1.
Perihelion and aphelion
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The perihelion is the point in the orbit of a celestial body where it is nearest to its orbital focus, generally a star. It is the opposite of aphelion, which is the point in the orbit where the body is farthest from its focus. The word perihelion stems from the Ancient Greek words peri, meaning around or surrounding, aphelion derives from the preposition apo, meaning away, off, apart. According to Keplers first law of motion, all planets, comets. Hence, a body has a closest and a farthest point from its parent object, that is, a perihelion. Each extreme is known as an apsis, orbital eccentricity measures the flatness of the orbit. Because of the distance at aphelion, only 93. 55% of the solar radiation from the Sun falls on a given area of land as does at perihelion. However, this fluctuation does not account for the seasons, as it is summer in the northern hemisphere when it is winter in the southern hemisphere and vice versa. Instead, seasons result from the tilt of Earths axis, which is 23.4 degrees away from perpendicular to the plane of Earths orbit around the sun. Winter falls on the hemisphere where sunlight strikes least directly, and summer falls where sunlight strikes most directly, in the northern hemisphere, summer occurs at the same time as aphelion. Despite this, there are larger land masses in the northern hemisphere, consequently, summers are 2.3 °C warmer in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere under similar conditions. Apsis Ellipse Solstice Dates and times of Earths perihelion and aphelion, 2000–2025 from the United States Naval Observatory
2.
Apse
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In architecture, an apse is a semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical vault or semi-dome, also known as an Exedra. Smaller apses may also be in other locations, especially shrines, an apse is a semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical vault. Commonly, the apse of a church, cathedral or basilica is the semicircular or polygonal termination to the choir or sanctuary, in relation to church architecture it is generally the name given to where the altar is placed or where the clergy are seated. An apse is occasionally found in a synagogue, e. g. Maoz Haim Synagogue, the apse is separated from the main part of the church by the transept. Smaller apses are sometimes built in other than the east end. The domed apse became a part of the church plan in the early Christian era. In the Eastern Orthodox tradition, the apse is known as diaconicon. Various ecclesiastical features of which the apse may form part are drawn here, The chancel, directly to the east beyond the choir contains the High Altar. This area is reserved for the clergy, and was formerly called the presbytery. Hemi-cyclic choirs, first developed in the East, came to use in France in 470, famous northern French examples of chevets are in the Gothic cathedrals of Amiens, Beauvais and Reims. The word ambulatory refers to an aisle in the apse that passes behind the altar and choir. An ambulatory may refer to the passages that enclose a cloister in a monastery, or to other types of aisles round the edge of a church building
3.
Aspis
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An aspis, sometimes also referred to as a hoplon, was the heavy wooden shield used by the infantry in various periods of ancient Greece. An aspis was deeply dished and made primarily of wood, some had a thin sheet of bronze on the outer face, often just around the rim. In some periods, the convention was to decorate the shield, in others, probably the most famous aspis decoration is that of Sparta, a capital lambda, for Lacedaemon. From the late 5th century BCE, Athenian hoplites commonly used the little owl, while the shields of Theban hoplites were sometimes decorated with a sphinx, or the club of Heracles. The aspis measured at least 0.91 metres in diameter and weighed about 7.3 kilograms and this large shield was made possible partly by its shape, which allowed it to be supported on the shoulder. The revolutionary part of the shield was, in fact, the grip, known as an Argive grip, it placed the handle at the edge of the shield, and was supported by a leather fastening at the centre. This allowed hoplites more mobility with the shield, as well as the ability to capitalize on their offensive capabilities, the shield rested on a mans shoulders, stretching down the knees. These large shields were designed for a mass of hoplites to push forward into the army, a move called othismos. It was discovered in 1830 near Bomarzo in Lazio, central Italy, phalanx Ancient Greek warfare Hoplite LARP. com page YouTube - Hoplon Hollow Lakedaimon blog Classical Greek Shield Patterns
4.
Primary (astronomy)
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A primary is the main physical body of a gravitationally bound, multi-object system. This body contributes most of the mass of that system and will generally be located near its center of mass, in the Solar System, the Sun is the primary for all objects that orbit around it. In the same way, the primary of all satellites is the planet they orbit, the word primary is often used to avoid specifying whether the object near the center of mass is a planet, a star or any other astronomical object. In this sense, primary is used as a noun. The center of mass is the position of all the objects weighed by mass. The Sun is so massive that the Solar Systems center of mass is close to the center of the Sun. However, the gas giants are far enough from the sun that the center of mass of the Solar System can be outside the Sun, an interesting example of what can be called a primary is Pluto and its moon, Charon. The center of mass of two bodies is always outside Plutos surface. This has led some astronomers to call the Pluto-Charon system a binary dwarf planet or a planet rather than simply a dwarf planet. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union briefly considered a definition of the term double planet that could have formally included Pluto and Charon. Beyond the Solar System, the use of the noun primary, astronomers have not yet detected any bodies that orbit an exoplanet. The use of primary to refer to the black holes in the center of most galaxies has not occurred in scientific journals. Double planets Minor planet moon § Terminology
5.
Sun
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The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. It is a perfect sphere of hot plasma, with internal convective motion that generates a magnetic field via a dynamo process. It is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth. Its diameter is about 109 times that of Earth, and its mass is about 330,000 times that of Earth, accounting for about 99. 86% of the total mass of the Solar System. About three quarters of the Suns mass consists of hydrogen, the rest is mostly helium, with smaller quantities of heavier elements, including oxygen, carbon, neon. The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star based on its spectral class and it formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of matter within a region of a large molecular cloud. Most of this matter gathered in the center, whereas the rest flattened into a disk that became the Solar System. The central mass became so hot and dense that it eventually initiated nuclear fusion in its core and it is thought that almost all stars form by this process. The Sun is roughly middle-aged, it has not changed dramatically for more than four billion years and it is calculated that the Sun will become sufficiently large enough to engulf the current orbits of Mercury, Venus, and probably Earth. The enormous effect of the Sun on Earth has been recognized since prehistoric times, the synodic rotation of Earth and its orbit around the Sun are the basis of the solar calendar, which is the predominant calendar in use today. The English proper name Sun developed from Old English sunne and may be related to south, all Germanic terms for the Sun stem from Proto-Germanic *sunnōn. The English weekday name Sunday stems from Old English and is ultimately a result of a Germanic interpretation of Latin dies solis, the Latin name for the Sun, Sol, is not common in general English language use, the adjectival form is the related word solar. The term sol is used by planetary astronomers to refer to the duration of a solar day on another planet. A mean Earth solar day is approximately 24 hours, whereas a mean Martian sol is 24 hours,39 minutes, and 35.244 seconds. From at least the 4th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, the Sun was worshipped as the god Ra, portrayed as a falcon-headed divinity surmounted by the solar disk, and surrounded by a serpent. In the New Empire period, the Sun became identified with the dung beetle, in the form of the Sun disc Aten, the Sun had a brief resurgence during the Amarna Period when it again became the preeminent, if not only, divinity for the Pharaoh Akhenaton. The Sun is viewed as a goddess in Germanic paganism, Sól/Sunna, in ancient Roman culture, Sunday was the day of the Sun god. It was adopted as the Sabbath day by Christians who did not have a Jewish background, the symbol of light was a pagan device adopted by Christians, and perhaps the most important one that did not come from Jewish traditions
6.
Star
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A star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, many other stars are visible to the naked eye from Earth during the night, appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous points in the sky due to their immense distance from Earth. Historically, the most prominent stars were grouped into constellations and asterisms, astronomers have assembled star catalogues that identify the known stars and provide standardized stellar designations. However, most of the stars in the Universe, including all stars outside our galaxy, indeed, most are invisible from Earth even through the most powerful telescopes. Almost all naturally occurring elements heavier than helium are created by stellar nucleosynthesis during the stars lifetime, near the end of its life, a star can also contain degenerate matter. Astronomers can determine the mass, age, metallicity, and many properties of a star by observing its motion through space, its luminosity. The total mass of a star is the factor that determines its evolution. Other characteristics of a star, including diameter and temperature, change over its life, while the environment affects its rotation. A plot of the temperature of stars against their luminosities produces a plot known as a Hertzsprung–Russell diagram. Plotting a particular star on that allows the age and evolutionary state of that star to be determined. A stars life begins with the collapse of a gaseous nebula of material composed primarily of hydrogen, along with helium. When the stellar core is sufficiently dense, hydrogen becomes steadily converted into helium through nuclear fusion, the remainder of the stars interior carries energy away from the core through a combination of radiative and convective heat transfer processes. The stars internal pressure prevents it from collapsing further under its own gravity, a star with mass greater than 0.4 times the Suns will expand to become a red giant when the hydrogen fuel in its core is exhausted. In some cases, it will fuse heavier elements at the core or in shells around the core, as the star expands it throws a part of its mass, enriched with those heavier elements, into the interstellar environment, to be recycled later as new stars. Meanwhile, the core becomes a remnant, a white dwarf. Binary and multi-star systems consist of two or more stars that are bound and generally move around each other in stable orbits. When two such stars have a close orbit, their gravitational interaction can have a significant impact on their evolution. Stars can form part of a much larger gravitationally bound structure, historically, stars have been important to civilizations throughout the world
7.
Earth
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Earth, otherwise known as the World, or the Globe, is the third planet from the Sun and the only object in the Universe known to harbor life. It is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest of the four terrestrial planets, according to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed about 4.54 billion years ago. Earths gravity interacts with objects in space, especially the Sun. During one orbit around the Sun, Earth rotates about its axis over 365 times, thus, Earths axis of rotation is tilted, producing seasonal variations on the planets surface. The gravitational interaction between the Earth and Moon causes ocean tides, stabilizes the Earths orientation on its axis, Earths lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earths surface is covered with water, mostly by its oceans, the remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes, rivers and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere. The majority of Earths polar regions are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet, Earths interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earths magnetic field, and a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics. Within the first billion years of Earths history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earths atmosphere and surface, some geological evidence indicates that life may have arisen as much as 4.1 billion years ago. Since then, the combination of Earths distance from the Sun, physical properties, in the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion, occasionally punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all species that lived on Earth are extinct. Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely, over 7.4 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and minerals for their survival. Humans have developed diverse societies and cultures, politically, the world has about 200 sovereign states, the modern English word Earth developed from a wide variety of Middle English forms, which derived from an Old English noun most often spelled eorðe. It has cognates in every Germanic language, and their proto-Germanic root has been reconstructed as *erþō, originally, earth was written in lowercase, and from early Middle English, its definite sense as the globe was expressed as the earth. By early Modern English, many nouns were capitalized, and the became the Earth. More recently, the name is simply given as Earth. House styles now vary, Oxford spelling recognizes the lowercase form as the most common, another convention capitalizes Earth when appearing as a name but writes it in lowercase when preceded by the. It almost always appears in lowercase in colloquial expressions such as what on earth are you doing, the oldest material found in the Solar System is dated to 4. 5672±0.0006 billion years ago. By 4. 54±0.04 Gya the primordial Earth had formed, the formation and evolution of Solar System bodies occurred along with the Sun
8.
