Kuhikugu is an archaeological site located in Brazil, at the headwaters of the Xingu River, in the Amazon Rainforest. The area around Kuhikugu is located in part of the Xingu National Park today. Kuhikugu was first uncovered by anthropologist Michael Heckenberger, working alongside the local Kuikuro people, who are the descendants of the original inhabitants of Kuhikugu. In the broad sense, the name refers to an archaeological complex including twenty towns and villages, spread out over an area of around 7,700 square miles, where close to 50,000 people may have once lived. Kuhikugu was inhabited from a period of time around 1,500 years ago to a time as as 400 years ago, when the people living there were killed by diseases brought over by Europeans. Speaking, Kuhikugu is settlement X11 of this complex, located near Porto dos Meinacos on the eastern shore of Lake Kuhikugu at 12°33′30″S 53°6′40″W. There, as well as at other former settlements of the Kuhikugu complex, satellite imagery reveals that today the forest differs from surrounding pristine areas, ground-based exploration reveals this to be an effect of the anthrosol, known to the Kuikuro as egepe.
Directly to the north of the X11 site there is a Kuikuro village, the small size of which provides an interesting comparison to the large area of egepe which indicates the prehistoric settlement. Large defensive ditches and palisades were built around some of the communities at Kuhikugu. Large plazas exist at some of the towns throughout the region, some around 490 feet across. Many of the communities at Kuhikugu were linked, with roads which bridged some rivers along their paths, with canoe canals running alongside some of the roads. Fields of mandioca may have existed around the communities at Kuhikugu, suggesting that the people there were farmers. Dams and ponds which appear to have been constructed in the area suggest that the inhabitants of Kuhikugu may have been involved with fish farming, still practised by some of their modern day Kuikuro descendants. There is a possibility that legends regarding Kuhikugu may have influenced the British explorer Lieutenant Colonel Percy Fawcett to go on his ill-fated last expedition in 1925, looking through the Amazon rainforest for what he called "City Z".
"Ancient Amazon Actually Highly Urbanized." Scientific American. August 28, 2008
Proclamation of the Republic (Brazil)
The Proclamation of the Republic was a military coup d'état that established the First Brazilian Republic on 15 November 1889. It overthrew the constitutional monarchy of the Empire of Brazil and ended the reign of Emperor Pedro II; the proclamation of the Republic took place in Rio de Janeiro capital of the Empire of Brazil, when a group of military officers of the Brazilian Army, led by Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca, staged a coup d'état without the use of violence, deposing Emperor Pedro II and the President of the Council of Ministers of the Empire, the Viscount of Ouro Preto. A provisional government was established that same day, 15 November, with Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca as President of the Republic and head of the interim Government. From the 1870s, as a consequence of the Paraguayan War, the idea of some sectors of the elite was altered to change the current political regime. Factors that influenced this movement: The Emperor Pedro II had no male children, only daughters; the throne would be occupied, after his death, by his eldest daughter, Princess Imperial of Brazil, married to a Frenchman, Prince Gaston, Count of Eu, which generated the fear in part of the population that the country would be ruled by a foreigner.
The fact that the negroes helped the army in the Paraguayan War and, when they returned to the country, remained as slaves, that is, they did not gain the freedom of their owners. The resentment of the agrarian elite for the abolition of slavery, which they considered to be a personal desire of the imperial family and not of the people; the growth of the positivist and republican idea of Auguste Comte between the members of the Brazilian Army and its resentment with the monarchy by delicate military questions. The Imperial Government, through the 37th and last ministerial cabinet, was inaugurated on 7 June 1889, under the command of the President of the Council of Ministers of the Empire, Afonso Celso de Assis Figueiredo, the Viscount of Ouro Preto of the Liberal Party, perceiving the difficult political situation in which he was present, presented in a last desperate attempt to save the Empire to the Chamber of Deputies, a program of political reforms which included, among others, the following measures: greater autonomy administrative freedom for the provinces, universal suffrage, freedom of education, reduction of prerogatives of the Council of State and non-lifelong mandates for the Imperial Senate.
