The Amu Darya, called the Amu River and historically known by its Latin name, Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia. It is formed by the junction of the Vakhsh and Panj rivers, at Qaleh-ye Panjeh in Afghanistan, in ancient times, the river was regarded as the boundary between Greater Iran and Turan. In classical antiquity, the river was known as the Ōxus in Latin and Ὦξος Ôxos in Greek—a clear derivative of Vakhsh, in Vedic Sanskrit, the river is referred to as Vakṣu. The Avestan texts too refer to the River as Yakhsha/Vakhsha, in Middle Persian sources of the Sassanid period the river is known as Wehrōd. The name Amu is said to have come from the city of Āmul, in modern Turkmenistan. Medieval Arabic and Muslim sources call the river Jayhoun which is derived from Gihon, this name is no longer used. Hara and to the river of Gozan (that is to say, the Amu. the Gozan River is the River Balkh, i. e. the Oxus or the Amu Darya. and were brought into Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to the river Gozan.
The rivers total length is 2,400 kilometres and its drainage basin totals 534,739 square kilometres in area, the river is navigable for over 1,450 kilometres. All of the water comes from the mountains in the south where annual precipitation can be over 1,000 mm. An ice cave at the end of the Wakhjir valley, in the Wakhan Corridor, in the Pamir Mountains, a glacier turns into the Wakhan River and joins the Pamir River about 50 kilometres downstream. Therefore, the Chelab stream may be considered the true source or parent stream of the Oxus. The Panj River forms the border of Afghanistan and Tajikistan and it flows west to Ishkashim where it turns north and north-west through the Pamirs passing the Tajikistan–Afghanistan Friendship Bridge. It subsequently forms the border of Afghanistan and Uzbekistan for about 200 kilometres, passing Termez and it delineates the border of Afghanistan and Turkmenistan for another 100 kilometres before it flows into Turkmenistan at Atamurat. As the Amudarya, it flows across Turkmenistan south to north, passing Türkmenabat, use of water from the Amu Darya for irrigation has been a major contributing factor to the shrinking of the Aral Sea since the late 1950s.
Historical records state that in different periods, the river flowed into the Aral Sea, into the Caspian Sea, about 1,385,045 square kilometres of land is drained by the Amu Darya into the Aral Sea endorheic basin. This includes most of Tajikistan, the southwest corner of Kyrgyzstan, the northeast corner of Afghanistan, part of the Amu Daryas drainage divide in Tajikistan forms that countrys border with China and Pakistan. About 61% of the lies within Tajikistan and Turkmenistan. Of the area drained by the Amu Darya, only about 200,000 square kilometres actively contribute water to the river and this is because many of the rivers major tributaries have been diverted, and much of the rivers drainage is dominated by outlying desert and steppe
The Persian alphabet or Perso-Arabic alphabet is a writing system based on the Arabic script and used for the Persian language. It has four more than the Arabic alphabet, پ, چ, ژ. The Persian script is an abjad and is exclusively written cursively and that is, the majority of the letters in a word connect to each other. This is implemented on computers, whenever the Persian alphabet is typed, the computer automatically connects the letters to each other. Words are written right to left. Also, vowels are underrepresented in writing, see below for details, the replacement of the Pahlavi scripts with the Persian alphabet in order to write the Persian language was done by the Tahirid dynasty in ninth century Greater Khorasan. Below are the 32 letters of the modern Persian alphabet, since the script is cursive, the appearance of a letter changes depending on its position, initial and final of a word. The names of the letter are mostly the ones used in Arabic, the only ambiguous name is he, which is used for both ﺡ and ه.
For clarification, these are often called ḥe-ye jimi and he-ye do-češm, respectively. Letters which do not link to a following letter Seven letters – و, ژ, ﺯ, ﺭ, ﺫ, ﺩ, ﺍ – do not connect to a letter as the rest of the letters of the alphabet do. These seven letters have the form in isolated and initial position. For example, when the letter ا alef is at the beginning of a such as اینجا injā. Persian script has adopted a subset of Arabic diacritics which consists of zabar /æ/, zir /e/, other Arabic diacritics may be seen in Arabic loan-words. The following are not actual letters but different orthographical shapes for letters, and in the case of the lām alef, as to ﺀ hamze, it has only a single graphic, since it is never tied to a preceding or following letter. However, it is seated on a vāv, ye or alef. Technically, hamze is not a letter but a diacritic, although at first glance they may seem similar, there are many differences in the way the different languages use the alphabets. For example, similar words are written differently in Persian and Arabic, vowel notation is simple but its history is complicated.
