A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Tony Martin (American singer)
Alvin Morris, known professionally as Tony Martin, was an American actor and popular singer. His career spanned over seven decades, he scored dozens of hits between the late-1930s and mid-1950s with songs such as "Walk Hand in Hand", "Stranger in Paradise" and "I Get Ideas", he was married to actress and dancer Cyd Charisse for 60 years, from 1948 until her death in 2008. Martin was born on December 25, 1913, in San Francisco, the son of Hattie and Edward Clarence Morris, his family was Jewish, all of his grandparents had emigrated from Eastern Europe. He was raised in California. At the age of ten, he received a saxophone as a gift from his grandmother, he went to St Mary's College. In his grammar school glee club, he became an singer, he formed his first band, named "The Red Peppers," when he was at Oakland Technical High School joining the band of a local orchestra leader, Tom Gerun, as a saxophone player sitting alongside the future bandleader Woody Herman. He attended Saint Mary's College of California during the mid-1930s.
After college, he left Gerun's band to go to Hollywood to try films. It was at that time. On radio, Martin sang and was master of ceremonies on Tune-Up Time, with Andre Kostelanetz, on CBS in the early 1940s; the Tony Martin Show, a 15-minute variety program, was broadcast on NBC from 1954 to 1956 prior to the evening newscast. One of his guests was Dinah Shore, soon starring in her own hour-long NBC variety program, he was a featured vocalist on the George Gracie Allen radio program. On the show Allen playfully flirted with Tony threatening to fire him. Allen would say things like, "Oh, you look so tired, why don't you rest your lips on mine?" In films, Martin was first cast in a number of bit parts, including a role as a sailor in Follow the Fleet, starring Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers. He signed with 20th Century-Fox and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in which he starred in a number of musicals. Between 1938 and 1942, he made a number of hit records for Decca. In 1941, Martin received equal billing with the Marx Brothers in their final film for MGM, The Big Store, in an effort to lure pop music fans and as an indication of MGM's lack of interest in the comedy team.
In the film he played a rising singer and performed "Tenement Symphony,", written by Hal Borne, who became his long-time musical director. Martin was the last surviving actor to co-star with the Marx Brothers. Martin joined the United States Navy in 1941 as a non-commissioned officer, but was dismissed from the service in 1942 after an investigation of bribery of a naval recruiter by members of the entertainment industry. Martin was assigned to the United States Army Air Forces, he was assigned to Capt. Glenn Miller's band as he was considered one of the best singers in the armed services. Martin said he felt as though he had "stumbled into heaven through the side door."He was promoted to technical sergeant in the Air Transport Command and stationed in India, where Brig. Gen. William H. Tunner, commanding the Hump Airlift, put him to work as an entertainer, forming a troupe of amateur talent from the command and taking it around the various bases to perform, he signed with Mercury Records a small independent label run out of Chicago, Illinois.
He cut 25 records in 1946 and 1947 for Mercury, including a 1946 recording of "To Each His Own," which became a million-seller. It was awarded a gold disc by the RIAA; this prompted RCA Victor to offer him a record contract, which he signed in 1947 after satisfying his contract obligations to Mercury. He continued to appear in film musicals during the 1950s, his rendition of "Lover Come Back to Me" with Joan Weldon in Deep in My Heart – based on the music of Sigmund Romberg and starring José Ferrer - was one of the highlights of that film. He starred as Gaylord Ravenal in the Show Boat segment from the 1946 film Till the Clouds Roll By. In an unlikely pairing, Martin recorded for the Motown Records label in the mid-1960s, scoring a minor hit with the record "Talkin' To Your Picture." Martin was a stockholder in the Parvin-Dohrmann Corporation, a hotel and casino company that owned the Flamingo Las Vegas. Martin and Charisse were both staunch Republicans. Martin died on the evening of July 2012, of natural causes.