The proposals of the Viscount de Ouro Preto aimed at preserving the monarchical regime in the country, but were vetoed by the majority of deputies of conservative tendency that controlled the General Chamber. On 15 November 1889, the republic was proclaimed by the positivist militaries supported by the agrarian elite resented for not being compensated for the abolition of slavery. There were many factors that led the Empire to lose the support of its military bases. On the part of the conservative groups, by the serious friction with the Catholic Church. On the part of the progressive groups, there was the criticism that the monarchy had maintained until late, the slavery in the country. Progressives criticized the absence of initiatives aimed at the economic, political or social development of the country, the maintenance of a political regime of caste and census voting, that is, based on the annual income of the people, the absence of a system of universal education, high rates of illiteracy and misery, the political withdrawal of Brazil from all other countries on the continent, which were republican.
Thus, at the same time that imperial legitimacy declined, the republican proposal - perceived as meaning social progress - gained space. However, it is important to note that the Emperor's legitimacy was distinct from that of the imperial regime: While, on the one hand, the population respected and loved Emperor Pedro II, on the other hand, had less and less the Empire. In this sense, it was a common voice at the time that there would be no third reign, that is, the monarchy would not continue to exist after the death of Pedro II, whether due to the lack of political support of the monarchical regime itself or due to the concerns about the succession by a woman, Princess Isabel, in a still misogynistic society; the prince consort, husband of Princess Isabel, the French Count d'Eu, was hard of hearing, he spoke with a French accent, moreover, he owned slums in Rio, for which he collected exorbitant rents from poor people. It was feared. Although the phrase of Aristides Lobo, "The people witnessed bestialized" to the proclamation of the republic, has entered into history, more recent historical research has given another version to the acceptance Of the republic among the Brazilian people.
This is the case of the thesis defended by Maria Tereza Chaves de Mello, which indicates that the republic and after the proclamation, was popularly seen as a political regime that would bring about development, in a broad sense, to the country, Although the common people did not want to change the regime of government. The abolitionist question had been imposed since the abolition of the slave trade in 1850, finding resistance among the country's traditional agrarian elites. In view of the measures adopted by the Empire for the gradual extinction of the slave regime, due to the repercussion of the unsuccessfu
The Religious Question was a crisis between the Catholic church and the state apparatus of the Brazilian Empire. It led to the imprisonment of two bishops and contributed to the downfall of the government of José Paranhos, Viscount of Rio Branco. Although Catholicism was the state religion of Brazil, Portugal before it, the Catholic clergy had for a time been perceived as understaffed and poorly educated, with a consequent loss of respect for the Church; the Imperial government wanted to reform the church and appointed a series of well educated, reforming bishops. Although these bishops agreed with the government on the need to reform, they did not share Pedro II's views on the subservience of the Church to government and were influenced by Ultramontanism which emphasised loyalty to the Papacy over loyalty to the civil powers. One of the new generation of bishops was the bishop of Dom Vital, he was consecrated a bishop in 1872. He was keen to ensure. All forms of Freemasonry had long been forbidden to all Catholics under pain of excommunication, although it was felt by some Brazilian Masons that they did not share the anti-clericalism of Latin Freemasonry.
There had been some tension earlier in Rio de Janeiro, where a priest had been suspended due to his Masonic membership, although after pressure from the Prime Minister the priest was reinstated. Lay Fraternities and Sodalities played an important part in Brazilian life fulfilling a charitable role and were important in conferring social status, they were attached to churches and would have their own chapels, including some of the most important buildings in Olinda's diocesan seat of Recife. Freemasonry was common among members of the Lay Fraternities. On December 28, 1872, Dom Vital asked Olinda's parish priests to notify Lay Fraternities that they had to expel Freemason who refused to resign. There followed three individual warnings to each fraternity. On January 19, 1873 Dom Vital issued an interdict against those Lay Fraternities that refused his request to expel Freemasons; this meant. This was a challenge to the government as the Prime Minister, Rio Branco, was grand master of the most eminent body in Brazilian Freemasonry, had been a member since at least 1840.