Astronomical object
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An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that current astronomy has demonstrated to exist in the observable universe. In astronomy, the object and body are often used interchangeably. Examples for astronomical objects include planetary systems, star clusters, nebulae and galaxies, while asteroids, moons, planets, and stars are astronomical bodies. A comet may be identified as both body and object, It is a body when referring to the nucleus of ice and dust. The universe can be viewed as having a hierarchical structure, at the largest scales, the fundamental component of assembly is the galaxy. Galaxies are organized groups and clusters, often within larger superclusters. Disc galaxies encompass lenticular and spiral galaxies with features, such as spiral arms, at the core, most galaxies have a supermassive black hole, which may result in an active galactic nucleus. Galaxies can also have satellites in the form of dwarf galaxies, the constituents of a galaxy are formed out of gaseous matter that assembles through gravitational self-attraction in a hierarchical manner. At this level, the fundamental components are the stars. The great variety of forms are determined almost entirely by the mass, composition. Stars may be found in systems that orbit about each other in a hierarchical organization. A planetary system and various objects such as asteroids, comets and debris. The various distinctive types of stars are shown by the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram —a plot of stellar luminosity versus surface temperature. Each star follows a track across this diagram. If this track takes the star through a region containing a variable type. An example of this is the instability strip, a region of the H-R diagram that includes Delta Scuti, RR Lyrae, the table below lists the general categories of bodies and objects by their location or structure. International Astronomical Naming Commission List of light sources List of Solar System objects Lists of astronomical objects SkyChart, Sky & Telescope Monthly skymaps for every location on Earth
9.
Elliptic orbit
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In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics an elliptic orbit is a Kepler orbit with the eccentricity less than 1, this includes the special case of a circular orbit, with eccentricity equal to zero. In a stricter sense, it is a Kepler orbit with the eccentricity greater than 0, in a wider sense it is a Kepler orbit with negative energy. This includes the radial elliptic orbit, with eccentricity equal to 1, in a gravitational two-body problem with negative energy both bodies follow similar elliptic orbits with the same orbital period around their common barycenter. Also the relative position of one body with respect to the other follows an elliptic orbit, examples of elliptic orbits include, Hohmann transfer orbit, Molniya orbit and tundra orbit. A is the length of the semi-major axis, the velocity equation for a hyperbolic trajectory has either +1 a, or it is the same with the convention that in that case a is negative. Conclusions, For a given semi-major axis the orbital energy is independent of the eccentricity. ν is the true anomaly. The angular momentum is related to the cross product of position and velocity. Here ϕ is defined as the angle which differs by 90 degrees from this and this set of six variables, together with time, are called the orbital state vectors. Given the masses of the two bodies they determine the full orbit, the two most general cases with these 6 degrees of freedom are the elliptic and the hyperbolic orbit. Special cases with fewer degrees of freedom are the circular and parabolic orbit, another set of six parameters that are commonly used are the orbital elements. In the Solar System, planets, asteroids, most comets, the following chart of the perihelion and aphelion of the planets, dwarf planets and Halleys Comet demonstrates the variation of the eccentricity of their elliptical orbits. For similar distances from the sun, wider bars denote greater eccentricity, note the almost-zero eccentricity of Earth and Venus compared to the enormous eccentricity of Halleys Comet and Eris. A radial trajectory can be a line segment, which is a degenerate ellipse with semi-minor axis =0. Although the eccentricity is 1, this is not a parabolic orbit, most properties and formulas of elliptic orbits apply. However, the orbit cannot be closed and it is an open orbit corresponding to the part of the degenerate ellipse from the moment the bodies touch each other and move away from each other until they touch each other again. In the case of point masses one full orbit is possible, the velocities at the start and end are infinite in opposite directions and the potential energy is equal to minus infinity. The radial elliptic trajectory is the solution of a problem with at some instant zero speed
10.
Barycenter
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The barycenter is the center of mass of two or more bodies that are orbiting each other, or the point around which they both orbit. It is an important concept in such as astronomy and astrophysics. The distance from a center of mass to the barycenter can be calculated as a simple two-body problem. In cases where one of the two objects is more massive than the other, the barycenter will typically be located within the more massive object. Rather than appearing to orbit a center of mass with the smaller body. This is the case for the Earth–Moon system, where the barycenter is located on average 4,671 km from the Earths center, when the two bodies are of similar masses, the barycenter will generally be located between them and both bodies will follow an orbit around it. This is the case for Pluto and Charon, as well as for many binary asteroids and it is also the case for Jupiter and the Sun, despite the thousandfold difference in mass, due to the relatively large distance between them. In astronomy, barycentric coordinates are non-rotating coordinates with the origin at the center of mass of two or more bodies, the International Celestial Reference System is a barycentric one, based on the barycenter of the Solar System. In geometry, the barycenter is synonymous with centroid, the geometric center of a two-dimensional shape. The barycenter is one of the foci of the orbit of each body. This is an important concept in the fields of astronomy and astrophysics. If a is the distance between the centers of the two bodies, r1 is the axis of the primarys orbit around the barycenter. When the barycenter is located within the massive body, that body will appear to wobble rather than to follow a discernible orbit. The following table sets out some examples from the Solar System, figures are given rounded to three significant figures. If Jupiter had Mercurys orbit, the Sun–Jupiter barycenter would be approximately 55,000 km from the center of the Sun, but even if the Earth had Eris orbit, the Sun–Earth barycenter would still be within the Sun. To calculate the motion of the Sun, you would need to sum all the influences from all the planets, comets, asteroids. If all the planets were aligned on the side of the Sun. The calculations above are based on the distance between the bodies and yield the mean value r1
11.
Greek language
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Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean. It has the longest documented history of any living language, spanning 34 centuries of written records and its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history, other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic and many other writing systems. Together with the Latin texts and traditions of the Roman world, during antiquity, Greek was a widely spoken lingua franca in the Mediterranean world and many places beyond. It would eventually become the official parlance of the Byzantine Empire, the language is spoken by at least 13.2 million people today in Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Albania, Turkey, and the Greek diaspora. Greek roots are used to coin new words for other languages, Greek. Greek has been spoken in the Balkan peninsula since around the 3rd millennium BC, the earliest written evidence is a Linear B clay tablet found in Messenia that dates to between 1450 and 1350 BC, making Greek the worlds oldest recorded living language. Among the Indo-European languages, its date of earliest written attestation is matched only by the now extinct Anatolian languages, the Greek language is conventionally divided into the following periods, Proto-Greek, the unrecorded but assumed last ancestor of all known varieties of Greek. The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age, Mycenaean Greek, the language of the Mycenaean civilisation. It is recorded in the Linear B script on tablets dating from the 15th century BC onwards, Ancient Greek, in its various dialects, the language of the Archaic and Classical periods of the ancient Greek civilisation. It was widely known throughout the Roman Empire, after the Roman conquest of Greece, an unofficial bilingualism of Greek and Latin was established in the city of Rome and Koine Greek became a first or second language in the Roman Empire. The origin of Christianity can also be traced through Koine Greek, Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, the continuation of Koine Greek in Byzantine Greece, up to the demise of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century. Much of the written Greek that was used as the language of the Byzantine Empire was an eclectic middle-ground variety based on the tradition of written Koine. Modern Greek, Stemming from Medieval Greek, Modern Greek usages can be traced in the Byzantine period and it is the language used by the modern Greeks, and, apart from Standard Modern Greek, there are several dialects of it. In the modern era, the Greek language entered a state of diglossia, the historical unity and continuing identity between the various stages of the Greek language is often emphasised. Greek speakers today still tend to regard literary works of ancient Greek as part of their own rather than a foreign language and it is also often stated that the historical changes have been relatively slight compared with some other languages. According to one estimation, Homeric Greek is probably closer to demotic than 12-century Middle English is to modern spoken English, Greek is spoken by about 13 million people, mainly in Greece, Albania and Cyprus, but also worldwide by the large Greek diaspora. Greek is the language of Greece, where it is spoken by almost the entire population
12.
Orbit
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In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of an object around a point in space, for example the orbit of a planet about a star or a natural satellite around a planet. Normally, orbit refers to a regularly repeating path around a body, to a close approximation, planets and satellites follow elliptical orbits, with the central mass being orbited at a focal point of the ellipse, as described by Keplers laws of planetary motion. For ease of calculation, in most situations orbital motion is adequately approximated by Newtonian Mechanics, historically, the apparent motions of the planets were described by European and Arabic philosophers using the idea of celestial spheres. This model posited the existence of perfect moving spheres or rings to which the stars and it assumed the heavens were fixed apart from the motion of the spheres, and was developed without any understanding of gravity. After the planets motions were accurately measured, theoretical mechanisms such as deferent. Originally geocentric it was modified by Copernicus to place the sun at the centre to help simplify the model, the model was further challenged during the 16th century, as comets were observed traversing the spheres. The basis for the understanding of orbits was first formulated by Johannes Kepler whose results are summarised in his three laws of planetary motion. Second, he found that the speed of each planet is not constant, as had previously been thought. Third, Kepler found a relationship between the orbital properties of all the planets orbiting the Sun. For the planets, the cubes of their distances from the Sun are proportional to the squares of their orbital periods. Jupiter and Venus, for example, are respectively about 5.2 and 0.723 AU distant from the Sun, their orbital periods respectively about 11.86 and 0.615 years. The proportionality is seen by the fact that the ratio for Jupiter,5. 23/11.862, is equal to that for Venus,0. 7233/0.6152. Idealised orbits meeting these rules are known as Kepler orbits, isaac Newton demonstrated that Keplers laws were derivable from his theory of gravitation and that, in general, the orbits of bodies subject to gravity were conic sections. Newton showed that, for a pair of bodies, the sizes are in inverse proportion to their masses. Where one body is more massive than the other, it is a convenient approximation to take the center of mass as coinciding with the center of the more massive body. Lagrange developed a new approach to Newtonian mechanics emphasizing energy more than force, in a dramatic vindication of classical mechanics, in 1846 le Verrier was able to predict the position of Neptune based on unexplained perturbations in the orbit of Uranus. This led astronomers to recognize that Newtonian mechanics did not provide the highest accuracy in understanding orbits, in relativity theory, orbits follow geodesic trajectories which are usually approximated very well by the Newtonian predictions but the differences are measurable. Essentially all the evidence that can distinguish between the theories agrees with relativity theory to within experimental measurement accuracy
13.
