Apsis denotes either of the two extreme points in the orbit of a planetary body about its primary body. The plural term, "apsides," implies both apsis points. For example, the apsides of Earth's orbit of the Sun are two: the apsis for Earth's farthest point from the Sun, dubbed the aphelion. There are two apsides in any elliptic orbit; each is named by selecting the appropriate prefix: ap-, apo-, or peri- —then joining it to the reference suffix of the "host" body being orbited. According to Newton's laws of motion all periodic orbits are ellipses, including: 1) the single orbital ellipse, where the primary body is fixed at one focus point and the planetary body orbits around that focus. For such a two-body system, when one mass is sufficiently larger than the other, the smaller ellipse around the barycenter comprises one of the orbital elements of the larger ellipse; the barycenter of the two bodies may lie well within the bigger body—e.g. The Earth–Moon barycenter is about 75% of the way from Earth's center to its surface.

If, compared to the larger mass, the smaller mass is negligible the orbital parameters are independent of the smaller mass. When used as a suffix—that is, -apsis—the term can refer to the two distances from the primary body to the orbiting body when the latter is located: 1) at the periapsis point, or 2) at the apoapsis point; the line of apsides denotes the distance of the line that joins the nearest and farthest points across an orbit. In orbital mechanics, the apsides technically refer to the distance measured between the barycenters of the central body and orbiting body. However, in the case of a spacecraft, the terms are used to refer to the orbital altitude of the spacecraft above the surface of the central body; the words "pericenter" and "apocenter" are seen, although periapsis/apoapsis are preferred in technical usage. For generic situations where the primary is not specified, the terms pericenter and apocenter are used for naming the extreme points of orbits. For a body orbiting the Sun, the point of least distance is the perihelion, the point of greatest distance is the aphelion.

When discussing a satellite of Earth, including the Moon, the point of least distance is the perigee, of greatest distance, the apogee. There are no natural satellites of the Moon. For man-made objects in lunar orbit, the point of least distance may be called the pericynthion and the greatest distance the apocynthion; the words perihelion and aphelion were coined by Johannes Kepler to describe the orbital motions of the planets around the Sun. The words are formed from the prefixes peri- and apo-, affixed to the Greek word for the sun. Various related terms are used for other celestial objects; the suffixes -gee, -helion, -astron and -galacticon are used in the astronomical literature when referring to the Earth, Sun and the galactic center respectively. The suffix -jove is used for Jupiter, but -saturnium has rarely been used in the last 50 years for Saturn; the -gee form is used as a generic closest-approach-to "any planet" term—instead of applying it only to Earth. During the Apollo program, the terms pericynthion and apocynthion were used when referring to orbiting the Moon.

Regarding black holes, the terms perimelasma and apomelasma were used by physicist and science-fiction author Geoffrey A. Landis in a 1998 story; the suffixes shown below may be added to prefixes peri- or apo- to form unique names of apsides for the orbiting bodies of the indicated host/ system. However, only for the Earth and Sun systems are the unique suffixes used. For other host systems the generic suffix, -apsis, is used instead; the perihelion and aphelion are the nearest and farthest points o


Tenix is a owned Australian company involved in a range of infrastructure maintenance and engineering products and services to the utility, transport and industrial sectors in Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, the United States. The antecedent company Transfield was established in 1956 by Carlo Salteri and Franco Belgiorno-Nettis; the company focused on engineering and infrastructure construction, expanded into the naval shipbuilding industry in the 1980s. A 1995 dispute between the company's managing directors led to Transfied being split in two. Tenix Defence grew to become one of Australia's largest locally owned defence and technology contractor until 2008, when its defence assets were sold to BAE Systems Australia. On 20 October 2014 Downer EDI acquired the remaining assets of Tenix as the Salteri family auctioned the company to trade and private-equity buyers. Tenix's antecedent company Transfield was founded in 1956 by two Italian-born mechanical engineers, Carlo Salteri and Franco Belgiorno-Nettis.

Together they built one of Australia's most successful companies focused on major engineering projects, such as bridges, dams, hydro-electric and coal power stations, oil rigs, concert halls, sugar mills and power lines. Included in their list of major achievements are the construction of the Gateway Bridge in Brisbane and the Sydney Harbour Tunnel. By the early 1980s, Transfield had in excess of 3,000 employees and an annual turnover of A$350 million. Pope John Paul II toured the Transfield factory at Seven Hills in 1986. Transfield acquired the Williamstown Dockyard in Melbourne through its acquisition of AMECON in August 1988 and, with it, the contract to complete construction of two Adelaide Class frigates for the Royal Australian Navy. In 1989 after winning a A$6 billion contract to build ten Anzac class frigates for the Australian and New Zealand governments, the largest defence company in Australia. In 1989, Salteri and Belgiorno-Nettis stood down as joint managing directors in 1989 in favour of their eldest sons, Paul Salteri and Marco Belgiorno-Zegna.