Some of the fraternities appealed to the crown in 1873, claiming that this was not a spiritual matter and so was a matter for the state and not the church. After the appeal was lodged the bishop of Pará, Antônio de Macedo Costa placed Lay Fraternities that refused to expel Freemasons under interdict. In May 1873 Pope Pius XI sent a supportive encyclical Quamquam Dolores to Dom Vital, by extension to the other Brazilian bishops; the Council of State of the Empire of Brazil, presided over by Pedro II, came down on the side of the Freemasons and against the church. In June 1873 they ordered Dom Vital to rescind the interdict. After Dom Vital's refusal the government brought charges to the Supreme Court of Justice, for the crime of attempting against the power of the State, a criminal charge that carried a heavy sentence; the bishop made a public protest in his seat of Recife and was arrested on January 2, 1874. The refusal from Vital and the defiance from Costa led to the bishops being tried before the Supreme Court of Justice of the Empire, where in 1874 they were convicted and sentenced to four years of hard labor, commuted to imprisonment without hard labour.
Rio Branco explained in a letter written in August 1873 that he believed the government "could not compromise in the affair" since "it involved principles essential to the social order and to national sovereignty", a conviction shared by the Emperor Pedro II. The Emperor unequivocally backed the government's actions against the bishops; the trial and imprisonment of the two bishops was unpopular with the public. The Quebra Quilo riots were seen to be influenced by the imprisonment; the imposition of the metric system led to demonstrations in the northeast in 1874 with metric weights and measures destroyed by peasants, land and tax records burned. The riots did not have any lasting impact—although it illustrated popular dissatisfaction and was an embarrassment to the government." The Quebra Quilo riots were suspected of being condoned by priests, together with the arrest of the bishops, drew attention to the Imperial government having become embroiled in a no-win dispute. The crisis would only be smoothed over by the fall of the Cabinet and the Emperor's reluctant grant of a full amnesty to the bishops.
The new Prime Minister, the Duke of Caxias, a Freemason himself, but a staunch Catholic, threatened to resign if the Emperor did not grant the amnesty, which Pedro II grudgingly issued on September 17, 1875. Historian Heitor Lyra blamed all parties for a lack of tact, intransigence which caused harm to the monarchy; the main consequence of the crisis was that the clergy no longer saw any benefit in upholding Pedro II. Although they abandoned the Emperor, most eagerly awaited the accession of his eldest daughter and heir Isabel because of her Ultramontane views. Dom Vital died soon after his release. Catholicism and Freemasonry National Question
Empire of Brazil
The Empire of Brazil was a 19th-century state that broadly comprised the territories which form modern Brazil and Uruguay. Its government was a representative parliamentary constitutional monarchy under the rule of Emperors Dom Pedro I and his son Dom Pedro II. A colony of the Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil became the seat of the Portuguese colonial Empire in 1808, when the Portuguese Prince regent King Dom João VI, fled from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal and established himself and his government in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro. João VI returned to Portugal, leaving his eldest son and heir, Pedro, to rule the Kingdom of Brazil as regent. On 7 September 1822, Pedro declared the independence of Brazil and, after waging a successful war against his father's kingdom, was acclaimed on 12 October as Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil; the new country was sparsely populated and ethnically diverse. Unlike most of the neighboring Hispanic American republics, Brazil had political stability, vibrant economic growth, constitutionally guaranteed freedom of speech, respect for civil rights of its subjects, albeit with legal restrictions on women and slaves, the latter regarded as property and not citizens.
The empire's bicameral parliament was elected under comparatively democratic methods for the era, as were the provincial and local legislatures. This led to a long ideological conflict between Pedro I and a sizable parliamentary faction over the role of the monarch in the government, he faced other obstacles. The unsuccessful Cisplatine War against the neighboring United Provinces of the Río de la Plata in 1828 led to the secession of the province of Cisplatina. In 1826, despite his role in Brazilian independence, he became the king of Portugal. Two years she was usurped by Pedro I's younger brother Miguel. Unable to deal with both Brazilian and Portuguese affairs, Pedro I abdicated his Brazilian throne on 7 April 1831 and departed for Europe to restore his daughter to the Portuguese throne. Pedro I's successor in Brazil was his five-year-old son, Pedro II; as the latter was still a minor, a weak regency was created. The power vacuum resulting from the absence of a ruling monarch as the ultimate arbiter in political disputes led to regional civil wars between local factions.
