Paulinus of York
Paulinus was a Roman missionary and the first Bishop of York. Little is known of Paulinus activities in the two decades. After some years spent in Kent, perhaps in 625, Paulinus was consecrated a bishop and he accompanied Æthelburg of Kent, sister of King Eadbald of Kent, on her journey to Northumbria to marry King Edwin of Northumbria, and eventually succeeded in converting Edwin to Christianity. Paulinus converted many of Edwins subjects and built some churches, one of the women Paulinus baptised was a future saint, Hilda of Whitby. Following Edwins death in 633, Paulinus and Æthelburg fled Northumbria, leaving behind a member of Paulinus clergy, Paulinus returned to Kent, where he became Bishop of Rochester. He received a pallium from the pope, symbolizing his appointment as Archbishop of York, after his death in 644, Paulinus was canonized as a saint and is now venerated in the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Anglican Churches. He was probably an Italian by birth, the second group of missionaries arrived in Kent by 604, but little is known of Paulinus further activities until he went to Northumbria.
Paulinus remained in Kent until 625, when he was consecrated as bishop by Justus and he accompanied Æthelburg, the sister of King Eadbald, to Northumbria where she was to marry King Edwin. A condition of the marriage was that Edwin had promised that he would allow Æthelburg to remain a Christian, writing in the early 8th century, reports that Paulinus wished to convert the Northumbrians, as well as provide religious services to the new queen. The historian Henry Mayr-Harting agrees with Kirbys reasoning, another historian, Peter Hunter Blair, argues that Æthelburg and Edwin were married before 625, but that she did not go to Northumbria until 625. If Kirbys arguments are accepted, the date of Paulinus consecration needs to be changed by a year, to 21 July 626. Bede describes Paulinus as a man tall of stature, a stooping, with black hair and a thin face. Bede relates that Paulinus told Edwin that the birth of his, the birth coincided with a foiled assassination attempt on the king by a group of West Saxons from Wessex.
Edwin promised to convert to Christianity and allow his new daughter Eanflæd to be baptised if he won a victory over Wessex, in this dream, according to Bede, a stranger told Edwin that power would be his in the future when someone laid a hand on his head. As Paulinus was revealing the dream to Edwin, he laid his hand on the kings head and it is unlikely that it was supernatural affairs and Paulinus persuasion alone that caused Edwin to convert. The Northumbrian nobles seem to have been willing and the king received letters from Pope Boniface V urging his conversion, eventually convinced and many of his followers were baptised at York in 627. One story relates that during a stay with Edwin and Æthelburg at their palace in Yeavering, Paulinus was an active missionary in Lindsey, and his missionary activities help show the limits of Edwins royal authority. Pope Gregorys plan had been that York would be Englands second metropolitan see, although built of stone, no trace of it has been found
Edwin of Northumbria
Edwin, known as Eadwine or Æduinus, was the King of Deira and Bernicia – which became known as Northumbria – from about 616 until his death. He converted to Christianity and was baptised in 627, after he fell at the Battle of Hatfield Chase, Edwin was the son of Ælle king of Deira and seems to have had two siblings. His sister Acha was married to Æthelfrith, king of neighbouring Bernicia, an otherwise unknown sibling fathered Hereric, who in turn fathered Abbess Hilda of Whitby and Hereswith, wife to Æthelric, the brother of king Anna of East Anglia. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reported that on Ælles death a certain Æthelric assumed power, the exact identity of Æthelric is uncertain. He may have been a brother of Ælle, a brother of Edwin. Æthelfrith himself appears to have been king of Northumbria—both Deira and Bernicia—by no than 604, during the reign of Æthelfrith, Edwin was an exile. By the 610s he was certainly in Mercia under the protection of king Cearl, by around 616, Edwin was in East Anglia under the protection of king Raedwald.
Bede reports that Æthelfrith tried to have Raedwald murder his rival. Æthelfrith faced Raedwald in battle by the River Idle in 616, Raedwalds son Raegenhere may have been killed at this battle, but the exact date or manner of Raedwalds death are not known. He likely died between the years 616–627, and the efficacy of Edwin’s kingship ostensibly depended greatly on his fealty to Raedwald, Edwin was installed as king of Northumbria, effectively confirming Raedwald as bretwalda, Æthelfriths sons went into exile in Irish Dál Riata and Pictland. Edwins reign marks an interruption of the otherwise consistent domination of Northumbria by the Bernicians and has seen as contrary to the prevailing tendency. Edwin expelled Ceretic from the minor British kingdom of Elmet in either 616 or 626, Elmet had probably been subject to Mercia and to Edwin. The larger kingdom of Lindsey appears to have taken over c. 625, after the death of king Raedwald and Eadbald of Kent were allies at this time, and Edwin arranged to marry Eadbalds sister Æthelburg.