He was 98 years old. Martin was buried at the Hillside Memorial Park Cemetery in California. In 1937, he married singer Alice Faye, with whom he had appeared in several films, they divorced in 1941. Martin remarried to actress and dancer Cyd Charisse in 1948, they remained married for 60 years until her death on June 17, 2008. Martin adopted Charisse's son Nicky from her first marriage, they had one son together, Jr. who predeceased his father. Tony Martin bio on The Interlude Era site Tony Martin bio on the Oldies.com site Tony Martin bio on the Feinstein's site Tony Martin on IMDb Photographs and literature 1954 episode of his television series at the Internet Archive
EMI Group Limited was a British Transnational conglomerate founded in March 1931 in London. At the time of its break-up in 2012, it was the fourth largest business group and record label conglomerate in the music industry, was one of the big four record companies; the company was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, but faced financial troubles and US$4 billion in debt, leading to its acquisition by Citigroup in February 2011. Citigroup's ownership was temporary, as EMI announced in November 2011 that it would sell its music arm to Vivendi's Universal Music Group for $1.9 billion and its publishing business to a Sony/ATV consortium for around $2.2 billion. Other members of the Sony consortium include the Estate of Michael Jackson, The Blackstone Group, the Abu Dhabi–owned Mubadala Development Company. EMI's locations in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada were all disassembled to repay debt, but the primary head office located outside those countries is still functional, it is owned by Sony/ATV Music Publishing, the music publishing division of Sony Music which bought another 70% stake in EMI Music Publishing.
Electric and Musical Industries Ltd was formed in March 1931 by the merger of the Columbia Graphophone Company and the Gramophone Company, with its "His Master's Voice" record label, firms that have a history extending back to the origins of recorded sound. The new vertically integrated company produced sound recordings as well as recording and playback equipment; the company's gramophone manufacturing led to forty years of success with larger-scale electronics and electrical engineering. In 1934, the company developed the electronic Marconi-EMI system for television broadcasting, which replaced Baird's electro-mechanical system following its introduction in 1936. After the war, the company resumed its involvement in making broadcasting equipment, notably providing the BBC's second television transmitter at Sutton Coldfield, it manufactured broadcast television cameras for British television production companies as well as for the BBC. The commercial television ITV companies used them alongside cameras made by Pye and Marconi.
Their best-remembered piece of broadcast television equipment was the EMI 2001 colour television camera, which became the mainstay of much of the British television industry from the end of the 1960s until the early 1990s. Exports of this piece of equipment were low, EMI left this area of product manufacture. Alan Blumlein, an engineer employed by EMI, conducted a great deal of pioneering research into stereo sound recording many years prior to the practical implementation of the technique in the early 1950s, he was killed in 1942 whilst conducting flight trials on an experimental H2S radar set. During and after World War II, the EMI Laboratories in Hayes, Hillingdon developed radar equipment, microwave devices such as the reflex klystron oscillator, electro-optic devices such as infra-red image converters, guided missiles employing analogue computers; the company was for many years an internationally respected manufacturer of photomultipliers. This part of the business was transferred to Thorn as part of Thorn-EMI later became the independent concern Electron Tubes Ltd.
The EMI Electronic Business Machine, a valve and magnetic drum memory computer, was built in the 1950s to process the British Motor Corporation payroll. In 1958 the EMIDEC 1100, the UK's first commercially available all-transistor computer, was developed at Hayes under the leadership of Godfrey Hounsfield, an electrical engineer at EMI. In the early 1970s, with financial support by the UK Department of Health and Social Security as well as EMI research investment, Hounsfield developed the first CT scanner, a device which revolutionised medical imaging. In 1973 EMI was awarded a prestigious Queen's Award for Technological Innovation for what was called the EMI scanner, in 1979 Hounsfield won the Nobel Prize for his accomplishment. After brief, but brilliant, success in the medical imaging field, EMI's manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies, notably Thorn. Subsequently and manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies and work moved to other towns such as Crawley and Wells.