Having inherited an empire on the verge of disintegration, Pedro II, once he was declared of age, managed to bring peace and stability to the country, which became an emerging international power. Brazil was victorious in three international conflicts under Pedro II's rule, the Empire prevailed in several other international disputes and outbreaks of domestic strife. With prosperity and economic development came an influx of European immigration, including Protestants and Jews, although Brazil remained Catholic. Slavery, widespread, was restricted by successive legislation until its final abolition in 1888. Brazilian visual arts and theater developed during this time of progress. Although influenced by European styles that ranged from Neoclassicism to Romanticism, each concept was adapted to create a culture, uniquely Brazilian. Though the last four decades of Pedro II's reign were marked by continuous internal peace and economic prosperity, he had no desire to see the monarchy survive beyond his lifetime and made no effort to maintain support for the institution.
The next in line to the throne was his daughter Isabel, but neither Pedro II nor the ruling classes considered a female monarch acceptable. Lacking any viable heir, the Empire's political leaders saw no reason to defend the monarchy. After a 58-year reign, on 15 November 1889 the Emperor was overthrown in a sudden coup d'état led by a clique of military leaders whose goal was the formation of a republic headed by a dictator, forming the First Brazilian Republic; the territory which would come to be known as Brazil was claimed by Portugal on 22 April 1500, when the navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral landed on its coast. Permanent settlement followed in 1532, for the next 300 years the Portuguese expanded westwards until they had reached nearly all of the borders of modern Brazil. In 1808, the army of French Emperor Napoleon I invaded Portugal, forcing the Portuguese royal family—the House of Braganza, a branch of the thousand-year-old Capetian dynasty—into exile, they re-established themselves in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro, which became the unofficial seat of the Portuguese Empire.
In 1815, the Portuguese crown prince Dom João, acting as regent, created the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, which raised the status of Brazil from colony to kingdom. He ascended the Portuguese throne the following year, after the death of his mother, Maria I of Portugal, he returned to Portugal in April 1821, leaving behind his son and heir, Prince Dom Pedro, to rule Brazil as his regent. The Portuguese government moved to revoke the political autonomy that Brazil had been granted since 1808; the threat of losing their limited control over local affairs ignited widespread opposition among Brazilians. José Bonifácio de Andrada, along with other Brazilian leaders, convinced Pedro to declare Brazil's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822. On 12 October, the prince was acclaimed Pedro I, first Emperor of the newly created Empire of Brazil, a constitutional monarchy; the declaration of independence was opposed throughout Brazil by armed military units loyal to Portugal. The ensuing war of independence was fought across the country, with battles in the northern and southern regions.
The last Portu
Battle of Rio de Janeiro
The Battle of Rio de Janeiro was a raid in September 1711 on the port of Rio de Janeiro in the War of Spanish Succession by a French squadron under René Duguay-Trouin. The Portuguese defenders, including the city's governor and an admiral of the fleet anchored there, were unable to put up effective resistance in spite of numerical advantages. Four Portuguese ships of the line were lost, the city had to pay a ransom to avoid destruction of its defences. There were multiple reasons for the French to plan an attack on Rio de Janeiro. Firstly, the commander Duguay-Trouin had a personal reason: he was bankrupt; the second reason was political. The War of the Spanish Succession had not gone well for France. After the defeat in the Battle of Malplaquet, the enemy was on French soil and French morale was low. A military success was urgently needed; the third reason was a question of honour. The previous year another buccaneer, Jean-François Duclerc had attempted an attack on Rio, but this expedition had ended in disaster.