Bede notes that Eadbald would agree to marry his sister to Edwin only if he converted to Christianity, the marriage of Eadbalds Merovingian mother Bertha had resulted in the conversion of Kent and Æthelburgs would do the same in Northumbria. Edwins expansion to the west may have begun early in his reign, there is firm evidence of a war waged in the early 620s between Edwin and Fiachnae mac Báetáin of the Dál nAraidi, king of the Ulaid in Ireland. A lost poem is known to have existed recounting Fiachnaes campaigns against the Saxons, and this should presumably be placed in the context of Edwins designs on the Isle of Man, a target of Ulaid ambitions. The routine of kingship in Edwins time involved regular, probably annual, wars with neighbours to obtain tribute and slaves
Numidia was an ancient kingdom of the Numidians, located in what is now Algeria and a smaller part of Tunisia and Libya in the Maghreb. The polity was divided between Massylii in the east and Masaesyli in the west. During the Second Punic War, king of the Massylii, the kingdom began as a sovereign state and alternated between being a Roman province and a Roman client state. It was bordered by the kingdom of Mauretania to the west, Africa Proconsularis to the east, the Mediterranean Sea to the north, and it is considered to be the first major state in the history of Algeria and the Berber territories. The Greek historians referred to these peoples as Νομάδες, which by Latin interpretation became Numidae, the name appears first in Polybius to indicate the peoples and territory west of Carthage including the entire north of Algeria as far as the river Mulucha, about 160 kilometres west of Oran. The Numidians were conceived of two tribal groups, the Massylii in eastern Numidia, and the Masaesyli in the west.
During the first part of the Second Punic War, the eastern Massylii, under their king Gala, were allied with Carthage, while the western Masaesyli, under king Syphax, were allied with Rome. However, in 206 BC, the new king of the eastern Massylii, allied himself with Rome, at the end of the war, the victorious Romans gave all of Numidia to Masinissa of the Massylii. After the death of the long-lived Masinissa around 148 BC, he was succeeded by his son Micipsa and Jugurtha quarrelled immediately after the death of Micipsa. Jugurtha had Hiempsal killed, which led to war with Adherbal. By 112, Jugurtha resumed his war with Adherbal and he incurred the wrath of Rome in the process by killing some Roman businessmen who were aiding Adherbal. After a brief war with Rome, Jugurtha surrendered and received a favourable peace treaty. The local Roman commander was summoned to Rome to face charges brought by his political rival Gaius Memmius. War broke out between Numidia and the Roman Republic and several legions were dispatched to North Africa under the command of the Consul Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus, the war dragged out into a long and seemingly endless campaign as the Romans tried to defeat Jugurtha decisively.
Frustrated at the apparent lack of action, Metellus lieutenant Gaius Marius returned to Rome to seek election as Consul, Marius was elected, and returned to Numidia to take control of the war. He sent his Quaestor Lucius Cornelius Sulla to neighbouring Mauretania in order to eliminate their support for Jugurtha, with the help of Bocchus I of Mauretania, Sulla captured Jugurtha and brought the war to a conclusive end. Jugurtha was brought to Rome in chains and was placed in the Tullianum, Jugurtha was executed by the Romans in 104 BC, after being paraded through the streets in Gaius Marius Triumph. After the death of Jugurtha, the far west of Numidia was added to the lands of Bocchus I, a rump kingdom continued to be governed by native princes
Anthemius was Western Roman Emperor from 467 to 472. Anthemius was killed by Ricimer, his own general of Gothic descent, Anthemius belonged to a noble family, the gens Procopia, which gave several high officers, both civil and military, to the Eastern Roman Empire. 400, descended from Flavius Philippus, Praetorian prefect of the East in 346, in 454 he was recalled to Constantinople, where he received the title of patricius in 454 or 455 and became one of the two magistri militum or magister utriusque militiae of the East. In 455 he received the honour of holding the consulate with the Western Emperor Valentinian III as colleague. Therefore, both empires had no Emperor, and the power was in the hands of the Western generals and Majorian, and of the Eastern Magister militum, the Alan Aspar. Anthemius stayed in service under the new Emperor, as magister militum, around 460, he defeated the Ostrogoths of Valamir in Illyricum. During the winter of 466/467 he defeated a group of Huns, led by Hormidac, the newly elected Eastern Roman Emperor, Leo I the Thracian, had a major foreign affairs problem, the Vandals of King Geiseric and their raids on the Italian coasts.