Emihus Electronics, based in Glenrothes, was owned 51% by Hughes Aircraft, of California, US, 49% by EMI. It manufactured integrated circuits electrolytic capacitors and, for a short period in the mid-1970s, hand-held calculators under the Gemini name. Early in its life, the Gramophone Company established subsidiary operations in a number of other countries in the British Commonwealth, including India and New Zealand. Gramophone's Australian and New Zealand subsidiaries dominated the popular music industries in those countries from the 1920s until the 1960s, when other locally owned labels began to challenge the near monopoly of EMI. Over 150,000 78-rpm recordings from around the world are held in EMI's temperature-controlled archive in Hayes, some of which have been released on CD since 2008 by Honest Jon's Records. In 1931, the year the company was formed, it opened the legendary recording studios at Abbey Road, London. During the 1930s and 1940s, its roster of artists included Arturo
Accent Records (US)
Accent Records was a Hollywood-based record label formed in 1954. Scott Seely was the president. Nick Lucas signed to the label in 1955 and made his final recording for them in 1980. Releasing only singles, Accent's first LP record, an album by Drew Page, was released in 1956. 1966 saw GNP Crescendo make a marketing and distribution deal with Accent for Buddy Merrill's guitar albums, following a tip that Merrill's recordings were selling well as a result of in-store plays. In 1967 Accent made the decision to focus on country music; the label promoted a self-learn course for pop singers in 1971. Seely remained president until at least 2006. Accent Records owned the Boomerang S&R Music publishing companies. Bob Bellows Roy Goodrich Nick Lucas Buddy Merrill Bill Myrick Kelly Norwood Millicent Rodgers Wes Stuart Clarice Howard Dick Dale Katherine Kovar Becky Cooper 45rpm numerical discography Accent at Discogs
Richard Hayman was an American musician, chief music arranger of the Boston Pops Orchestra for over 50 years and served as a pops conductor for orchestras including the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, the St. Louis Symphony and the Grand Rapids Symphony in Grand Rapids, Michigan, he toured and recorded as a harmonica player and made dozens of recordings for Mercury Records as "Richard Hayman and His Orchestra." His biggest hit was a single, "Ruby," from the 1952 film Ruby Gentry, starring Jennifer Jones and Charlton Heston. Hayman's arrangement featured himself as harmonica soloist. Over a lengthy career, he created musical arrangements for more than 50 artists and entertainers including Barbra Streisand, Bob Hope, Liza Minnelli and Olivia Newton-John. A native of Cambridge, Mass. Hayman's career in music began in his teen years as a player and arranger for the Borrah Minnevitch Harmonica Rascals. In the 1940s, he became an arranger for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studios doing arrangements for such MGM films as Girl Crazy, Meet Me in St. Louis and Thousands Cheer.
From 1945-1950, he was musical director for the Vaughn Monroe Orchestra. In the 1950s and 1960s, Hayman recorded a series of albums for Mercury Records, his 1957 outing "Havana In Hi-Fi" was first in the label's pop music stereo LP series. Hayman is most famous for having been the principal arranger at the Boston Pops Orchestra for over 30 years where his award-winning arrangements are still used today, he guest-conducted there, when Arthur Fiedler had a time conflict with his job as pops conductor for the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, he recommended Hayman for the post. Hayman was closely affiliated with the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra for over 30 years. Known for his sequined jackets, harmonica solos, corny jokes, he became its Principal Pops Conductor in 1976, leading both the Pops at Powell and Queeny Park concerts. Queeny Pops, with concertgoers seated at tables in the acoustically atrocious but centrally located Greensfelder Field House, was a hit for many years, made it possible for the SLSO to offer its musicians a full 52-week annual contract.
That ended when a financial crunch in 2001, coinciding with a realization that the SLSO's pops concerts had not changed with the times, led to the cancellation of the Queeny Pops series and a marked reduction in overall pops concerts by the orchestra. In 1985, he was appointed Principal Pops Conductor of the Grand Rapids Symphony, serving more than 21 seasons until his retirement in 2006 after which he was named Pops Conductor Laureate. Hayman founded and conducted the Florida Sunshine Pops orchestra in Boca Raton and continued to make guest conducting appearances in the United States and Europe, his biggest hit was the 1953 single "Ruby". Hayman took the theme for the motion picture Ruby Gentry, through his specially stylized arrangement, utilizing a harmonica as the solo instrument with a large, quasi-symphonic orchestra, the song zoomed to the top of the hit parade all over the world and brought about a renewed interest in the harmonica, it should be mentioned that the flip side of the 45rpm and 78rpm single hit "Ruby" was the hit "Dansero" which became an international favorite hit.
For this reason the single sold thousands or millions of copies for several years in the early to mid-1950s worldwide. He continued to chart into the early 1960s with titles like "Night Train". Hayman's last event with the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra, where he held the title of Pops Conductor Emeritus, took place on June 27, 2010, to honor his 90th birthday; the St. Louis Metro Singers, who performed with him at many Pops concerts, were on stage at the event. Hayman is noted for albums now regarded as Exotica. Hayman died at a hospice in New York on February 5, 2014, he was 93. Richard Hayman on IMDb Richard Hayman at AllMusic
Lawrence Welk was an American musician, accordionist and television impresario, who hosted the television program The Lawrence Welk Show from 1951 to 1982. His style came to be known to his large audience of radio and live-performance fans as "champagne music". Welk was born in the German-speaking community of North Dakota, he was sixth of the eight children of Ludwig and Christiana Welk, Roman Catholic ethnic Germans who immigrated in 1892 from Odessa, Russian Empire. Welk was a first cousin, once removed, of former Montana governor Brian Schweitzer. Welk's paternal grandparents and Magdalena Welk, emigrated in 1808 from Germanophone Alsace-Lorraine to Ukraine; the family lived on a homestead, now a tourist attraction. They spent the cold North Dakota winter of their first year inside an upturned wagon covered in sod. Growing up speaking German and English, Welk left school during fourth grade to work full-time on the family farm. Welk decided on a career in music and persuaded his father to buy a mail-order accordion for $400 He promised his father that he would work on the farm until he was 21, in repayment for the accordion.