Moon
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The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth, being Earths only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, following Jupiters satellite Io, the Moon is second-densest satellite among those whose densities are known. The average distance of the Moon from the Earth is 384,400 km, the Moon is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth. It is the second-brightest regularly visible celestial object in Earths sky, after the Sun and its surface is actually dark, although compared to the night sky it appears very bright, with a reflectance just slightly higher than that of worn asphalt. Its prominence in the sky and its cycle of phases have made the Moon an important cultural influence since ancient times on language, calendars, art. The Moons gravitational influence produces the ocean tides, body tides, and this matching of apparent visual size will not continue in the far future. The Moons linear distance from Earth is currently increasing at a rate of 3.82 ±0.07 centimetres per year, since the Apollo 17 mission in 1972, the Moon has been visited only by uncrewed spacecraft. The usual English proper name for Earths natural satellite is the Moon, the noun moon is derived from moone, which developed from mone, which is derived from Old English mōna, which ultimately stems from Proto-Germanic *mǣnōn, like all Germanic language cognates. Occasionally, the name Luna is used, in literature, especially science fiction, Luna is used to distinguish it from other moons, while in poetry, the name has been used to denote personification of our moon. The principal modern English adjective pertaining to the Moon is lunar, a less common adjective is selenic, derived from the Ancient Greek Selene, from which is derived the prefix seleno-. Both the Greek Selene and the Roman goddess Diana were alternatively called Cynthia, the names Luna, Cynthia, and Selene are reflected in terminology for lunar orbits in words such as apolune, pericynthion, and selenocentric. The name Diana is connected to dies meaning day, several mechanisms have been proposed for the Moons formation 4.51 billion years ago, and some 60 million years after the origin of the Solar System. These hypotheses also cannot account for the angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system. This hypothesis, although not perfect, perhaps best explains the evidence, eighteen months prior to an October 1984 conference on lunar origins, Bill Hartmann, Roger Phillips, and Jeff Taylor challenged fellow lunar scientists, You have eighteen months. Go back to your Apollo data, go back to computer, do whatever you have to. Dont come to our conference unless you have something to say about the Moons birth, at the 1984 conference at Kona, Hawaii, the giant impact hypothesis emerged as the most popular. Afterward there were only two groups, the giant impact camp and the agnostics. Giant impacts are thought to have been common in the early Solar System, computer simulations of a giant impact have produced results that are consistent with the mass of the lunar core and the present angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system
14.
Lunar orbit
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In astronomy, lunar orbit refers to the orbit of an object around the Moon. As used in the program, this refers not to the orbit of the Moon about the Earth. The Soviet Union sent the first spacecraft to the vicinity of the Moon and it passed within 6,000 kilometres of the Moons surface, but did not achieve lunar orbit. This craft provided the first pictures of the far side of the Lunar surface, the Soviet Luna 10 became the first spacecraft to actually orbit the Moon in April 1966. It studied micrometeoroid flux, and lunar environment until May 30,1966, the first United States spacecraft to orbit the Moon was Lunar Orbiter 1 on August 14,1966. The first orbit was an elliptical orbit, with an apolune of 1,008 nautical miles, then the orbit was circularized at around 170 nautical miles to obtain suitable imagery. Five such spacecraft were launched over a period of thirteen months, all of which successfully mapped the Moon, the most recent was the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer, which became a ballistic impact experiment in 2014. The Apollo programs Command/Service Module remained in a parking orbit while the Lunar Module landed. The combined CSM/LM would first enter an orbit, nominally 170 nautical miles by 60 nautical miles. Orbital periods vary according to the sum of apoapsis and periapsis, the LM began its landing sequence with a Descent Orbit Insertion burn to lower their periapsis to about 50,000 feet, chosen to avoid hitting lunar mountains reaching heights of 20,000 feet. These anomalies are significant enough to cause an orbit to change significantly over the course of several days. The Apollo 11 first manned landing mission employed the first attempt to correct for the perturbation effect. The parking orbit was circularized at 66 nautical miles by 54 nautical miles, but the effect was overestimated by a factor of two, at rendezvous the orbit was calculated to be 63.2 nautical miles by 56.8 nautical miles. The Apollo 15 subsatellite PFS-1 and the Apollo 16 subsatellite PFS-2, PFS-1 ended up in a long-lasting orbit, at 28 degrees inclination, and successfully completed its mission after one and a half years. PFS-2 was placed in a particularly unstable orbital inclination of 11 degrees, list of orbits Mass concentration Orbital mechanics
15.
Semi-major and semi-minor axes
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In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter, a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter. The semi-major axis is one half of the axis, and thus runs from the centre, through a focus. Essentially, it is the radius of an orbit at the two most distant points. For the special case of a circle, the axis is the radius. One can think of the axis as an ellipses long radius. The semi-major axis of a hyperbola is, depending on the convention, thus it is the distance from the center to either vertex of the hyperbola. A parabola can be obtained as the limit of a sequence of ellipses where one focus is fixed as the other is allowed to move arbitrarily far away in one direction. Thus a and b tend to infinity, a faster than b, the semi-minor axis is a line segment associated with most conic sections that is at right angles with the semi-major axis and has one end at the center of the conic section. It is one of the axes of symmetry for the curve, in an ellipse, the one, in a hyperbola. The semi-major axis is the value of the maximum and minimum distances r max and r min of the ellipse from a focus — that is. In astronomy these extreme points are called apsis, the semi-minor axis of an ellipse is the geometric mean of these distances, b = r max r min. The eccentricity of an ellipse is defined as e =1 − b 2 a 2 so r min = a, r max = a. Now consider the equation in polar coordinates, with one focus at the origin, the mean value of r = ℓ / and r = ℓ /, for θ = π and θ =0 is a = ℓ1 − e 2. In an ellipse, the axis is the geometric mean of the distance from the center to either focus. The semi-minor axis of an ellipse runs from the center of the ellipse to the edge of the ellipse, the semi-minor axis is half of the minor axis. The minor axis is the longest line segment perpendicular to the axis that connects two points on the ellipses edge. The semi-minor axis b is related to the axis a through the eccentricity e. A parabola can be obtained as the limit of a sequence of ellipses where one focus is fixed as the other is allowed to move arbitrarily far away in one direction
16.
Ellipse
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In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve. As such, it is a generalization of a circle, which is a type of an ellipse having both focal points at the same location. The shape of an ellipse is represented by its eccentricity, which for an ellipse can be any number from 0 to arbitrarily close to, ellipses are the closed type of conic section, a plane curve resulting from the intersection of a cone by a plane. Ellipses have many similarities with the two forms of conic sections, parabolas and hyperbolas, both of which are open and unbounded. The cross section of a cylinder is an ellipse, unless the section is parallel to the axis of the cylinder and this ratio is called the eccentricity of the ellipse. Ellipses are common in physics, astronomy and engineering, for example, the orbit of each planet in our solar system is approximately an ellipse with the barycenter of the planet–Sun pair at one of the focal points. The same is true for moons orbiting planets and all other systems having two astronomical bodies, the shapes of planets and stars are often well described by ellipsoids. It is also the simplest Lissajous figure formed when the horizontal and vertical motions are sinusoids with the same frequency, a similar effect leads to elliptical polarization of light in optics. The name, ἔλλειψις, was given by Apollonius of Perga in his Conics, in order to omit the special case of a line segment, one presumes 2 a > | F1 F2 |, E =. The midpoint C of the segment joining the foci is called the center of the ellipse. The line through the foci is called the major axis and it contains the vertices V1, V2, which have distance a to the center. The distance c of the foci to the center is called the distance or linear eccentricity. The quotient c a is the eccentricity e, the case F1 = F2 yields a circle and is included. C2 is called the circle of the ellipse. This property should not be confused with the definition of an ellipse with help of a directrix below, for an arbitrary point the distance to the focus is 2 + y 2 and to the second focus 2 + y 2. Hence the point is on the ellipse if the condition is fulfilled 2 + y 2 +2 + y 2 =2 a. The shape parameters a, b are called the major axis. The points V3 =, V4 = are the co-vertices and it follows from the equation that the ellipse is symmetric with respect to both of the coordinate axes and hence symmetric with respect to the origin
17.
Center of mass
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The distribution of mass is balanced around the center of mass and the average of the weighted position coordinates of the distributed mass defines its coordinates. Calculations in mechanics are simplified when formulated with respect to the center of mass. It is a point where entire mass of an object may be assumed to be concentrated to visualise its motion. In other words, the center of mass is the equivalent of a given object for application of Newtons laws of motion. In the case of a rigid body, the center of mass is fixed in relation to the body. The center of mass may be located outside the body, as is sometimes the case for hollow or open-shaped objects. In the case of a distribution of separate bodies, such as the planets of the Solar System, in orbital mechanics, the equations of motion of planets are formulated as point masses located at the centers of mass. The center of mass frame is a frame in which the center of mass of a system is at rest with respect to the origin of the coordinate system. The concept of center of mass in the form of the center of gravity was first introduced by the ancient Greek physicist, mathematician, and engineer Archimedes of Syracuse. He worked with simplified assumptions about gravity that amount to a uniform field, in work on floating bodies he demonstrated that the orientation of a floating object is the one that makes its center of mass as low as possible. He developed mathematical techniques for finding the centers of mass of objects of uniform density of various well-defined shapes, Newtons second law is reformulated with respect to the center of mass in Eulers first law. The center of mass is the point at the center of a distribution of mass in space that has the property that the weighted position vectors relative to this point sum to zero. In analogy to statistics, the center of mass is the location of a distribution of mass in space. Solving this equation for R yields the formula R =1 M ∑ i =1 n m i r i, solve this equation for the coordinates R to obtain R =1 M ∭ Q ρ r d V, where M is the total mass in the volume. If a continuous mass distribution has density, which means ρ is constant. The center of mass is not generally the point at which a plane separates the distribution of mass into two equal halves, in analogy with statistics, the median is not the same as the mean. The coordinates R of the center of mass of a system, P1 and P2, with masses m1. The percentages of mass at each point can be viewed as projective coordinates of the point R on this line, another way of interpreting the process here is the mechanical balancing of moments about an arbitrary point
18.
Conic section
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In mathematics, a conic section is a curve obtained as the intersection of the surface of a cone with a plane. The three types of conic section are the hyperbola, the parabola, and the ellipse, the circle is a special case of the ellipse, and is of sufficient interest in its own right that it was sometimes called a fourth type of conic section. The conic sections have been studied by the ancient Greek mathematicians with this work culminating around 200 BC, the conic sections of the Euclidean plane have various distinguishing properties. Many of these have used as the basis for a definition of the conic sections. The type of conic is determined by the value of the eccentricity, in analytic geometry, a conic may be defined as a plane algebraic curve of degree 2, that is, as the set of points whose coordinates satisfy a quadratic equation in two variables. This equation may be written in form, and some geometric properties can be studied as algebraic conditions. In the Euclidean plane, the conic sections appear to be different from one another. By extending the geometry to a projective plane this apparent difference vanishes, further extension, by expanding the real coordinates to admit complex coordinates, provides the means to see this unification algebraically. The conic sections have been studied for thousands of years and have provided a source of interesting. A conic is the curve obtained as the intersection of a plane, called the cutting plane and we shall assume that the cone is a right circular cone for the purpose of easy description, but this is not required, any double cone with some circular cross-section will suffice. Planes that pass through the vertex of the cone will intersect the cone in a point and these are called degenerate conics and some authors do not consider them to be conics at all. Unless otherwise stated, we assume that conic refers to a non-degenerate conic. There are three types of conics, the ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola, the circle is a special kind of ellipse, although historically it had been considered as a fourth type. The circle and the ellipse arise when the intersection of the cone and plane is a closed curve, if the cutting plane is parallel to exactly one generating line of the cone, then the conic is unbounded and is called a parabola. In the remaining case, the figure is a hyperbola, in this case, the plane will intersect both halves of the cone, producing two separate unbounded curves. A property that the conic sections share is often presented as the following definition, a conic section is the locus of all points P whose distance to a fixed point F is a constant multiple of the distance from P to a fixed line L. For 0 < e <1 we obtain an ellipse, for e =1 a parabola, a circle is a limiting case and is not defined by a focus and directrix, in the plane. The eccentricity of a circle is defined to be zero and its focus is the center of the circle, an ellipse and a hyperbola each have two foci and distinct directrices for each of them
19.