After the death of Libius Severus in 465, the Western Empire had no Emperor, Gaiseric had his own candidate, who was related to Gaiseric because both Olybrius and a son of Gaiserics had married the two daughters of Emperor Valentinian III. With Olybrius on the throne, Gaiseric would become the power behind the throne of the Western Empire. Leo, on the hand, wanted to keep Gaiseric as far as possible from the imperial court at Ravenna. On 25 March 467, Leo I, with the consent of Ricimer, designated Anthemius Western Emperor as Caesar, on April 12, Anthemius was proclaimed Emperor at the third or twelfth mile from Rome. Anthemius election was celebrated in Constantinople with a panegyric by Dioscorus, the reign of Anthemius was characterised by a good diplomatic relationship with the Eastern Empire, for example, Anthemius is the last Western Emperor to be recorded in an Eastern law. Both courts collaborated in the choice of the consuls, as each court chose a consul. Anthemius had the honour of holding the consulate sine collega in 468, the following year the two consuls were Anthemius son and Leos son-in-law, Flavius Zeno.
In 470 the consuls were Messius Phoebus Severus, Anthemius old friend and fellow student at Proclus school, Anthemius matrimonial policy included the marriage of his only daughter and the powerful Magister militum Ricimer. The Vandals were the problem of the Western Empire. In 468, Leo the Thracian and Marcellinus organised an operation against the Vandal kingdom in Africa. The commander-in-chief of the operation was Leos brother-in-law Basiliscus, the fleet was defeated in the Battle of Cape Bon, with Marcellinus killed at Roman hands in its wake
York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. The municipality is the county town of Yorkshire to which it gives its name. The city has a heritage and has provided the backdrop to major political events in England throughout much of its two millennia of existence. The city offers a wealth of attractions, of which York Minster is the most prominent. The city was founded by the Romans as Eboracum in 71 AD and it became the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Inferior, and of the kingdoms of Northumbria and Jórvík. In the Middle Ages, York grew as a wool trading centre and became the capital of the northern ecclesiastical province of the Church of England. In the 19th century, York became a hub of the railway network, in recent decades, the economy of York has moved from being dominated by its confectionery and railway-related industries to one that provides services. The University of York and health services have become major employers, from 1996, the term City of York describes a unitary authority area which includes rural areas beyond the old city boundaries.
In 2011 the urban area had a population of 153,717, the word York derives from the Latinised name for the city, variously rendered as Eboracum, Eburacum or Eburaci. The first mention of York by this name is dated to circa 95–104 AD as an address on a wooden stylus tablet from the Roman fortress of Vindolanda in Northumberland, the toponymy of Eboracum is uncertain because the language of the pre-Roman indigenous population was never recorded. They are thought to have spoken a Celtic language related to modern Welsh, in his Historia Regum Britanniae the 12th century chronicler, Geoffrey of Monmouth, suggests the name derives from that of a pre-Roman city founded by the legendary king Ebraucus. Alternatively, the word already existed as an Old English word for wild swine. The Anglo-Saxon newcomers probably interpreted the part as eofor, and -rac as ric, while -um was a common abbreviation of the Saxon -heem. To them, it sounded as a home rich in boar, as is common in Saxon place names, the -um part gradually faded, eoforic.