The Portuguese refused to exchange these prisoners as was stipulated in a Franco-Portuguese treaty from 1707. The French wanted to liberate these prisoners, conquer some Brazilian territory. In December 1710 King Louis XIV approved Duguay-Trouin's plan and provided him with a fleet of 17 ships, carrying in total 738 cannons and 6,139 men; the French treasury couldn't finance the armament of the squadron and therefore Duguay-Trouin had to search private financiers in Saint Malo and on the Royal Court. The ships could be prepared and to fool the British Navy, allied to the Portuguese, the ships were prepared in different harbours, left at different times, reassembled at sea off La Rochelle on June 9, 1711. British intelligence, were aware of Duguay-Trouin's goal, had dispatched a packet to warn the Portuguese, both in Portugal and at Rio, they dispatched a fleet under John Leake to blockade Duguay-Trouin before he sailed from Brest. In spite of the British warning, the French appearance in Rio's harbour on 12 September was a surprise.
The British news, when it arrived in August, had led Governor Francisco de Moraes de Castro to call out his militia and increase preparedness, rumours of sails off Cabo Frio in early September had again raised the alert. However, on 11 September the governor ordered the militia to stand down, just as Duguay-Trouin was preparing his approach to the harbour; the commander of Le Lys, led the squadron directly in the Bay of Rio, between the forts lining the harbour entry, straight at seven Portuguese warships that were anchored there. The Portuguese fleet commander, admiral Gaspar da Costa, could do nothing but cut the cables in hopes of getting his ships moving. Three of battleships were destroyed by the Portuguese to prevent their capture. Fire from the forts, undermanned after the order to stand down, did some damage to the French fleet, inflicting 300 casualties before the ships passed out of range. After 3 days of bombardments, the French landed 3,700 men to attack the city; the governor of Rio, Castro-Morais, had fortified the city after French attacks in previous years, but feebly commanded the defense, which buckled under the French bombardment.
After a council on 21 September in which Moraes ordered the city's defenders to hold the line, militia began deserting that night, after which there began a general flight from the city that included the governor. Under the disorganised circumstances, the French prisoners from Duclerc's expedition broke out of prison. Duguay-Trouin, preparing to storm the city, was alerted to the flight of the defenders by the arrival of one of Duclerc's men. Over the next few days, the French gained control of all of the bay's strong points, but the city's gold supply eluded him. Warned that reinforcements from São Paulo under command of António de Albuquerque were on their way, he threatened Moraes with the destruction of the city's defences if a ransom was not paid, which Moraes agreed to do; when the French left the city, it was with loot of estimated at 4 million pounds, including a shipment of African slaves, which Duguay-Trouin sold in Cayenne. The fleet arrived back unmolested in Brest in February 1712.
The expedition was a military success for the French, a financial success for its investors. The French Navy had proven; this action would trouble Franco-Portuguese relations for many years to come. La France, la Marine et le Brésil Boxer, Charles Ralph; the golden age of Brazil, 1695-1750: growing pains of a colonial society
Slavery in Brazil
Slavery in Brazil began long before the first Portuguese settlement was established in 1532, as members of one tribe would enslave captured members of another. Colonists were dependent on indigenous labor during the initial phases of settlement to maintain the subsistence economy, natives were captured by expeditions called bandeiras; the importation of African slaves began midway through the 16th century, but the enslavement of indigenous peoples continued well into the 17th and 18th centuries. During the Atlantic slave trade era, Brazil received more African slaves than any other country. An estimated 4.9 million slaves from Africa were brought to Brazil during the period from 1501 to 1866. Until the early 1850s, most enslaved Africans who arrived on Brazilian shores were forced to embark at West Central African ports in Luanda. Slave labor was the driving force behind the growth of the sugar economy in Brazil, sugar was the primary export of the colony from 1600 to 1650. Gold and diamond deposits were discovered in Brazil in 1690, which sparked an increase in the importation of African slaves to power this newly profitable mining.