Classical Arabic has a length distinction, in writing, long vowels are normally written ambiguously by letters known as matres lectionis while short ones are normally omitted entirely
Colonel Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, KCMG, KCIE, CB was an English geographer and president of the Royal Geographical Society. He saw active service in the Bhutan expedition of 1865, the Abyssinian campaign of 1867-68 and he was engaged in The Cordillera of the Andes Boundary Case by the governments of Argentina and Chile in 1902 to define the boundary along the Andes Mountains. He was awarded the Founders Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1887 in recognition of his work on the Afghan frontier and he was placed on the Retired list with an Indian pension 13 February 1900. In years, he wrote and lectured extensively on geographical issues and he contributed a number of entries to the eleventh edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. - Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich Sir Thomas was married to Ada Vanrenen and he died in 1929 at his home at Parklands in Merrow, near Guildford, at the age of 86. Boundaries in Europe and the Near East,1918, T H Holdich, L A Bethell and Hamilton Bower.
The Abor Expedition, Geographical Results, gates of India, Being an Historical Narrative of Early Relations Between the East and the West,1910. Countries of the King’s Award,1904, proceedings of the Central Asian Society,1904. M. G. Gerard, T. H. Holdrich, R. A. Wahab, report on the proceedings of the Pamir Boundary Commission. Calcutta, Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, notes on the Antiquities and History of Las Bela and Makran,1894. Biography from the Holdich Family History Society In Memoriam, Colonel Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, k. c. m. g
Bukhara, is one of the cities of Uzbekistan. Bukhara is a city-museum, with about 140 architectural monuments, the nations fifth-largest city, it had a population as of 31 August 2016 of approximately 247,644. Humans have inhabited the region around Bukhara for at least five millennia, the mother tongue of the majority of people of Bukhara is yet Persian Language. Located on the Silk Road, the city has served as a center of trade, culture. UNESCO has listed the center of Bukhara as a World Heritage Site. Bukhara was known as Bokhara in 19th- and early 20th-century English publications, according to the Encyclopædia Iranica the name Bukhara is possibly derived from the Soghdian βuxārak Muhammad ibn Jafar Narshakhi in his History of Bukhara mentions, Bukhara has many names. One of its name was Numijkat and it has been called Bumiskat. It has 2 names in Arabic, one is Madinat al Sufriya meaning - the copper city and another is Madinat Al Tujjar meaning - The city of Merchants. But, the name Bukhara is more known than all the other names, in Khorasan, there is no other city with so many names Since the Middle Ages, the city has been known as Buḫārā / بخارا in Arabic and Persian sources.
The modern Uzbek spelling is Buxoro, the history of Bukhara stretches back millennia. It is now the capital of Bukhara Region of Uzbekistan, located on the Silk Road, the city has long been a center of trade, scholarship and religion. During the golden age of the Samanids, Bukhara became an intellectual center of the Islamic world. The historic center of Bukhara, which contains numerous mosques and madrassas, has been listed by UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites, Bukhara has been one of the main centres of world civilisation from its early days in 6th century BCE. From the 6th century CE, Turkic speakers gradually moved in and its architecture and archaeological sites form one of the pillars of Central Asian history and art. The region of Bukhara was a part of the Persian Empire for a long time, the origin of many of its current inhabitants goes back to the period of Aryan immigration into the region. The Samanid Empire seized Bukhara, the capital of Greater Khorasan, Genghis Khan besieged Bukhara for fifteen days in 1220 CE.
Bukhara was the last capital of the Emirate of Bukhara and was besieged by the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. During the Bukhara operation of 1920, an army of well-disciplined, on 31 August 1920, the Emir Alim Khan fled to Dushanbe in Eastern Bukhara
A Turkmen rug is a type of handmade floor-covering textile traditionally originating in Central Asia. It is useful to distinguish between the original Turkmen tribal rugs and the rugs produced in numbers for export mainly in Pakistan and Iran today. The original Turkmen rugs were produced by the Turkmen tribes who are the ethnic group in Turkmenistan and are found in Afghanistan and Iran. They are used for various purposes, including tent rugs, door hangings and bags of various sizes and they used geometrical designs that varied from tribe to tribe, most famous are the Yomut, Saryk and Tekke. More recently, large rug workshops in the cities have appeared, there are fewer irregularities, since about 1910, synthetic dyes have been used along with natural ones. The size of nomadic rugs is limited to what can be done on a nomads portable loom, larger rugs have always produced in the villages. Using cotton for warp and weft threads has become common, the rugs produced in large numbers for export in Pakistan and Iran and sold under the name of Turkmen rugs are mostly made of synthetic colors, with cotton warps and wefts and wool pile.