When the Danish army conquered the city in 866, its name became Jórvík, the Old French and Norman name of the city following the Norman Conquest was recorded as Everwic in works such as Waces Roman de Rou. The form York was first recorded in the 13th century, many company and place names, such as the Ebor race meeting, refer to the Roman name. The Archbishop of York uses Ebor as his surname in his signature, archaeological evidence suggests that Mesolithic people settled in the region of York between 8000 and 7000 BC, although it is not known whether their settlements were permanent or temporary. By the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, the area was occupied by a known to the Romans as the Brigantes
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska is a historical region of west-central Poland. The boundaries of Greater Poland have varied throughout history. Since the Middle Ages the proper or exact/strict Wielkopolska included the Poznań, in the wider sense it encompassed Sieradz, Łęczyca, Brześć Kujawski and Inowrocław voivodeships. One another meaning included Mazovia and Royal Prussia, after the Partitions of Poland, Greater Poland was often identified with the Grand Duchy of Posen. The region in the proper sense roughly coincides with the present-day Greater Poland Voivodeship, because Greater Poland was the settlement area of the Polans and the core of the early Polish state, the region was at times simply called Poland. The more specific name is first recorded in the Latin form Polonia Maior in 1257 and its original meaning was the Older Poland, as opposed to Lesser Poland, a region in south-eastern Poland with its capital at Kraków which became the main center of the state later.
Greater Poland comprises much of the area drained by the Warta River and its tributaries, the region is distinguished from Lesser Poland with the lowland landscape, and from both Lesser Poland and Mazovia with its numerous lakes. In the strict meaning, it covers an area of about 33,000 square kilometres, in the wider sense, it has almost 60,000 square kilometres, and 7 million inhabitants. The regions main metropolis is Poznań, near the centre of the region, on the Warta. Other cities are Kalisz to the south-east, Konin to the east, Piła to the north, Ostrów Wielkopolski to the south-east, Gniezno to the north-east, and Leszno to the south-west. An area of 75.84 square kilometres of forest and lakeland south of Poznań is designated the Wielkopolska National Park, the region contains part of Drawa National Park, and several designated Landscape Parks. For example, the Rogalin Landscape Park is famous for about 2000 monumental oak trees growing on the plain of the river Warta. Greater Poland formed the heart of the 10th-century early Polish state, in the testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty, which initiated the period of fragmentation of Poland, the western part of Greater Poland was granted to Mieszko III the Old.
The eastern part, with Gniezno and Kalisz, was part of the Duchy of Kraków, for most of the period the two parts were under a single ruler, and were known as the Duchy of Greater Poland. The region came under the control of Władysław I the Elbow-High in 1314, in the reunited kingdom, and in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the country came to be divided into administrative units called voivodeships. In the case of the Greater Poland region these were Poznań Voivodeship, the Commonwealth had larger subdivisions known as prowincja, one of which was named Greater Poland. However, this covered an larger area than the Greater Poland region itself, taking in Masovia. In 1768 a new Gniezno Voivodeship was formed out of the part of Kalisz Voivodeship
Ardashir I or Ardeshir I, known as Ardashir the Unifier, was the founder of the Sasanian Empire. After defeating the last Parthian shahnshah Artabanus V on the Hormozdgān plain in 224, he overthrew the Parthian dynasty, Ardashir called himself shahanshah and began conquering the land that he called Iran. There are various reports about Ardashirs lineage and ancestry. According to Al-Tabaris report, Ardashir was son of Papak, son of Sasan, according to Al-Tabaris report, Ardashir was born in the outskirts of Istakhr, Pars. Al-Tabari adds that Ardashir was sent to the lord of Fort Darabgard when he was seven years old, after the lords death, Ardashir succeeded him and became the commander of Fort Darabgard. Al-Tabari continues that afterward, Papak overthrew the local Persian shah named Gochihr and appointed his son, according to Al-Tabaris report and his father, suddenly died and Ardashir became the ruler of Pars. It is probable that the role that is stated about Ardashir in leading the rebellion against the central government is the product of the historical studies.
Papak had probably united most of Pars under his rule by then, Ardashir had an outstanding role in developing the royal ideology. He tried to show himself as a worshiper of Mazda related to god, on the other hand, some historians believe that the first Sasanian shahanshahs were familiar with the Achaemenids and their succeeding shahanshahs deliberately turned to the Kayanians. They knowingly ignored the Achaemenids in order to attribute their past to the Kayanians, in order to remark his victories, Ardashir carved petroglyphs in Firuzabad, Naqsh-e Rajab and Naqsh-e Rustam. It can be deduced from the picture that Ardashir assumed or wished for others to assume that his rule over the land that was called Iran in the inscriptions was designated by the lord. The word Iran was previously used in Avesta and as the name of the land of the Aryans. In Ardashirs period, the title Iran was chosen for the region under the Sasanian rule, what is clear is that the concept of Iran previously had a religious application and ended up creating its political face and the concept of a geographical collection of lands.