Similarity (geometry)
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Two geometrical objects are called similar if they both have the same shape, or one has the same shape as the mirror image of the other. More precisely, one can be obtained from the other by uniformly scaling and this means that either object can be rescaled, repositioned, and reflected, so as to coincide precisely with the other object. If two objects are similar, each is congruent to the result of a uniform scaling of the other. A modern and novel perspective of similarity is to consider geometrical objects similar if one appears congruent to the other zoomed in or out at some level. For example, all circles are similar to other, all squares are similar to each other. On the other hand, ellipses are not all similar to other, rectangles are not all similar to each other. If two angles of a triangle have measures equal to the measures of two angles of triangle, then the triangles are similar. Corresponding sides of similar polygons are in proportion, and corresponding angles of similar polygons have the same measure and it can be shown that two triangles having congruent angles are similar, that is, the corresponding sides can be proved to be proportional. This is known as the AAA similarity theorem, due to this theorem, several authors simplify the definition of similar triangles to only require that the corresponding three angles are congruent. There are several statements each of which is necessary and sufficient for two triangles to be similar,1, the triangles have two congruent angles, which in Euclidean geometry implies that all their angles are congruent. That is, If ∠BAC is equal in measure to ∠B′A′C′, and ∠ABC is equal in measure to ∠A′B′C′, then this implies that ∠ACB is equal in measure to ∠A′C′B′, all the corresponding sides have lengths in the same ratio, AB/A′B′ = BC/B′C′ = AC/A′C′. This is equivalent to saying that one triangle is an enlargement of the other, two sides have lengths in the same ratio, and the angles included between these sides have the same measure. For instance, AB/A′B′ = BC/B′C′ and ∠ABC is equal in measure to ∠A′B′C′ and this is known as the SAS Similarity Criterion. When two triangles △ABC and △A′B′C′ are similar, one writes △ABC ∼ △A′B′C′, there are several elementary results concerning similar triangles in Euclidean geometry, Any two equilateral triangles are similar. Two triangles, both similar to a triangle, are similar to each other. Corresponding altitudes of similar triangles have the ratio as the corresponding sides. Two right triangles are similar if the hypotenuse and one side have lengths in the same ratio. Given a triangle △ABC and a line segment DE one can, with ruler and compass, the statement that the point F satisfying this condition exists is Walliss Postulate and is logically equivalent to Euclids Parallel Postulate
20.
Geocentric orbit
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A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting the Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites. In 1997 NASA estimated there were approximately 2,465 artificial satellite orbiting the Earth and 6,216 pieces of space debris as tracked by the Goddard Space Flight Center. Over 16,291 previously launched objects have decayed into the Earths atmosphere, altitude as used here, the height of an object above the average surface of the Earths oceans. Analemma a term in astronomy used to describe the plot of the positions of the Sun on the celestial sphere throughout one year, apogee is the farthest point that a satellite or celestial body can go from Earth, at which the orbital velocity will be at its minimum. Eccentricity a measure of how much an orbit deviates from a perfect circle, eccentricity is strictly defined for all circular and elliptical orbits, and parabolic and hyperbolic trajectories. Equatorial plane as used here, an imaginary plane extending from the equator on the Earth to the celestial sphere, escape velocity as used here, the minimum velocity an object without propulsion needs to have to move away indefinitely from the Earth. An object at this velocity will enter a parabolic trajectory, above this velocity it will enter a hyperbolic trajectory, impulse the integral of a force over the time during which it acts. Inclination the angle between a plane and another plane or axis. In the sense discussed here the reference plane is the Earths equatorial plane, orbital characteristics the six parameters of the Keplerian elements needed to specify that orbit uniquely. Orbital period as defined here, time it takes a satellite to make one orbit around the Earth. Perigee is the nearest approach point of a satellite or celestial body from Earth, sidereal day the time it takes for a celestial object to rotate 360°. For the Earth this is,23 hours,56 minutes,4.091 seconds, solar time as used here, the local time as measured by a sundial. Velocity an objects speed in a particular direction, since velocity is defined as a vector, both speed and direction are required to define it. The following is a list of different geocentric orbit classifications, Low Earth orbit - Geocentric orbits ranging in altitude from 160 kilometers to 2,000 kilometres above mean sea level. At 160 km, one revolution takes approximately 90 minutes, medium Earth orbit - Geocentric orbits with altitudes at apogee ranging between 2,000 kilometres and that of the geosynchronous orbit at 35,786 kilometres. Geosynchronous orbit - Geocentric circular orbit with an altitude of 35,786 kilometres, the period of the orbit equals one sidereal day, coinciding with the rotation period of the Earth. The speed is approximately 3,000 metres per second, high Earth orbit - Geocentric orbits with altitudes at apogee higher than that of the geosynchronous orbit. A special case of high Earth orbit is the elliptical orbit
21.
Orbital mechanics
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Orbital mechanics or astrodynamics is the application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and other spacecraft. The motion of objects is usually calculated from Newtons laws of motion. It is a discipline within space mission design and control. General relativity is an exact theory than Newtons laws for calculating orbits. Until the rise of space travel in the century, there was little distinction between orbital and celestial mechanics. At the time of Sputnik, the field was termed space dynamics, the fundamental techniques, such as those used to solve the Keplerian problem, are therefore the same in both fields. Furthermore, the history of the fields is almost entirely shared, johannes Kepler was the first to successfully model planetary orbits to a high degree of accuracy, publishing his laws in 1605. Isaac Newton published more general laws of motion in his 1687 book. The following rules of thumb are useful for situations approximated by classical mechanics under the assumptions of astrodynamics outlined below the rules. The specific example discussed is of a satellite orbiting a planet, Keplers laws of planetary motion, Orbits are elliptical, with the heavier body at one focus of the ellipse. Special case of this is an orbit with the planet at the center. A line drawn from the planet to the satellite sweeps out equal areas in equal times no matter which portion of the orbit is measured, the square of a satellites orbital period is proportional to the cube of its average distance from the planet. Without applying force, the period and shape of the satellites orbit wont change, a satellite in a low orbit moves more quickly with respect to the surface of the planet than a satellite in a higher orbit, due to the stronger gravitational attraction closer to the planet. If thrust is applied at one point in the satellites orbit, it will return to that same point on each subsequent orbit. Thus one cannot move from one orbit to another with only one brief application of thrust. Thrust applied in the direction of the satellites motion creates an elliptical orbit with an apoapse 180 degrees away from the firing point, the consequences of the rules of orbital mechanics are sometimes counter-intuitive. For example, if two spacecraft are in the circular orbit and wish to dock, unless they are very close. This will change the shape of its orbit, causing it to gain altitude and actually slow down relative to the leading craft, the space rendezvous before docking normally takes multiple precisely calculated engine firings in multiple orbital periods requiring hours or even days to complete
22.
Spacecraft
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A spacecraft is a vehicle, or machine designed to fly in outer space. Spacecraft are used for a variety of purposes, including communications, earth observation, meteorology, navigation, space colonization, planetary exploration, on a sub-orbital spaceflight, a spacecraft enters space and then returns to the surface, without having gone into an orbit. For orbital spaceflights, spacecraft enter closed orbits around the Earth or around other celestial bodies, robotic spacecraft used to support scientific research are space probes. Robotic spacecraft that remain in orbit around a body are artificial satellites. Only a handful of interstellar probes, such as Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager 1 and 2, orbital spacecraft may be recoverable or not. By method of reentry to Earth they may be divided in non-winged space capsules, Sputnik 1 was the first artificial satellite. It was launched into an elliptical low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957, the launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments, while the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the Space Age. Apart from its value as a technological first, Sputnik 1 also helped to identify the upper atmospheric layers density and it also provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere. Pressurized nitrogen in the satellites false body provided the first opportunity for meteoroid detection, Sputnik 1 was launched during the International Geophysical Year from Site No. 1/5, at the 5th Tyuratam range, in Kazakh SSR. The satellite travelled at 29,000 kilometers per hour, taking 96.2 minutes to complete an orbit and this altitude is called the Kármán line. In particular, in the 1940s there were several test launches of the V-2 rocket, as of 2016, only three nations have flown manned spacecraft, USSR/Russia, USA, and China. The first manned spacecraft was Vostok 1, which carried Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin into space in 1961, there were five other manned missions which used a Vostok spacecraft. The second manned spacecraft was named Freedom 7, and it performed a sub-orbital spaceflight in 1961 carrying American astronaut Alan Shepard to an altitude of just over 187 kilometers, there were five other manned missions using Mercury spacecraft. Other Soviet manned spacecraft include the Voskhod, Soyuz, flown unmanned as Zond/L1, L3, TKS, China developed, but did not fly Shuguang, and is currently using Shenzhou. Except for the shuttle, all of the recoverable manned orbital spacecraft were space capsules. Manned space capsules The International Space Station, manned since November 2000, is a joint venture between Russia, the United States, Canada and several other countries, some reusable vehicles have been designed only for manned spaceflight, and these are often called spaceplanes. The first example of such was the North American X-15 spaceplane, the first reusable spacecraft, the X-15, was air-launched on a suborbital trajectory on July 19,1963. The first partially reusable spacecraft, a winged non-capsule, the Space Shuttle, was launched by the USA on the 20th anniversary of Yuri Gagarins flight
23.
Altitude
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Altitude or height is defined based on the context in which it is used. As a general definition, altitude is a measurement, usually in the vertical or up direction. The reference datum also often varies according to the context, although the term altitude is commonly used to mean the height above sea level of a location, in geography the term elevation is often preferred for this usage. Vertical distance measurements in the direction are commonly referred to as depth. In aviation, the altitude can have several meanings, and is always qualified by explicitly adding a modifier. Parties exchanging altitude information must be clear which definition is being used, aviation altitude is measured using either mean sea level or local ground level as the reference datum. When flying at a level, the altimeter is always set to standard pressure. On the flight deck, the instrument for measuring altitude is the pressure altimeter. There are several types of altitude, Indicated altitude is the reading on the altimeter when it is set to the local barometric pressure at mean sea level. In UK aviation radiotelephony usage, the distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point, measured from mean sea level. Absolute altitude is the height of the aircraft above the terrain over which it is flying and it can be measured using a radar altimeter. Also referred to as radar height or feet/metres above ground level, true altitude is the actual elevation above mean sea level. It is indicated altitude corrected for temperature and pressure. Height is the elevation above a reference point, commonly the terrain elevation. Pressure altitude is used to indicate flight level which is the standard for reporting in the U. S. in Class A airspace. Pressure altitude and indicated altitude are the same when the setting is 29.92 Hg or 1013.25 millibars. Density altitude is the altitude corrected for non-ISA International Standard Atmosphere atmospheric conditions, aircraft performance depends on density altitude, which is affected by barometric pressure, humidity and temperature. On a very hot day, density altitude at an airport may be so high as to preclude takeoff and these types of altitude can be explained more simply as various ways of measuring the altitude, Indicated altitude – the altitude shown on the altimeter
24.