They have little in common with the original Turkmen tribal rugs, in these export rugs, various patterns and colors are used, but the most typical is that of the Bukhara design, which derives from the Tekke main carpet, often with a red or tan background. Another favorite is derived from the Ersari main carpet, with the elephants foot design. The Turkmen Carpet Museum, which preserves examples of the original Turkmen tribal rugs, is located in Ashgabat, many Afghan rugs bear a strong resemblance to Turkmen rugs. Afghanistan produces a lot of cheap and coarse rugs, mainly for export. However, there are some very fine Afghans including many using Turkmen designs. At the end of the 20th century, carpet weaving in Turkmenistan had become one of the most important sectors of the economy, in 1992, Turkmen Carpet Day officially became a public national holiday, celebrated annually on the last Sunday in May. Among the modern Turkmen carpets stands the worlds largest handmade carpet total area of 301 m2, which was woven in 2001, the vertical strip of the Flag of Turkmenistan placed five main patterns of Turkmen carpets.
Secondary figures are disposed along the edges, patterns reflect national unity of Turkmenistan. The five traditional carpet motifs in Emblem of Turkmenistan on the red disc represent the five major tribes or houses and these Turkmen tribes in traditional order are Teke, Arsary and Saryk. State Association Turkmenhaly is a supplier to the world market of pure wool pile hand-made Turkmen carpets from Turkmenistan. Turkmenistan Presidential Decree of 20 March 1993 in Ashgabat was created Turkmen Carpet Museum, the Carpet Museum is one of the cultural centers of Turkmenistan, which put about 2,000 carpet exhibits, including rare ones
Provinces of Afghanistan
Afghanistan is made up of 34 provinces. The provinces of Afghanistan are the administrative divisions. Each province encompasses a number of districts or usually over 1,000 villages, Provincial governments are led by a governor who is appointed by the President of Afghanistan. Each province is represented in the government of Afghanistan by two members in the House of Elders, one is elected by the provincial council to a four-year term while the second is elected by the district councils to a three-year term. Representation in the House of the People is directly from the districts, although in each province and they are appointed by the President of Afghanistan. Provincial governors have played a role in the reconstruction of the Afghan state following the creation of the new government under Hamid Karzai. According to international security scholar, Dipali Mukhopadhyay, many of the governors are former warlords who have been incorporated into the political system. List of current governors of Afghanistan Districts of Afghanistan Afghanistan Information Management Services Provincial Governors
Jowzjan, sometimes spelled as Jawzjan or Jozjan, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the north of the country bordering neighboring Turkmenistan. The province is divided into 11 districts and contains hundreds of villages and it has a population of about 512,100, which is multi-ethnic and mostly agriculturers. Sheberghan is the capital of Jozjan province, the province is named after the early medieval region and principality of Juzjan. Between the early 16th century and mid-18th century, the area was ruled by the Khanate of Bukhara and it was conquered by Ahmad Shah Durrani and became part of the Durrani Empire in or about 1750, which formed to the modern state of Afghanistan. The area was untouched by the British during the three Anglo-Afghan wars that were fought in the 19th and 20th centuries, Security situation in the province has rapidly deteriorated in 2009 and 2010. A new Turkish PRT has established in the province in the summer of 2010. The Afghan National Security Forces began expanding in the last decade, the Afghanistan-Turkmenistan border is maintained by the Afghan Border Police while law and order for the rest of the province is provided by the NATO-trained Afghan National Police.
The Mazar-e-Sharif-Sheberghan highway has turned into a dangerous traveling route because of carrying out attacks against government forces, NGO workers. Initial work on the $390 million project had already been completed, Turkmenistan will install power pylons over a distance of 374 kilometres on its soil toward the Afghanistan border and the project will take a year to complete. The network would supply electricity to areas in Jozjan, Sar-e Pol, Faryab. The Governor of the province is Murad Quenili, who replaced Mohammad Aleem Sayee in July 2013, Quenili was previously a senator representing his province Jozjan in the National Assembly of Afghanistan. All law enforcement activities throughout the province are managed by the Afghan National Police, the police chief represents the Ministry of the Interior in Kabul. The ANP is backed by other Afghan National Security Forces, including the NATO-led forces, the percentage of households with clean drinking water increased from 24% in 2005 to 44% in 2011.