Ardashir, which was pronounced /ærtæxʃæɵræ/, has one of old. It is read and pronounced as Artaxérxēs, Αρταξέρξης in Greek, /ærtæxʃtær/, /ærtæxʃir/ in Middle Persian, Artašēs, Արտաշէս in Armenian, Ardashir means the one whose reign is based on honesty and justice. The first part of Artakhshir is adapted from the concept of justice known as Ṛta or Asha. Three of Achaemenid kings of kings and four of the local Shahs of Pars - known as Frataraka - were named Ardashir, examples of text remnants related to Ardashir I include his short inscription in Nagsh-e Rajab and Shapur Is inscription at the Kaba-ye Zartosht. Reports are texts that are written in languages and periods
The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period. The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history, often when a given Roman is described as becoming emperor in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus or Caesar. Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific, early Emperors used the title princeps. Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably Princeps Senatus, the first emperors reigned alone, emperors would sometimes rule with co-Emperors and divide administration of the Empire between them. The Romans considered the office of emperor to be distinct from that of a king, the first emperor, resolutely refused recognition as a monarch. Although Augustus could claim that his power was authentically republican, his successor, nonetheless, for the first three hundred years of Roman Emperors, from Augustus until Diocletian, a great effort was made to emphasize that the Emperors were the leaders of a Republic.
Elements of the Republican institutional framework were preserved until the end of the Western Empire. The Eastern emperors ultimately adopted the title of Basileus, which had meant king in Greek, but became a title reserved solely for the Roman emperor, other kings were referred to as rēgas. In addition to their office, some emperors were given divine status after death. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in the late 5th century, Romulus Augustulus is often considered to be the last emperor of the west after his forced abdication in 476, although Julius Nepos maintained a claim to the title until his death in 480. Constantine XI was the last Byzantine Roman emperor in Constantinople, dying in the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453, a Byzantine group of claimant Roman Emperors existed in the Empire of Trebizond until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1461. In western Europe the title of Roman Emperor was revived by Germanic rulers, the Holy Roman Emperors, in 800, at the end of the Roman Republic no new, and certainly no single, title indicated the individual who held supreme power.
Insofar as emperor could be seen as the English translation of imperator, Julius Caesar had been an emperor, Julius Caesar, unlike those after him, did so without the Senates vote and approval. Julius Caesar held the Republican offices of four times and dictator five times, was appointed dictator in perpetuity in 45 BC and had been pontifex maximus for a long period. He gained these positions by senatorial consent, by the time of his assassination, he was the most powerful man in the Roman world. In his will, Caesar appointed his adopted son Octavian as his heir, a decade after Caesars death, Octavians victory over his erstwhile ally Mark Antony at Actium put an end to any effective opposition and confirmed Octavians supremacy. His restoration of powers to the Senate and the people of Rome was a demonstration of his auctoritas, some historians such as Tacitus would say that even at Augustus death, the true restoration of the Republic might have been possible. Instead, Augustus actively prepared his adopted son Tiberius to be his successor, the Senate disputed the issue but eventually confirmed Tiberius as princeps
Shapur I, known as Shapur I the Great, was the second shahanshah of the Sasanian Empire. The dates of his reign are commonly given as 240/42 – 270/72 and he became the first Roman Emperor to be captured as a prisoner of war, causing instability in the Empire. As such, the battle is viewed as one of the worst disasters in Roman military history. The name Shapur is a combination of the word šāh and pūr, the name is derived from Old Iranian *xšāyaθiyahyā-puθra-. The name is attested in Manichaean sources as Shabuhr, while it is attested in Latin sources as Sapores and Sapor, Shapur was the son of Ardashir I, the founder of the Sasanian dynasty and whom Shapur succeeded. His mother was Lady Myrōd, who—according to legend—was an Arsacid princess, the Talmud cites a nickname for her, Ifra Hurmiz, after her bewitching beauty. Shapur had a brother named Ardashir, who would serve as governor of Kirman. Shapur may have had another brother with the same name, before an assembly of magnates, Ardashir judged him the gentlest, wisest and ablest of all his children and nominated him as his successor.