Johannes Kepler
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Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th-century scientific revolution, he is best known for his laws of motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi. These works also provided one of the foundations for Isaac Newtons theory of universal gravitation, Kepler was a mathematics teacher at a seminary school in Graz, where he became an associate of Prince Hans Ulrich von Eggenberg. Later he became an assistant to the astronomer Tycho Brahe in Prague and he was also a mathematics teacher in Linz, and an adviser to General Wallenstein. Kepler lived in an era when there was no distinction between astronomy and astrology, but there was a strong division between astronomy and physics. Kepler was born on December 27, the feast day of St John the Evangelist,1571 and his grandfather, Sebald Kepler, had been Lord Mayor of the city. By the time Johannes was born, he had two brothers and one sister and the Kepler family fortune was in decline and his father, Heinrich Kepler, earned a precarious living as a mercenary, and he left the family when Johannes was five years old. He was believed to have died in the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands and his mother Katharina Guldenmann, an innkeepers daughter, was a healer and herbalist. Born prematurely, Johannes claimed to have weak and sickly as a child. Nevertheless, he often impressed travelers at his grandfathers inn with his phenomenal mathematical faculty and he was introduced to astronomy at an early age, and developed a love for it that would span his entire life. At age six, he observed the Great Comet of 1577, in 1580, at age nine, he observed another astronomical event, a lunar eclipse, recording that he remembered being called outdoors to see it and that the moon appeared quite red. However, childhood smallpox left him with vision and crippled hands. In 1589, after moving through grammar school, Latin school, there, he studied philosophy under Vitus Müller and theology under Jacob Heerbrand, who also taught Michael Maestlin while he was a student, until he became Chancellor at Tübingen in 1590. He proved himself to be a mathematician and earned a reputation as a skilful astrologer. Under the instruction of Michael Maestlin, Tübingens professor of mathematics from 1583 to 1631 and he became a Copernican at that time. In a student disputation, he defended heliocentrism from both a theoretical and theological perspective, maintaining that the Sun was the source of motive power in the universe. Despite his desire to become a minister, near the end of his studies, Kepler was recommended for a position as teacher of mathematics and he accepted the position in April 1594, at the age of 23. Keplers first major work, Mysterium Cosmographicum, was the first published defense of the Copernican system
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Orbital elements
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Orbital elements are the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit. In celestial mechanics these elements are considered in classical two-body systems. There are many different ways to describe the same orbit. A real orbit changes over time due to perturbations by other objects. A Keplerian orbit is merely an idealized, mathematical approximation at a particular time, the traditional orbital elements are the six Keplerian elements, after Johannes Kepler and his laws of planetary motion. When viewed from a frame, two orbiting bodies trace out distinct trajectories. Each of these trajectories has its focus at the center of mass. When viewed from a non-inertial frame centred on one of the bodies, only the trajectory of the body is apparent. An orbit has two sets of Keplerian elements depending on which body is used as the point of reference, the reference body is called the primary, the other body is called the secondary. The primary does not necessarily possess more mass than the secondary, and even when the bodies are of equal mass, the orbital elements depend on the choice of the primary. The main two elements that define the shape and size of the ellipse, Eccentricity —shape of the ellipse, semimajor axis —the sum of the periapsis and apoapsis distances divided by two. For circular orbits, the axis is the distance between the centers of the bodies, not the distance of the bodies from the center of mass. For paraboles or hyperboles, this is infinite, tilt angle is measured perpendicular to line of intersection between orbital plane and reference plane. Any three points on an ellipse will define the ellipse orbital plane, the plane and the ellipse are both two-dimensional objects defined in three-dimensional space. Longitude of the ascending node —horizontally orients the ascending node of the ellipse with respect to the reference frames vernal point, and finally, Argument of periapsis defines the orientation of the ellipse in the orbital plane, as an angle measured from the ascending node to the periapsis. True anomaly at epoch defines the position of the body along the ellipse at a specific time. The mean anomaly is a mathematically convenient angle which varies linearly with time and it can be converted into the true anomaly ν, which does represent the real geometric angle in the plane of the ellipse, between periapsis and the position of the orbiting object at any given time. Thus, the anomaly is shown as the red angle ν in the diagram
26.
Formula
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In science, a formula is a concise way of expressing information symbolically as in a mathematical or chemical formula. The informal use of the formula in science refers to the general construct of a relationship between given quantities. The plural of formula can be spelled either as formulas or formulae, in mathematics, a formula is an entity constructed using the symbols and formation rules of a given logical language. Note that the volume V and the radius r are expressed as single instead of words or phrases. This convention, while important in a relatively simple formula, means that mathematicians can more quickly manipulate larger. Mathematical formulas are often algebraic, closed form, and/or analytical, for example, H2O is the chemical formula for water, specifying that each molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Similarly, O−3 denotes an ozone molecule consisting of three atoms and having a net negative charge. In a general context, formulas are applied to provide a solution for real world problems. Some may be general, F = ma, which is one expression of Newtons second law, is applicable to a range of physical situations. Other formulas may be created to solve a particular problem, for example. In all cases, however, formulas form the basis for calculations, expressions are distinct from formulas in that they cannot contain an equals sign. Whereas formulas are comparable to sentences, expressions are more like phrases, a chemical formula identifies each constituent element by its chemical symbol and indicates the proportionate number of atoms of each element. In empirical formulas, these begin with a key element and then assign numbers of atoms of the other elements in the compound. For molecular compounds, these numbers can all be expressed as whole numbers. For example, the formula of ethanol may be written C2H6O because the molecules of ethanol all contain two carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. Some types of compounds, however, cannot be written with entirely whole-number empirical formulas. An example is boron carbide, whose formula of CBn is a variable non-whole number ratio with n ranging from over 4 to more than 6.5. When the chemical compound of the consists of simple molecules
27.
Kepler's laws of planetary motion
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In astronomy, Keplers laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun. The orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci, a line segment joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time. The square of the period of a planet is proportional to the cube of the semi-major axis of its orbit. Most planetary orbits are circular, and careful observation and calculation are required in order to establish that they are not perfectly circular. Calculations of the orbit of Mars, whose published values are somewhat suspect, from this, Johannes Kepler inferred that other bodies in the Solar System, including those farther away from the Sun, also have elliptical orbits. Keplers work improved the theory of Nicolaus Copernicus, explaining how the planets speeds varied. Isaac Newton showed in 1687 that relationships like Keplers would apply in the Solar System to a approximation, as a consequence of his own laws of motion. Keplers laws are part of the foundation of modern astronomy and physics, Keplers laws improve the model of Copernicus. Keplers corrections are not at all obvious, The planetary orbit is not a circle, the Sun is not at the center but at a focal point of the elliptical orbit. Neither the linear speed nor the speed of the planet in the orbit is constant, but the area speed is constant.015. The calculation is correct when perihelion, the date the Earth is closest to the Sun, the current perihelion, near January 4, is fairly close to the solstice of December 21 or 22. It took nearly two centuries for the current formulation of Keplers work to take on its settled form, voltaires Eléments de la philosophie de Newton of 1738 was the first publication to use the terminology of laws. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers in its article on Kepler states that the terminology of laws for these discoveries was current at least from the time of Joseph de Lalande. It was the exposition of Robert Small, in An account of the discoveries of Kepler that made up the set of three laws, by adding in the third. Small also claimed, against the history, that these were empirical laws, further, the current usage of Keplers Second Law is something of a misnomer. Kepler had two versions, related in a sense, the distance law and the area law. The area law is what became the Second Law in the set of three, but Kepler did himself not privilege it in that way, Johannes Kepler published his first two laws about planetary motion in 1609, having found them by analyzing the astronomical observations of Tycho Brahe. Keplers third law was published in 1619 and his first law reflected this discovery
28.
Angular momentum
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In physics, angular momentum is the rotational analog of linear momentum. It is an important quantity in physics because it is a conserved quantity – the angular momentum of a system remains constant unless acted on by an external torque. The definition of momentum for a point particle is a pseudovector r×p. This definition can be applied to each point in continua like solids or fluids, unlike momentum, angular momentum does depend on where the origin is chosen, since the particles position is measured from it. The angular momentum of an object can also be connected to the angular velocity ω of the object via the moment of inertia I. However, while ω always points in the direction of the rotation axis, Angular momentum is additive, the total angular momentum of a system is the vector sum of the angular momenta. For continua or fields one uses integration, torque can be defined as the rate of change of angular momentum, analogous to force. Applications include the gyrocompass, control moment gyroscope, inertial systems, reaction wheels, flying discs or Frisbees. In general, conservation does limit the motion of a system. In quantum mechanics, angular momentum is an operator with quantized eigenvalues, Angular momentum is subject to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, meaning only one component can be measured with definite precision, the other two cannot. Also, the spin of elementary particles does not correspond to literal spinning motion, Angular momentum is a vector quantity that represents the product of a bodys rotational inertia and rotational velocity about a particular axis. Angular momentum can be considered an analog of linear momentum. Thus, where momentum is proportional to mass m and linear speed v, p = m v, angular momentum is proportional to moment of inertia I. Unlike mass, which only on amount of matter, moment of inertia is also dependent on the position of the axis of rotation. Unlike linear speed, which occurs in a line, angular speed occurs about a center of rotation. Therefore, strictly speaking, L should be referred to as the angular momentum relative to that center and this simple analysis can also apply to non-circular motion if only the component of the motion which is perpendicular to the radius vector is considered. In that case, L = r m v ⊥, where v ⊥ = v sin θ is the component of the motion. It is this definition, × to which the moment of momentum refers
29.