Any money he made elsewhere during that time, would go to his family. On his 21st birthday, fulfilling his promise to his father, Welk left the family farm to pursue a career in music. During the 1920s, he performed with various bands before forming an orchestra, he led big bands in North Dakota and eastern South Dakota, including the Hotsy Totsy Boys and the Honolulu Fruit Gum Orchestra. His band was the station band for the popular radio programming WNAX in Yankton, South Dakota. In 1927, he graduated from the MacPhail School of Music in Minnesota. Although many associate Welk's music with a style quite-separate from jazz, he recorded one notable song in a ragtime style in November 1928 for Gennett Records, based in Richmond, Indiana: "Spiked Beer", featuring Welk and his Novelty Orchestra. During the 1930s, Welk led a traveling big band specializing in "sweet" music; the band traveled around the country by car. They were too poor to rent rooms, so they slept and changed clothes in their cars.
The term champagne music was derived from an engagement at the William Penn Hotel in Pittsburgh, after a dancer referred to his band's sound as "light and bubbly as champagne." The hotel lays claim to the original "bubble machine," a prop left over from a 1920s movie premiere. Welk described his band's sound, saying, "We still play music with the champagne style, which means light and rhythmic. We place the stress on melody. We play with a steady beat so dancers can follow it."Welk's big band performed across the country, but in the Chicago and Milwaukee areas. In the early 1940s, the band began a 10-year stint at the Trianon Ballroom in Chicago drawing crowds of several thousand, his orchestra performed at the Roosevelt Hotel in New York City during the late 1940s. In 1944 and 1945, Welk led his orchestra in many motion picture "Soundies," considered to be the early pioneers of music videos. Welk collaborated with Western artist Red Foley to record a version of Spade Cooley's "Shame on You" in 1945.
The record was number 4 to Cooley's number 5 on Billboard's September 15 "Most Played Juke Box Folk Records" listing. From 1949 through 1951, the band had radio programming on ABC, sponsored by Miller High Life, "The Champagne of Bottle Beer". In addition to the above-mentioned "Spiked Beer", Welk's territory band made occasional trips to Richmond, Indiana and to Grafton, Wisconsin to record a handful of sessions for the Gennett and Paramount companies. In November 1928 he recorded four sides for Gennett spread over two days, in 1931 he recorded eight sides for Paramount that were issued on the Broadway and Lyric labels; these records are rare and valued. From 1938 to 1940, he recorded in New York and Chicago for Vocalion Records, he signed with Decca Records in 1941 recorded for Mercury Records and Coral Records for short periods of time before moving to Dot Records in 1959. In 1967, Welk left Dot Records and joined its former executive Randy Wood in creating Ranwood Records. Welk bought back all his masters from Dot and Coral, Ranwood became the outlet for all of Welk's many artists.
They started with a huge reissue of old Dot albums in 1968 to get them started on the right foot. Wood's interest was sold to Welk in 1979. In 2015, Welk Music Group sold the Vanguard and Sugar Hill labels to Concord Bicycle Music while retaining ownership of the Ranwood catalog. Welk's estate licensed the Ranwood catalogue to Concord Music Group for 10 years. In 1951, Welk settled in Los Angeles; the same year, he began producing The Lawrence Welk Show on KTLA in Los Angeles, where it was broadcast from the Aragon Ballroom in Venice Beach. The show became a local hit and was picked up by ABC in June 1955. During its first year on the air, the Welk hour instituted several regular features. To make Welk's "Champagne Music" tagline visual, the production crew engineered a "bubble machine" that spouted streams of large bubbles across the bandstand. While the bubble machine was engineered to produce soap bubbles, complaints from the band members about soapy build-ups on their instrume
His Master's Voice
His Master's Voice is a famous trademark in the recording industry and was the unofficial name of a major British record label. The phrase was coined in the 1890s as the title of a painting of a terrier mix dog named Nipper, listening to a wind-up disc gramophone. In the original painting, the dog was listening to a cylinder phonograph. In the 1970s, the statue of the dog and gramophone, His Master's Voice, were cloaked in bronze and was awarded by the record company to artists or music producers or composers as a music award and only after selling more than 100,000 recordings; the trademark image comes from a painting by English artist Francis Barraud and titled His Master's Voice. It was acquired from the artist in 1899 by the newly formed Gramophone Company and adopted as a trademark by the Gramophone Company's United States affiliate, the Victor Talking Machine Company. According to contemporary Gramophone Company publicity material, the dog, a terrier named Nipper, had belonged to Barraud's brother, Mark.