Transportation systems were developed for the mining infrastructure, population boomed from immigrants seeking to take part in gold and diamond mining. Demand for African slaves did not wane after the decline of the mining industry in the second half of the 18th century. Cattle ranching and foodstuff production proliferated after the population growth, both of which relied on slave labor. 1.7 million slaves were imported to Brazil from Africa from 1700 to 1800, the rise of coffee in the 1830s further enticed expansion of the slave trade. Brazil was the last country in the Western world to abolish slavery. By the time it was abolished after years of campaigning by Emperor Pedro II, in 1888, an estimated four million slaves had been imported from Africa to Brazil, 40% of the total number of slaves brought to the Americas; the Portuguese became involved with the African slave trade first during the Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula through the mediation of the Alfaqueque: the person tasked with the rescue of Portuguese captives and prisoners of war.
Slaves exported from Africa during this initial period of the Portuguese slave trade came from Mauritania, the Upper Guinea coast. Scholars estimate that as many as 156,000 slaves were exported from 1441 to 1521 to Iberia and the Atlantic islands from the African coast; the trade made the shift from Europe to the Americas as a primary destination for slaves around 1518. Prior to this time, slaves were required to pass through Portugal to be taxed before making their way to the Americas; the Portuguese first traveled to Brazil in 1500 under the expedition of Pedro Álvares Cabral, though the first Portuguese settlement was not established until 1532. Long before Europeans came to Brazil and began colonization, indigenous groups such as the Papanases, the Guaianases, the Tupinambás, the Cadiueus enslaved captured members of other tribes; the captured worked with their new communities as trophies to the tribe's martial prowess. Some enslaved would escape but could never re-attain their previous status in their own tribe because of the strong social stigma against slavery and rival tribes.
During their time in the new tribe, enslaved indigenes would marry as a sign of acceptance and servitude. For the enslaved of cannibalistic tribes, execution for devouring purposes could happen at any moment. While other tribes did not consume human flesh, their enslaved were still put to work, used as hostages, killed mercilessly. After the arrival of the Portuguese in Brazil, the Native Americans started to trade their prisoners, instead of using them as slaves or food, in exchange for goods, but the enslavement of Europeans could occur, as happened with Hans Staden who, after being set free, wrote a book about the customs of the Native Americans. The colonization effort proved to be a difficult undertaking on such a vast continent, indigenous slave labor was turned to for agricultural workforce needs. Aggressive mission networks of the Portuguese Jesuits were the driving force behind this recruitment, they mobilized an indigenous labor force to live in colonial villages to work the land; these indigenous enslaving expeditions were known as bandeiras.
These expeditions were composed of bandeirantes, adventurers who penetrated westward in their search for Indian slaves. These adventurers came from a wide spectrum of backgrounds, including plantation owners and members of the military, as well as people of mixed ancestry and captured Indian slaves. In 1629, Antônio Raposo Tavares led a bandeira, composed of 2,000 allied índios, "Indians", 900 mamelucos, "mestizos" and 69 whites, to find precious metals and stones and to capture Indians for slavery; this expedition alone was responsible for the enslavement of over 60,000 indigenous people. African slavery became more common in Brazil during the mid 16th century, though the enslavement of indigenous people continued into the 17th and the 18th century in the backlands of Brazil. In the first 250 years after the colonization of the land 70% of all immigrants to the colony were enslaved people. Indigenous slaves remained much cheaper during this time than their African counterparts, though they did suffer horrendous death rates from European diseases.
Although the average African slave lived to only be twenty-three years old due to terrible work conditions, this was still about four years longer than Indigenous slaves, which w
A Jesuit reduction was a type of settlement for indigenous people in North and South America established by the Jesuit Order from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The Spanish and Portuguese Empires adopted a strategy of gathering native populations into communities called "Indian reductions" and Portuguese: "redução"; the objectives of the reductions were to organize and exploit the labor of the native indigenous inhabitants while imparting Christianity and European culture. Secular as well as religious authorities created reductions; the Jesuit reductions called missions, were most extensive and successful in an area straddling the borders of present-day Paraguay and Argentina amongst the Guarani peoples. These missions are called collectively the Rio de la Plata missions or the Paraguay reductions; the Jesuits attempted to create a theocratic "state within a state" in which the native peoples in the reductions, guided by the Jesuits, would remain autonomous and isolated from Spanish colonists and Spanish rule.