Specific orbital energy
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It is expressed in J/kg = m2·s−2 or MJ/kg = km2·s−2. For an elliptical orbit the specific energy is the negative of the additional energy required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram to escape velocity. For a hyperbolic orbit, it is equal to the energy compared to that of a parabolic orbit. In this case the orbital energy is also referred to as characteristic energy. For a hyperbolic trajectory this specific orbital energy is given by ϵ = μ2 a. or the same as for an ellipse. In this case the orbital energy is also referred to as characteristic energy and is equal to the excess specific energy compared to that for a parabolic orbit. It is related to the excess velocity v ∞ by 2 ϵ = C3 = v ∞2. It is relevant for interplanetary missions, thus, if orbital position vector and orbital velocity vector are known at one position, and μ is known, then the energy can be computed and from that, for any other position, the orbital speed. In the case of circular orbits, this rate is one half of the gravity at the orbit and this corresponds to the fact that for such orbits the total energy is one half of the potential energy, because the kinetic energy is minus one half of the potential energy. If the central body has radius R, then the energy of an elliptic orbit compared to being stationary at the surface is − μ2 a + μ R = μ2 a R. The International Space Station has a period of 91.74 minutes. The energy is −29.6 MJ/kg, the energy is −59.2 MJ/kg. Compare with the energy at the surface, which is −62.6 MJ/kg. The extra potential energy is 3.4 MJ/kg, the extra energy is 33.0 MJ/kg. The average speed is 7.7 km/s, the net delta-v to reach this orbit is 8.1 km/s, the increase per meter would be 4.4 J/kg, this rate corresponds to one half of the local gravity of 8.8 m/s². For an altitude of 100 km, The energy is −30.8 MJ/kg, the energy is −61.6 MJ/kg. Compare with the energy at the surface, which is −62.6 MJ/kg. The extra potential energy is 1.0 MJ/kg, the extra energy is 31.8 MJ/kg
30.
Standard gravitational parameter
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In celestial mechanics, the standard gravitational parameter μ of a celestial body is the product of the gravitational constant G and the mass M of the body. μ = G M For several objects in the Solar System, the SI units of the standard gravitational parameter are m3 s−2. However, units of km3 s−2 are frequently used in the scientific literature, the central body in an orbital system can be defined as the one whose mass is much larger than the mass of the orbiting body, or M ≫ m. This approximation is standard for planets orbiting the Sun or most moons, conversely, measurements of the smaller bodys orbit only provide information on the product, μ, not G and M separately. This can be generalized for elliptic orbits, μ =4 π2 a 3 / T2 where a is the semi-major axis, for parabolic trajectories rv2 is constant and equal to 2μ. For elliptic and hyperbolic orbits μ = 2a| ε |, where ε is the orbital energy. The value for the Earth is called the gravitational constant. However, the M can be out only by dividing the MG by G. The uncertainty of those measures is 1 to 7000, so M will have the same uncertainty, the value for the Sun is called the heliocentric gravitational constant or geopotential of the Sun and equals 1. 32712440018×1020 m3 s−2. Note that the mass is also denoted by μ. Astronomical system of units Planetary mass
31.
Orbital eccentricity
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The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle. A value of 0 is an orbit, values between 0 and 1 form an elliptical orbit,1 is a parabolic escape orbit. The term derives its name from the parameters of conic sections and it is normally used for the isolated two-body problem, but extensions exist for objects following a rosette orbit through the galaxy. In a two-body problem with inverse-square-law force, every orbit is a Kepler orbit, the eccentricity of this Kepler orbit is a non-negative number that defines its shape. The limit case between an ellipse and a hyperbola, when e equals 1, is parabola, radial trajectories are classified as elliptic, parabolic, or hyperbolic based on the energy of the orbit, not the eccentricity. Radial orbits have zero angular momentum and hence eccentricity equal to one, keeping the energy constant and reducing the angular momentum, elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic orbits each tend to the corresponding type of radial trajectory while e tends to 1. For a repulsive force only the trajectory, including the radial version, is applicable. For elliptical orbits, a simple proof shows that arcsin yields the projection angle of a circle to an ellipse of eccentricity e. For example, to view the eccentricity of the planet Mercury, next, tilt any circular object by that angle and the apparent ellipse projected to your eye will be of that same eccentricity. From Medieval Latin eccentricus, derived from Greek ἔκκεντρος ekkentros out of the center, from ἐκ- ek-, eccentric first appeared in English in 1551, with the definition a circle in which the earth, sun. Five years later, in 1556, a form of the word was added. The eccentricity of an orbit can be calculated from the state vectors as the magnitude of the eccentricity vector, e = | e | where. For elliptical orbits it can also be calculated from the periapsis and apoapsis since rp = a and ra = a, where a is the semimajor axis. E = r a − r p r a + r p =1 −2 r a r p +1 where, rp is the radius at periapsis. For Earths annual orbit path, ra/rp ratio = longest_radius / shortest_radius ≈1.034 relative to center point of path, the eccentricity of the Earths orbit is currently about 0.0167, the Earths orbit is nearly circular. Venus and Neptune have even lower eccentricity, over hundreds of thousands of years, the eccentricity of the Earths orbit varies from nearly 0.0034 to almost 0.058 as a result of gravitational attractions among the planets. The table lists the values for all planets and dwarf planets, Mercury has the greatest orbital eccentricity of any planet in the Solar System. Such eccentricity is sufficient for Mercury to receive twice as much solar irradiation at perihelion compared to aphelion, before its demotion from planet status in 2006, Pluto was considered to be the planet with the most eccentric orbit
32.
Arithmetic mean
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In mathematics and statistics, the arithmetic mean, or simply the mean or average when the context is clear, is the sum of a collection of numbers divided by the number of numbers in the collection. The collection is often a set of results of an experiment, the term arithmetic mean is preferred in some contexts in mathematics and statistics because it helps distinguish it from other means, such as the geometric mean and the harmonic mean. In addition to mathematics and statistics, the mean is used frequently in fields such as economics, sociology, and history. For example, per capita income is the average income of a nations population. While the arithmetic mean is used to report central tendencies, it is not a robust statistic. In a more obscure usage, any sequence of values that form a sequence between two numbers x and y can be called arithmetic means between x and y. The arithmetic mean is the most commonly used and readily understood measure of central tendency, in statistics, the term average refers to any of the measures of central tendency. The arithmetic mean is defined as being equal to the sum of the values of each. For example, let us consider the monthly salary of 10 employees of a firm,2500,2700,2400,2300,2550,2650,2750,2450,2600,2400. The arithmetic mean is 2500 +2700 +2400 +2300 +2550 +2650 +2750 +2450 +2600 +240010 =2530, If the data set is a statistical population, then the mean of that population is called the population mean. If the data set is a sample, we call the statistic resulting from this calculation a sample mean. The arithmetic mean of a variable is denoted by a bar, for example as in x ¯. The arithmetic mean has several properties that make it useful, especially as a measure of central tendency and these include, If numbers x 1, …, x n have mean x ¯, then + ⋯ + =0. The mean is the single number for which the residuals sum to zero. If the arithmetic mean of a population of numbers is desired, the arithmetic mean may be contrasted with the median. The median is defined such that half the values are larger than, and half are smaller than, If elements in the sample data increase arithmetically, when placed in some order, then the median and arithmetic average are equal. For example, consider the data sample 1,2,3,4, the average is 2.5, as is the median. However, when we consider a sample that cannot be arranged so as to increase arithmetically, such as 1,2,4,8,16, in this case, the arithmetic average is 6.2 and the median is 4
33.
Geometric mean
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In mathematics, the geometric mean is a type of mean or average, which indicates the central tendency or typical value of a set of numbers by using the product of their values. The geometric mean is defined as the nth root of the product of n numbers, i. e. for a set of numbers x1, x2. As another example, the mean of the three numbers 4,1, and 1/32 is the cube root of their product, which is 1/2. A geometric mean is used when comparing different items—finding a single figure of merit for these items—when each item has multiple properties that have different numeric ranges. So, a 20% change in environmental sustainability from 4 to 4.8 has the effect on the geometric mean as a 20% change in financial viability from 60 to 72. The geometric mean can be understood in terms of geometry, the geometric mean of two numbers, a and b, is the length of one side of a square whose area is equal to the area of a rectangle with sides of lengths a and b. The geometric mean applies only to numbers of the same sign, the geometric mean is also one of the three classical Pythagorean means, together with the aforementioned arithmetic mean and the harmonic mean. The above figure uses capital pi notation to show a series of multiplications. For example, in a set of four numbers, the product of 1 ×2 ×3 ×4 is 24, note that the exponent 1 / n on the left side is equivalent to the taking nth root. For example,241 /4 =244, the geometric mean of a data set is less than the data sets arithmetic mean unless all members of the data set are equal, in which case the geometric and arithmetic means are equal. This allows the definition of the mean, a mixture of the two which always lies in between. The geometric mean can also be expressed as the exponential of the mean of logarithms. This is sometimes called the log-average and this is less likely to occur with the sum of the logarithms for each number. Instead, the mean is simply 1 n, where n is the number of steps from the initial to final state. If the values are a 0, …, a n and this is the case when presenting computer performance with respect to a reference computer, or when computing a single average index from several heterogeneous sources. In this scenario, using the arithmetic or harmonic mean would change the ranking of the results depending on what is used as a reference. For example, take the following comparison of time of computer programs. However, by presenting appropriately normalized values and using the arithmetic mean, however, this reasoning has been questioned
34.
Apollo program
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Five subsequent Apollo missions also landed astronauts on the Moon, the last in December 1972. In these six spaceflights, twelve men walked on the Moon, Apollo ran from 1961 to 1972, with the first manned flight in 1968. It achieved its goal of manned lunar landing, despite the setback of a 1967 Apollo 1 cabin fire that killed the entire crew during a prelaunch test. After the first landing, sufficient flight hardware remained for nine follow-on landings with a plan for extended lunar geological and astrophysical exploration, Budget cuts forced the cancellation of three of these. The crew returned to Earth safely by using the Lunar Module as a lifeboat for these functions, Apollo set several major human spaceflight milestones. It stands alone in sending manned missions beyond low Earth orbit, Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft to orbit another celestial body, while the final Apollo 17 mission marked the sixth Moon landing and the ninth manned mission beyond low Earth orbit. The program returned 842 pounds of rocks and soil to Earth, greatly contributing to the understanding of the Moons composition. The program laid the foundation for NASAs subsequent human spaceflight capability, Apollo also spurred advances in many areas of technology incidental to rocketry and manned spaceflight, including avionics, telecommunications, and computers. The Apollo program was conceived during the Eisenhower administration in early 1960, while the Mercury capsule could only support one astronaut on a limited Earth orbital mission, Apollo would carry three astronauts. Possible missions included ferrying crews to a station, circumlunar flights. The program was named after the Greek god of light, music, and the sun by NASA manager Abe Silverstein, who later said that I was naming the spacecraft like Id name my baby. Silverstein chose the name at home one evening, early in 1960, in July 1960, NASA Deputy Administrator Hugh L. Dryden announced the Apollo program to industry representatives at a series of Space Task Group conferences. Preliminary specifications were laid out for a spacecraft with a mission module cabin separate from the module. On August 30, a feasibility study competition was announced, and on October 25, meanwhile, NASA performed its own in-house spacecraft design studies led by Maxime Faget, to serve as a gauge to judge and monitor the three industry designs. In November 1960, John F. Kennedy was elected president after a campaign that promised American superiority over the Soviet Union in the fields of space exploration and missile defense. Beyond military power, Kennedy used aerospace technology as a symbol of prestige, pledging to make the US not first but, first and, first if. Despite Kennedys rhetoric, he did not immediately come to a decision on the status of the Apollo program once he became president and he knew little about the technical details of the space program, and was put off by the massive financial commitment required by a manned Moon landing. On April 12,1961, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first person to fly in space, Kennedy was circumspect in his response to the news, refusing to make a commitment on Americas response to the Soviets
35.