However, in a dispute between Salteri and Belgiorno-Nettis in 1995, the differences between the two families became irreconcillable and Transfield valued at A$733.2 million, was split in two. The Belgiorno-Nettis family kept the name Transfield and the construction side of the business, while the Salteri family got the company's North Sydney headquarters and the defence operations, which they renamed Tenix Defence Systems when Tenix was launched in November 1997. Tenix expanded with the acquisition of Hawker de Havilland in 1998 and leading engineering and maintenance contractor Enetech in December 1999. Enetech was renamed Tenix Alliance in July 2001. In June 2000, Tenix finalised the purchase of Vision System's defence businesses, Vision Abell and LADS Corporation, which became part of Tenix Defence. Late in 2000, Tenix sold Hawker de Havilland to Boeing. In 2002, Tenix bought out its partner, Lockheed Martin's, share in its LMT joint venture to form Tenix Solutions, its traffic and parking compliance business.

In November 2005 the company was threatened with losing the contract for operating speed cameras in Victoria, when the Victorian Government had to withdraw fines due to incorrect calibration of equipment by Tenix Solutions employees. In August 2007, Tenix Solutions lost the A$150 million contract to operate Victoria's mobile speed cameras, but retained the contract for processing and managing the enforcement process. In September 2008 Tenix acquired a majority interest in Duncan Solutions, a parking compliance company with operations in the US and Australia. From late 2004 Tenix pursued an acquisition strategy to extend the capabilities and geographic reach of its Tenix Alliance business; this included acquiring Powerco's field services businesses in New Zealand, Environmental Services International, various power services companies in Western Australia. In October 2007 it extended into mechanical engineering services with the acquisition of Robt Stone in New Zealand; this was further extended with the acquisition of Western Australian-based SDR Australia in September 2010.

In January 2008, the Salteri family sold Tenix Defence to BAE Systems Australia for A$775 million. The sale required the approval of the Australian Government's Foreign Investment Review Board and Department of Defence. Despite the infrastructure arm of the group, Tenix Alliance being up for sale, the sale process was discontinued. Tenix Aviation known as Rossair, a non-core business that offered a range of aircraft and component maintenance services to the aviation industry worldwide, was sold in December 2008 to TAE Australia. Tenix LADS Corporation, which undertook hydrographic projects for international oil and gas exploration companies and seismic survey organisations, was sold to Dutch multinational Fugro six months later. From 2009 to 2014 Tenix operated under the Tenix Solution brands, its main areas of operations under the Tenix brand included infrastructure maintenance and engineering services to the power, water and minerals processing and gas, petrochemical industries in Australia, New Zealand and the South Pacific.

Examples of recent contracts included the maintenance and construction of electricity networks, the design and con

Personal distress

In psychology, personal distress is an aversive, self-focused emotional reaction to the apprehension or comprehension of another's emotional state or condition. This negative affective state occurs as a result of emotional contagion when there is confusion between self and other. Unlike empathy, personal distress does not have to be congruent with the other's state, leads to a self-oriented, egoistic reaction to reduce it, by withdrawing from the stressor, for example, thereby decreasing the likelihood of prosocial behavior. There is evidence that sympathy and personal distress are subjectively different, have different somatic and physiological correlates, relate in different ways to prosocial behavior. In 1987, one study completed cross-sectional and longitudinal research on a community sample of over 400 adults and their children to examine the link between risk and personal distress. Risk factors consisted of negative life events and avoidance coping strategies and, for children, parental emotional and physical distress.

Resistance factors were self-confidence, an easygoing disposition, family support. Outcome criteria were global depression and physical symptoms in adults, psychological maladjustment and physical health problems in their children; the survey found that persons who experience high risk and low resistance are vulnerable to personal distress. The results demonstrated that the risk and resistance variables are significant predictors of concurrent and future psychological and physical distress in adults. In children, the findings demonstrated that parental dysfunction maternal risk factors and family support, are linked to distress. However, these findings suggested that, in comparison to adults, children may be more resilient to past negative life events affecting their current or future levels of distress. Furthermore, it was noted that children are affected more by mothers' than fathers' functioning, congruent with the conventional role of mothers as primary caregivers and with children's stronger maternal attachment relationships.

A study was conducted with a group of children as well as a separate group of adults. The video was of a negatively emotional news story. While they watched the video their facial expressions were recorded, as well they self reported how they felt after viewing the video; the results found. Markers of sympathy were related to prosocial responses. For adults it was found that facial sadness and concerned attention tended to be positively related to prosocial tendencies, children on the other hand had a negative relationship between prosocial behaviour and facial personal distress; this displays. It can be seen that there is a difference between how children and adults experience either personal distress or sympathy this is related to the level of development that the individual has achieved. Common coding theory Mirror neurons Davis, M. H.. Empathy: A Social-Psychological Approach. Westview. Hodges, S. D. & Klein, K. J. K.. Regulating the costs of empathy: the price of being human. Journal of Socio-Economics, 30, 437–452.

Eisenberg, N. & Strayer, J.. Empathy and its Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Eisenberg, N. Fabes, R. A. Miller, P. A. Fultz, J. Shell, R. Mathy, R. M. & Reno, R. R.. Relation of sympathy and personal distress to prosocial behavior: A multimethod study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 55–66. Doi:10.1037/0022-3514.57.1.55 Mirrored emotion by Jean Decety from the University of Chicago