the City Point Historic District. National Park Service James River Plantations, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Appomattox Manor, Cedar Lane, Hopewell, VA at the Historic American Buildings Survey
Appomattox County, Virginia
Appomattox County is a United States county located in the Piedmont region and near the center of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The county is part of the Lynchburg, VA Metropolitan Statistical Area, its county seat is the town of Appomattox. Appomattox County was created in 1845 from sections of four other Virginia counties; the name of the county comes from the Appomattox River, which rises in the county, while the river was named for the Appamatuck Indians. The county is associated with the surrender of Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Court House, which ended the American Civil War; as of the 2010 census, the population was 14,973. This was an increase of more than 9 percent from the 13,705 reported in the 2000 census. Appomattox County was formed in 1845 from Buckingham, Prince Edward and Charlotte counties. In 1848, another part from Campbell County was added, it was named for the Appomattox River, which in turn was named for the Appamatuck, a historic Native American tribes in Virginia of the Algonquian-speaking Powhatan Confederacy.
Appomattox came to national attention on April 9, 1865, when Confederate General Robert E. Lee met with Union General Ulysses S. Grant at the village of Appomattox Court House to accept Lee's surrender; the surrender of Lee, which ended the American Civil War, took place at the McLean House, home of Wilmer McLean. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 335 square miles, of which 333 square miles is land and 1.2 square miles is water. Nelson County, Virginia - north Buckingham County, Virginia - northeast Prince Edward County, Virginia - southeast Charlotte County, Virginia - south Campbell County, Virginia - southwest Amherst County, Virginia - northwest Appomattox Court House National Historical Park US 60 US 460 SR 24 SR 26 SR 47 SR 131 As of the census of 2000, there are 13,705 people, 5,322 households, 4,012 families residing in the county; the population density is 41 people per square mile. There are 5,828 housing units at an average density of 18 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county is 75.94% White, 22.91% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, 0.56% from two or more races. 0.47 % of the population are Latino of any race. There are 5,322 households out of which 32.20% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.70% are married couples living together, 11.50% have a female householder with no husband present, 24.60% are non-families. 21.30% of all households are made up of individuals and 10.00% have someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.55 and the average family size is 2.94. In the county, the population is spread out with 24.70% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 25.60% from 45 to 64, 14.80% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 39 years. For every 100 females there are 94.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 91.10 males. The median income for a household in the county is $36,507, the median income for a family is $41,563.
Males have a median income of $31,428 versus $21,367 for females. The per capita income for the county is $18,086. 11.40% of the population and 8.70% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 14.10% of those under the age of 18 and 21.50% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. Appomattox River district: William H. Hogan Courthouse district: Samuel E. Carter Chairman Falling River district: Chad E. Millner, Vice-Chairman Piney Mountain district: Watkins Abbitt Jr. Wreck Island district: Bryan A. Moody, Chairman Clerk of the Circuit Court: Janet A. Hix Commissioner of the Revenue: Sara R. Henderson Commonwealth's Attorney: Darrel W. Puckett Sheriff: Barry E. Letterman Treasurer: Alice Gillette Appomattox County is represented by Republican Mark Peake, in the Virginia Senate, Republican C. Matt Farris in the Virginia House of Delegates, Republican Tom Garrett in the U. S. House of Representatives. Appomattox Pamplin City Concord National Register of Historic Places listings in Appomattox County, Virginia Official County website Official Tourism website for Town and County of Appomattox Appomattox Court House National Historical Park website