Pericynthion
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In astronomy, lunar orbit refers to the orbit of an object around the Moon. As used in the program, this refers not to the orbit of the Moon about the Earth. The Soviet Union sent the first spacecraft to the vicinity of the Moon and it passed within 6,000 kilometres of the Moons surface, but did not achieve lunar orbit. This craft provided the first pictures of the far side of the Lunar surface, the Soviet Luna 10 became the first spacecraft to actually orbit the Moon in April 1966. It studied micrometeoroid flux, and lunar environment until May 30,1966, the first United States spacecraft to orbit the Moon was Lunar Orbiter 1 on August 14,1966. The first orbit was an elliptical orbit, with an apolune of 1,008 nautical miles, then the orbit was circularized at around 170 nautical miles to obtain suitable imagery. Five such spacecraft were launched over a period of thirteen months, all of which successfully mapped the Moon, the most recent was the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer, which became a ballistic impact experiment in 2014. The Apollo programs Command/Service Module remained in a parking orbit while the Lunar Module landed. The combined CSM/LM would first enter an orbit, nominally 170 nautical miles by 60 nautical miles. Orbital periods vary according to the sum of apoapsis and periapsis, the LM began its landing sequence with a Descent Orbit Insertion burn to lower their periapsis to about 50,000 feet, chosen to avoid hitting lunar mountains reaching heights of 20,000 feet. These anomalies are significant enough to cause an orbit to change significantly over the course of several days. The Apollo 11 first manned landing mission employed the first attempt to correct for the perturbation effect. The parking orbit was circularized at 66 nautical miles by 54 nautical miles, but the effect was overestimated by a factor of two, at rendezvous the orbit was calculated to be 63.2 nautical miles by 56.8 nautical miles. The Apollo 15 subsatellite PFS-1 and the Apollo 16 subsatellite PFS-2, PFS-1 ended up in a long-lasting orbit, at 28 degrees inclination, and successfully completed its mission after one and a half years. PFS-2 was placed in a particularly unstable orbital inclination of 11 degrees, list of orbits Mass concentration Orbital mechanics
36.
Artemis
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Artemis was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities. Some scholars believe that the name, and indeed the goddess herself, was originally pre-Greek, Homer refers to her as Artemis Agrotera, Potnia Theron, Artemis of the wildland, Mistress of Animals. The Arcadians believed she was the daughter of Demeter, in the classical period of Greek mythology, Artemis was often described as the daughter of Zeus and Leto, and the twin sister of Apollo. The deer and the cypress were sacred to her, in later Hellenistic times, she even assumed the ancient role of Eileithyia in aiding childbirth. The name Artemis is of unknown or uncertain origin and etymology although various ones have been proposed, for example, according to J. T. Jablonski, the name is also Phrygian and could be compared with the royal appellation Artemas of Xenophon. Anton Goebel suggests the root στρατ or ῥατ, to shake, babiniotis, while accepting that the etymology is unknown, states that the name is already attested in Mycenean Greek and is possibly of pre-Hellenic origin. It is believed that a precursor of Artemis was worshiped in Minoan Crete as the goddess of mountains and hunting, R. S. P. Beekes suggested that the e/i interchange points to a Pre-Greek origin. Artemis was venerated in Lydia as Artimus, various conflicting accounts are given in Classical Greek mythology of the birth of Artemis and her twin brother, Apollo. All accounts agree, however, that she was the daughter of Zeus and Leto, an account by Callimachus has it that Hera forbade Leto to give birth on either terra firma or on an island. Hera was angry with Zeus, her husband, because he had impregnated Leto, but the island of Delos disobeyed Hera, and Leto gave birth there. In ancient Cretan history Leto was worshipped at Phaistos and in Cretan mythology Leto gave birth to Apollo, a scholium of Servius on Aeneid iii. The myths also differ as to whether Artemis was born first, most stories depict Artemis as born first, becoming her mothers mid-wife upon the birth of her brother Apollo. The childhood of Artemis is not fully related in any surviving myth, the Iliad reduced the figure of the dread goddess to that of a girl, who, having been thrashed by Hera, climbs weeping into the lap of Zeus. She wished for no city dedicated to her, but to rule the mountains, Artemis believed that she had been chosen by the Fates to be a midwife, particularly since she had assisted her mother in the delivery of her twin brother, Apollo. All of her companions remained virgins, and Artemis closely guarded her own chastity and her symbols included the golden bow and arrow, the hunting dog, the stag, and the moon. Okeanus daughters were filled with fear, but the young Artemis bravely approached and asked for bow, Callimachus then tells how Artemis visited Pan, the god of the forest, who gave her seven bitches and six dogs. She then captured six golden-horned deer to pull her chariot, Artemis practiced with her bow first by shooting at trees and then at wild beasts. As a virgin, Artemis had interested many gods and men, Orion was accidentally killed either by Artemis or by Gaia
37.
Geoffrey A. Landis
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Geoffrey Alan Landis is an American scientist, working for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration on planetary exploration, interstellar propulsion, solar power and photovoltaics. Supported by his scientific background Landis also writes hard science fiction, for these writings he has won a Nebula Award, two Hugo Awards, and a Locus Award, as well as two Rhysling Awards for his poetry. He contributes science articles to academic publications. Landis was born in Detroit, Michigan and lived in Virginia, Maryland, Philadelphia and his senior education was at New Trier High School, Winnetka, Illinois. He holds undergraduate degrees in physics and electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and he is married to science fiction writer Mary A. Turzillo and lives in Berea, Ohio. He holds nine patents, and has authored or co-authored more than 300 published scientific papers in the fields of astronautics and photovoltaics, much of Landis technical work has been in the field of developing solar cells and arrays, both for terrestrial use and for spacecraft. He was a member of the Rover team on the Mars Pathfinder mission and he has also done work on analyzing concepts for future robotic and human mission to Mars. In a 1993 paper, he suggested the use of a program of Mars exploration. Landis was a fellow of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts, dr. Landis said, This is the first meeting to really consider interstellar travel by humans. There really isnt a choice in the long term and he went on to describe a star ship with a diamond sail, a few nanometres thick, powered by solar energy, which could achieve 10 per cent of the speed of light. In 2005–2006, he was named the Ronald E. McNair Visiting Professor of Astronautics at MIT and he was also a guest lecturer at the ISU 13th Space Studies Program in Valparaíso, Chile, and the 2015 Space Studies Program in Athens, Ohio. As a writer, he was an instructor at the Clarion Writers Workshop at Michigan State University in 2001 and he was a guest instructor at the Launch Pad workshop for 2012. In the field of fiction, Landis has published over 70 works of short fiction. He won the 1989 Nebula Award for best short story for Ripples in the Dirac Sea, the 1992 Hugo Award for A Walk in the Sun, and his first novel, Mars Crossing, was published by Tor Books in 2000, winning a Locus Award. A short story collection, Impact Parameter, was published by Golden Gryphon Press in 2001 and he has also won the Analog Analytical Laboratory Award for the novelette The Man in the Mirror. His 2010 novella The Sultan of the Clouds won the Sturgeon award for best short fiction story. He attended the Clarion Workshop in 1985, with other emerging SF writers such as Kristine Kathryn Rusch, Martha Soukup, William Shunn, Resa Nelson, Mary Turzillo and Robert J. Howe. He won the Rhysling Award twice, for his poems Christmas, after we all get time machines in 2000, and for Search in 2009, and he has won the Asimovs Readers award for best poem three times, most recently in 2014, for his poem Rivers
38.
Mercury (planet)
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Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System. Its orbital period around the Sun of 88 days is the shortest of all the planets in the Solar System and it is named after the Roman deity Mercury, the messenger to the gods. Like Venus, Mercury orbits the Sun within Earths orbit as a planet, so it can only be seen visually in the morning or the evening sky. Also, like Venus and the Moon, the displays the complete range of phases as it moves around its orbit relative to Earth. Seen from Earth, this cycle of phases reoccurs approximately every 116 days, although Mercury can appear as a bright star-like object when viewed from Earth, its proximity to the Sun often makes it more difficult to see than Venus. Mercury is tidally or gravitationally locked with the Sun in a 3,2 resonance, as seen relative to the fixed stars, it rotates on its axis exactly three times for every two revolutions it makes around the Sun. As seen from the Sun, in a frame of reference that rotates with the orbital motion, an observer on Mercury would therefore see only one day every two years. Mercurys axis has the smallest tilt of any of the Solar Systems planets, at aphelion, Mercury is about 1.5 times as far from the Sun as it is at perihelion. Mercurys surface appears heavily cratered and is similar in appearance to the Moons, the polar regions are constantly below 180 K. The planet has no natural satellites. Mercury is one of four planets in the Solar System. It is the smallest planet in the Solar System, with a radius of 2,439.7 kilometres. Mercury is also smaller—albeit more massive—than the largest natural satellites in the Solar System, Ganymede, Mercury consists of approximately 70% metallic and 30% silicate material. Mercurys density is the second highest in the Solar System at 5.427 g/cm3, Mercurys density can be used to infer details of its inner structure. Although Earths high density results appreciably from gravitational compression, particularly at the core, Mercury is much smaller, therefore, for it to have such a high density, its core must be large and rich in iron. Geologists estimate that Mercurys core occupies about 55% of its volume, Research published in 2007 suggests that Mercury has a molten core. Surrounding the core is a 500–700 km mantle consisting of silicates, based on data from the Mariner 10 mission and Earth-based observation, Mercurys crust is estimated to be 35 km thick. One distinctive feature of Mercurys surface is the presence of narrow ridges
39.
Venus
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Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. It has the longest rotation period of any planet in the Solar System and it is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty. It is the second-brightest natural object in the sky after the Moon, reaching an apparent magnitude of −4.6. Because Venus orbits within Earths orbit it is a planet and never appears to venture far from the Sun. Venus is a planet and is sometimes called Earths sister planet because of their similar size, mass, proximity to the Sun. It is radically different from Earth in other respects and it has the densest atmosphere of the four terrestrial planets, consisting of more than 96% carbon dioxide. The atmospheric pressure at the surface is 92 times that of Earth. Venus is by far the hottest planet in the Solar System, with a surface temperature of 735 K. Venus is shrouded by an layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid. It may have had water oceans in the past, but these would have vaporized as the temperature rose due to a greenhouse effect. The water has probably photodissociated, and the hydrogen has been swept into interplanetary space by the solar wind because of the lack of a planetary magnetic field. Venuss surface is a dry desertscape interspersed with rocks and is periodically resurfaced by volcanism. As one of the brightest objects in the sky, Venus has been a fixture in human culture for as long as records have existed. It has been sacred to gods of many cultures, and has been a prime inspiration for writers and poets as the morning star. Venus was the first planet to have its motions plotted across the sky, as the closest planet to Earth, Venus has been a prime target for early interplanetary exploration. It was the first planet beyond Earth visited by a spacecraft, Venuss thick clouds render observation of its surface impossible in visible light, and the first detailed maps did not emerge until the arrival of the Magellan orbiter in 1991. Plans have been proposed for rovers or more missions. Venus is one of the four planets in the Solar System
40.