A major factor attracting the natives to the reductions was the protection they afforded from enslavement and the forced labor of encomiendas. Under the leadership of both the Jesuits and native caciques, the reductions achieved a high degree of autonomy within the Spanish colonial empire. With the use of native labour, the reductions became economically successful; when the incursions of Brazilian Bandeirante slave-traders threatened the existence of the reductions, Indian militia were set up which fought against the Portuguese colonists. In 1767, the Jesuits were expelled from the Guaraní missions and the Americas by order of the Spanish king, Charles III, the era of Jesuit reductions ended; the reasons for the expulsion related more to politics in Europe than the activities of the Jesuit missions. The Jesuit Rio de la Plata reductions reached a maximum population of 141,182 in 1732 in 30 missions in Brazil and Argentina; the reductions of the Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos in eastern Bolivia reached a maximum population of 25,000 in 1766.
Jesuit reductions in the Llanos de Moxos in Bolivia, reached a population of about 30,000 in 1720. In Chiquitos the first reduction was founded in 1691 and in the Llanos de Moxos in 1682; the Jesuit reductions have been lavishly praised as a "socialist utopia" and a "Christian communistic republic" as well as criticized for their "rigid and meticulous regimentation" of the lives of the Indian people they ruled with a firm hand through Guaraní intermediaries. In the 16th century, priests of different religious orders set out to evangelize the Americas, bringing Christianity to indigenous communities; the colonial governments and missionaries agreed on the strategy of gathering the nomadic indigenous populations in larger communities called reductions in order to more govern and evangelize them. Reductions were construed as an instrument to make the Indians adopt European lifestyles and values. In Mexico the policy was called congregación, took the form of the hospitals of Vasco de Quiroga and the Franciscan Missions of California.
In Portuguese Brazil reductions were known as aldeias. Under colonial rule, Indians were classified as minors, in effect children, to be protected and guided to salvation by European missionaries; the Jesuits, formally founded only in 1540, were late arrivals in the New World, from about 1570 compared to the Dominicans and Franciscans, therefore had to look to the frontiers of colonization for mission areas. The Jesuit reductions originated in the early seventeenth century when Bishop Lizarraga asked for missionaries for Paraguay. In 1609, acting under instructions from Phillip III, the Spanish governor of Asunción made a deal with the Jesuit Provincial of Paraguay; the Jesuits agreed to set up hamlets at strategic points along the Paraná river, that were populated with Indians and maintained a separation from Spanish towns. The Jesuits were to "enjoy a tax holiday for ten years"; this mission strategy continued for 150 years until the Jesuits were expelled in 1767. Fundamentally the purpose, as far as the government was concerned, was to safeguard the frontier with the reductions where Indians were introduced to European culture.
In 1609 three Jesuits began the first reduction in San Ignacio Guazú in present-day Paraguay. For the next 22 years the Jesuits focused most on founding 15 missions in the province of Guayrá, corresponding to the western two-thirds of present-day Paraná state of Brazil, spread over an area of more than 100,000 square kilometres; the total Indian population of this area was about 100,000. The establishment of these missions was not without danger; the Guaraní shamans resisted the imposition of a new religion and up to 7 Jesuits were killed by Indians during the first few years after the missions were established. In 1618 began the first of a series of epidemics that would spread among the missions and kill thousands of the Guaraní; the congregation of the Guaraní into large settlements at the missions facilitated the spread of disease. The missions soon had 40,000 Guaraní in residence. However, tens of thousands of Guaraní living in the same region remained outside the missions, living in their traditional manner and practicing their traditional religion.
The reductions were within Portuguese territory and large-scale raids by the Bandeirante slavers of Sao Paulo on the missions and non-mission Guarani began in 1628. The Bandeirantes decimated and scattered the mission population, they looked upon the reductions with their conc