Shapur appears as heir apparent in Ardashirs investiture inscriptions at Naqsh-e Rajab and his capital, Gor. ”The Cologne Mani-Codex indicates that, by 240, Ardashir and Shapur were already reigning together. In a letter from the Roman Emperor Gordian III to his senate, dated to 242, synarchy is evident in the coins of this period that portray Ardashir facing his youthful son and bear a legend that indicates Shapur as king. The date of Shapurs coronation remains debated,240 is frequently noted, the year 240 marks the seizure and subsequent destruction of Hatra, about 100 km southwest of Nineveh and Mosul in present-day Iraq. According to legend, al-Nadirah, the daughter of the king of Hatra, betrayed her city to the Sasanians, Ardashir I had, towards the end of his reign, renewed the war against the Roman Empire. Shapur I conquered the Mesopotamian fortresses Nisibis and Carrhae and advanced into Syria. In 242, the Roman emperor Gordian III set out against the Sasanians with “a huge army and great quantity of gold, ” and wintered in Antioch, while Shapur was busy in subduing Khwarezm and Gilan.
“We have penetrated as far as Nisibis, and shall even get to Ctesiphon, Gordian III invaded eastern Mesopotamia but faced tough resistance from the Sasanians, following this blockade Gordian died in battle and the Romans chose Philip the Arab as Emperor. Philip was not willing to repeat the mistakes of previous claimants, Philip concluded a peace with the Sasanians in 244, he had agreed that Armenia lay within Persia’s sphere of influence. He had to pay an indemnity to the Persians of 500,000 gold denarii. Philip immediately issued coins proclaiming that he had made peace with the Persians, Philip broke the treaty and seized lost territory
Gordian I was Roman Emperor for one month with his son Gordian II in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. Caught up in a rebellion against the Emperor Maximinus Thrax, he was defeated by forces loyal to Maximinus before committing suicide, little is known on the early life and family background of Gordian. There is no evidence on his family origins. His family were of Equestrian rank, who were modest and very wealthy, Gordian was said to be related to prominent senators. His praenomen and nomen Marcus Antonius suggest that his paternal ancestors received Roman citizenship under the Triumvir Mark Antony, or one of his daughters, gordian’s cognomen ‘Gordianus’ suggests that his family origins were from Anatolia, especially Galatia and Cappadocia. According to the Augustan History, his mother was a Roman woman called Ulpia Gordiana, while modern historians have dismissed his fathers name as false, there may be some truth behind the identity of his mother. Gordians family history can be guessed through inscriptions, the name Sempronianus in his name may indicate a connection to his mother or grandmother.
In Ankara, Turkey, an inscription has been found that names a Sempronia Romana. Romana erected this undated funeral inscription to her husband who died as a praetor-designate, Gordian might have been related to the gens Sempronia. French historian Christian Settipani gives as his parents Marcus Antonius, tr. pl. praet and it seems therefore that the person who was related to Herodes Atticus was Gordian Is mother or grandmother and not his wife. Modern historians have dismissed this name and her information as false, with his wife, Gordian had at least two children, a son of the same name and a daughter, Antonia Gordiana. Gordian climbed the hierarchy until he entered the Roman Senate and his political career started relatively late in his life and probably his early years were spent in rhetoric and literary studies. As a military man, Gordian commanded the Legio IIII Scythica when the legion was stationed in Syria and he served as governor of Roman Britain in 216 and was a Suffect Consul sometime during the reign of Elagabalus.
Inscriptions in Roman Britain bearing his name were partially erased suggesting some form of imperial displeasure during this role, Gordian certainly retained his wealth and political clout during the chaotic times of the Severan dynasty, which suggest his personal dislike for intrigue. Philostratus dedicated his work Lives of the Sophists to either him or his son, prior to the commencement of his promagistrature, Maximinus Thrax killed Emperor Alexander Severus at Moguntiacum in Germania Inferior and assumed the throne. Maximinus was not an emperor and universal discontent roused by his oppressive rule culminated in a revolt in Africa in 238. The trigger was the actions of Maximinus’s procurator in Africa, who sought to extract the maximum level of taxation and fines possible, a riot saw the death of the procurator, after which they turned to Gordian and demanded that he accept the dangerous honor of the imperial throne. Gordian, after protesting that he was too old for the position, eventually yielded to the popular clamour and assumed both the purple and the cognomen Africanus on March 22