When Mark Barraud died, Francis inherited Nipper, with a cylinder phonograph and recordings of Mark's voice. Francis noted the peculiar interest that the dog took in the recorded voice of his late master emanating from the horn, conceived the idea of committing the scene to canvas. In early 1899, Francis Barraud applied for copyright of the original painting using the descriptive working title Dog looking at and listening to a Phonograph, he was unable to sell the work to any cylinder phonograph company, but William Barry Owen, the American founder of the Gramophone Company in England, offered to purchase the painting under the condition that Barraud modify it to show one of their disc machines. Barraud complied and the image was first used on the company's catalogue from December 1899; as the trademark gained in popularity, several additional copies were subsequently commissioned from the artist for various corporate purposes. Emile Berliner, the inventor of the Gramophone, had seen the picture in London and took out a United States copyright on it in July, 1900.
The painting was adopted as a trademark by Berliner's business partner, Eldridge R. Johnson of the Consolidated Talking Machine Company, reorganized as the Victor Talking Machine Company in 1901. Victor used the image far more aggressively than its UK affiliate, from 1902 most Victor records had a simplified drawing of Barraud's dog-and-gramophone image on their labels. Magazine advertisements urged record buyers to "look for the dog." In British Commonwealth countries, the Gramophone Company did not use the dog on its record labels until 1909. The following year the Gramophone Company replaced the Recording Angel trademark in the upper half of the record labels with the Nipper logo; the company was not formally called HMV or His Master's Voice, but became identified by that term due to the prominence of the phrase on the record labels. Records issued by the company before February 1908 were referred to by record collectors as G&Ts, while those after that date are called HMV records; the image continued to be used as a trademark by Victor in the US, Latin America.
In 1929, the Radio Corporation of America purchased the Victor Talking Machine Company. In British Commonwealth countries it was used by various subsidiaries of the Gramophone Company, which became part of EMI; the trademark's ownership is divided among different companies in different countries, reducing its value in the globalised music market. The name HMV was used by a chain of music shops owned by HMV in the UK, Canada, Australia, Hong Kong, Japan. In 1921 the Gramophone Company opened the first HMV shop in London. RCA purchased the Victor Company in 1929 and with it a major shareholding in the Gramophone Company, which Victor had owned in part since 1920. RCA was instrumental in the 1931 creation of EMI, which continued to own the His Master's Voice name and image in the UK. In 1935, RCA Victor sold its stake in EMI but continued to own the rights to His Master's Voice in the Americas. HMV continued to distribute Victor recordings in the UK and elsewhere until 1957, when EMI purchased Capitol Records as their distributor in the western hemisphere.
The hostilities between the US and Japan during World War II led RCA Victor's Japanese subsidiary, the Victor Company of Japan, to become independent, today the company is still allowed use of the "Victor" brand and Nipper trademark in Japan only. In 1968, RCA restricted the use of Nipper to Red Seal album covers; the Nipper trademark was reinstated to most RCA record labels in the Western Hemisphere beginning in late 1976 and was once again used in RCA advertising throughout the late 1970s and 1980s. In the early 1980s, the dog reappeared for a time on RCA television sets and was used on the ill-fated RCA CED videodisc system. EMI owned the His Master's Voice label in the UK until the 1980s, the HMV shops until 1998. In 1967, EMI converted the HMV label into an exclusive classical music label and dropped its POP series of popular music. HMV's POP series artists' roster was moved to Columbia Graphophone and Parlophone and licensed American POP record deals to Stateside Records; the globalised market for CDs pushed EMI into abandoning the HMV label in favour of "EMI Classics", a name they could use worldwide.
The HMV trademark is now owned by the retail chain in the UK. The formal trademark transfer from EMI took place in 2003; the old HMV classical music catalogue is now controlled by the Warner Classics unit of Warner Music Group. Reissues of HMV pop material that EMI controlled are now reis