Mars
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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury. Named after the Roman god of war, it is referred to as the Red Planet because the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance. Mars is a planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth. The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth, Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and second-highest known mountain in the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet, Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. These may be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka, a Mars trojan, there are ongoing investigations assessing the past habitability potential of Mars, as well as the possibility of extant life. Future astrobiology missions are planned, including the Mars 2020 and ExoMars rovers, liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressure, which is about 6⁄1000 that of the Earths, except at the lowest elevations for short periods. The two polar ice caps appear to be largely of water. The volume of ice in the south polar ice cap, if melted. On November 22,2016, NASA reported finding a large amount of ice in the Utopia Planitia region of Mars. The volume of water detected has been estimated to be equivalent to the volume of water in Lake Superior, Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye, as can its reddish coloring. Its apparent magnitude reaches −2.91, which is surpassed only by Jupiter, Venus, the Moon, optical ground-based telescopes are typically limited to resolving features about 300 kilometers across when Earth and Mars are closest because of Earths atmosphere. Mars is approximately half the diameter of Earth with an area only slightly less than the total area of Earths dry land. Mars is less dense than Earth, having about 15% of Earths volume and 11% of Earths mass, the red-orange appearance of the Martian surface is caused by iron oxide, or rust. It can look like butterscotch, other common colors include golden, brown, tan. Like Earth, Mars has differentiated into a metallic core overlaid by less dense materials. Current models of its interior imply a core with a radius of about 1,794 ±65 kilometers, consisting primarily of iron and this iron sulfide core is thought to be twice as rich in lighter elements than Earths. The core is surrounded by a mantle that formed many of the tectonic and volcanic features on the planet
41.
Jupiter
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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, Jupiter and Saturn are gas giants, the other two giant planets, Uranus and Neptune are ice giants. Jupiter has been known to astronomers since antiquity, the Romans named it after their god Jupiter. Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium and it may also have a rocky core of heavier elements, but like the other giant planets, Jupiter lacks a well-defined solid surface. Because of its rotation, the planets shape is that of an oblate spheroid. The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence, a prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Surrounding Jupiter is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere, Jupiter has at least 67 moons, including the four large Galilean moons discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these, has a greater than that of the planet Mercury. Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft, most notably during the early Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions and later by the Galileo orbiter. In late February 2007, Jupiter was visited by the New Horizons probe, the latest probe to visit the planet is Juno, which entered into orbit around Jupiter on July 4,2016. Future targets for exploration in the Jupiter system include the probable ice-covered liquid ocean of its moon Europa, Earth and its neighbor planets may have formed from fragments of planets after collisions with Jupiter destroyed those super-Earths near the Sun. Astronomers have discovered nearly 500 planetary systems with multiple planets, Jupiter moving out of the inner Solar System would have allowed the formation of inner planets, including Earth. Jupiter is composed primarily of gaseous and liquid matter and it is the largest of the four giant planets in the Solar System and hence its largest planet. It has a diameter of 142,984 km at its equator, the average density of Jupiter,1.326 g/cm3, is the second highest of the giant planets, but lower than those of the four terrestrial planets. Jupiters upper atmosphere is about 88–92% hydrogen and 8–12% helium by percent volume of gas molecules, a helium atom has about four times as much mass as a hydrogen atom, so the composition changes when described as the proportion of mass contributed by different atoms. Thus, Jupiters atmosphere is approximately 75% hydrogen and 24% helium by mass, the atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane, water vapor, ammonia, and silicon-based compounds. There are also traces of carbon, ethane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, oxygen, phosphine, the outermost layer of the atmosphere contains crystals of frozen ammonia. The interior contains denser materials - by mass it is roughly 71% hydrogen, 24% helium, through infrared and ultraviolet measurements, trace amounts of benzene and other hydrocarbons have also been found
42.
Saturn
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Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter. It is a gas giant with a radius about nine times that of Earth. Although it has only one-eighth the average density of Earth, with its larger volume Saturn is just over 95 times more massive, Saturn is named after the Roman god of agriculture, its astronomical symbol represents the gods sickle. Saturns interior is composed of a core of iron–nickel and rock. This core is surrounded by a layer of metallic hydrogen, an intermediate layer of liquid hydrogen and liquid helium. Saturn has a yellow hue due to ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere. Saturns magnetic field strength is around one-twentieth of Jupiters, the outer atmosphere is generally bland and lacking in contrast, although long-lived features can appear. Wind speeds on Saturn can reach 1,800 km/h, higher than on Jupiter, sixty-two moons are known to orbit Saturn, of which fifty-three are officially named. This does not include the hundreds of moonlets comprising the rings, Saturn is a gas giant because it is predominantly composed of hydrogen and helium. It lacks a definite surface, though it may have a solid core, Saturns rotation causes it to have the shape of an oblate spheroid, that is, it is flattened at the poles and bulges at its equator. Its equatorial and polar radii differ by almost 10%,60,268 km versus 54,364 km, Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune, the other giant planets in the Solar System, are also oblate but to a lesser extent. Saturn is the planet of the Solar System that is less dense than water—about 30% less. Although Saturns core is considerably denser than water, the specific density of the planet is 0.69 g/cm3 due to the atmosphere. Jupiter has 318 times the Earths mass, while Saturn is 95 times the mass of the Earth, together, Jupiter and Saturn hold 92% of the total planetary mass in the Solar System. On 8 January 2015, NASA reported determining the center of the planet Saturn, the temperature, pressure, and density inside Saturn all rise steadily toward the core, which causes hydrogen to transition into a metal in the deeper layers. Standard planetary models suggest that the interior of Saturn is similar to that of Jupiter, having a rocky core surrounded by hydrogen. This core is similar in composition to the Earth, but more dense, in 2004, they estimated that the core must be 9–22 times the mass of the Earth, which corresponds to a diameter of about 25,000 km. This is surrounded by a liquid metallic hydrogen layer, followed by a liquid layer of helium-saturated molecular hydrogen that gradually transitions to a gas with increasing altitude
43.
Uranus
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Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. It has the third-largest planetary radius and fourth-largest planetary mass in the Solar System, Uranus is similar in composition to Neptune, and both have different bulk chemical composition from that of the larger gas giants Jupiter and Saturn. For this reason, scientists often classify Uranus and Neptune as ice giants to distinguish them from the gas giants, the interior of Uranus is mainly composed of ices and rock. Uranus is the planet whose name is derived from a figure from Greek mythology. Like the other giant planets, Uranus has a system, a magnetosphere. The Uranian system has a unique configuration among those of the planets because its axis of rotation is tilted sideways and its north and south poles, therefore, lie where most other planets have their equators. In 1986, images from Voyager 2 showed Uranus as an almost featureless planet in visible light, observations from Earth have shown seasonal change and increased weather activity as Uranus approached its equinox in 2007. Wind speeds can reach 250 metres per second, like the classical planets, Uranus is visible to the naked eye, but it was never recognised as a planet by ancient observers because of its dimness and slow orbit. Uranus had been observed on many occasions before its recognition as a planet, possibly the earliest known observation was by Hipparchos, who in 128 BCE might have recorded it as a star for his star catalogue that was later incorporated into Ptolemys Almagest. The earliest definite sighting was in 1690 when John Flamsteed observed it at least six times, the French astronomer Pierre Lemonnier observed Uranus at least twelve times between 1750 and 1769, including on four consecutive nights. Sir William Herschel observed Uranus on March 13,1781 from the garden of his house at 19 New King Street in Bath, Somerset, England, Herschel engaged in a series of observations on the parallax of the fixed stars, using a telescope of his own design. Herschel recorded in his journal, In the quartile near ζ Tauri, either Nebulous star or perhaps a comet. On March 17 he noted, I looked for the Comet or Nebulous Star and found that it is a Comet, the sequel has shown that my surmises were well-founded, this proving to be the Comet we have lately observed. Herschel notified the Astronomer Royal, Nevil Maskelyne, of his discovery and received this flummoxed reply from him on April 23,1781, I dont know what to call it. It is as likely to be a planet moving in an orbit nearly circular to the sun as a Comet moving in a very eccentric ellipsis. I have not yet seen any coma or tail to it, although Herschel continued to describe his new object as a comet, other astronomers had already begun to suspect otherwise. Finnish-Swedish astronomer Anders Johan Lexell, working in Russia, was the first to compute the orbit of the new object and its nearly circular orbit led him to a conclusion that it was a planet rather than a comet. Berlin astronomer Johann Elert Bode described Herschels discovery as a star that can be deemed a hitherto unknown planet-like object circulating beyond the orbit of Saturn
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Neptune
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Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System. In the Solar System, it is the fourth-largest planet by diameter, the planet. Neptune is 17 times the mass of Earth and is more massive than its near-twin Uranus. Neptune orbits the Sun once every 164.8 years at a distance of 30.1 astronomical units. It is named after the Roman god of the sea and has the astronomical symbol ♆, Neptune is not visible to the unaided eye and is the only planet in the Solar System found by mathematical prediction rather than by empirical observation. Unexpected changes in the orbit of Uranus led Alexis Bouvard to deduce that its orbit was subject to perturbation by an unknown planet. Neptune was subsequently observed with a telescope on 23 September 1846 by Johann Galle within a degree of the predicted by Urbain Le Verrier. Its largest moon, Triton, was discovered shortly thereafter, though none of the remaining known 14 moons were located telescopically until the 20th century. The planets distance from Earth gives it a small apparent size. Neptune was visited by Voyager 2, when it flew by the planet on 25 August 1989, the advent of the Hubble Space Telescope and large ground-based telescopes with adaptive optics has recently allowed for additional detailed observations from afar. Neptunes composition can be compared and contrasted with the Solar Systems other giant planets, however, its interior, like that of Uranus, is primarily composed of ices and rock, which is why Uranus and Neptune are normally considered ice giants to emphasise this distinction. Traces of methane in the outermost regions in part account for the blue appearance. In contrast to the hazy, relatively featureless atmosphere of Uranus, Neptunes atmosphere has active, for example, at the time of the Voyager 2 flyby in 1989, the planets southern hemisphere had a Great Dark Spot comparable to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. These weather patterns are driven by the strongest sustained winds of any planet in the Solar System, because of its great distance from the Sun, Neptunes outer atmosphere is one of the coldest places in the Solar System, with temperatures at its cloud tops approaching 55 K. Temperatures at the centre are approximately 5,400 K. Neptune has a faint and fragmented ring system. On both occasions, Galileo seems to have mistaken Neptune for a star when it appeared close—in conjunction—to Jupiter in the night sky, hence. At his first observation in December 1612, Neptune was almost stationary in the sky because it had just turned retrograde that day and this apparent backward motion is created when Earths orbit takes it past an outer planet. Because Neptune was only beginning its yearly cycle, the motion of the planet was far too slight to be detected with Galileos small telescope