The percentage of births attended to by a birth attendant increased from 9% in 2005 to 21% in 2011. The overall literacy rate fell from 31% in 2005 to 16% in 2011, the overall net enrolment rate increased from 40% in 2005 to 46% in 2011. Jozjan is situated in the part of Afghanistan, bordering Turkmenistan in the north, Balkh province in the east, Sar-e Pol province in the south. Jozjan province covers an area of 10,326 km², more than one quarter of the province is mountainous or semi mountainous terrain, while more than two thirds of the area is made up of flat land. It is one of the known to contain petroleum and natural gas
The Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group, the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan but are found as a minority group in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Russia. Uzbek diaspora communities exist in Turkey, Saudi Arabia, the origin of the word Uzbek remains disputed. One view holds that it is named after Oghuz Khagan, known as Oghuz Beg. Another states that the name means independent or the lord itself, from Oʻz, before, 5th century, what is todays Uzbekistan was part of Sogdia, mainly inhabited by Sogdians, an Indo-Iranian people. It was part of the Achaemenid Empire and part of Sasanian Empire, from 5th to 6th century, what is todays Uzbekistan was part of the Hephthalite Empire. From 6th to 8th century, what is todays Uzbekistan was under the rule of Göktürk Khanate and Chinese migration into central Asia occurred during the Chinese Tang Dynasty, and Chinese armies commanded by Turkic generals stationed in large parts of central Asia.
But Chinese influence ended with the An Lushan rebellion, from the 9th century on, Transoxania was under the rule of Turkic Kara-Khanid Khanate, their arrival in Transoxania signalled a definitive shift from Iranian to Turkic predominance in Central Asia. Kara-Khanid ruler Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan was the first Turkic ruler to convert Islam, in the 12th century, Transoxania was conquered by Qara Khitai, a sinicized Khitan dynasty, they brought to Central Asia the Chinese system of government. In the 13th century, Kara-Khanid Khanate was destroyed by the Turkic Khwarazmian dynasty, the language-shift from Middle Iranian to Turkic and New Persian was predominantly the result of an elite dominance process. This process was boosted during the Mongol conquest when millions were either killed or pushed further south to the Pamir region. The modern Uzbek language is derived from the Chagatai language which gained prominence in the Timurid Empire. The modern Uzbek population represents varying degrees of diversity derived from the high traffic routes through Central Asia.
Once populated by Iranian tribes and other Indo-European people, Central Asia experienced numerous invasions emanating out of Mongolia that would affect the region. According to recent genetic genealogy testing from a University of Oxford study, high levels of haplogroup 10 and its derivative, haplogroup 36, are found in most of the Altaic-speaking populations and are a good indicator of the genetic impact of these nomadic groups. The difference could be due to the density of the different geographical areas. Eastern regions of Central Asia must have had a low density at the time. Thus, the estimate from North-East Asia is high in the east
Dost Mohammad Khan (Emir of Afghanistan)
Dost Mohammad Khan was the founder of the Barakzai dynasty and one of the prominent rulers of Afghanistan during the First Anglo-Afghan War. With the decline of the Durrani dynasty, he became Emir of Afghanistan from 1826 to 1839, an ethnic Pashtun, he was the 11th son of Sardar Payendah Khan who was killed in 1799 by Zaman Shah Durrani. Dost Mohammads grandfather was Hajji Jamal Khan, the Musahiban family started with his older brother, Sultan Muhammad Khan, nicknamed Telai, meaning golden, a nickname he was given because of his love of fine clothing. This brother was the ruler of Peshawar, Dost Mohammad Khan was born to an influential family on 23 December 1793 in Kandahar, Durrani Empire. His father, Payindah Khan, was chief of the Barakzai tribe and their family can be traced back to Abdal, through Hajji Jamal Khan, Yaru, Omar Khan, Khisar Khan, Nek, Daru and Barak. Abdal had Four sons, Barak, Dost Mohmmad Khans mother is believed to have been a Shia from the Persian Qizilbash group. His elder brother, the chief of the Barakzai, Fatteh Khan, took an important part in raising Mahmud Shah Durrani to the sovereignty of Afghanistan in 1800 and in restoring him to the throne in 1809.
Dost Mohammad accompanied his brother and Prime Minister of Kabul Wazir Fateh Khan to the Battle of Attock against the invading Sikhs. Mahmud Shah repaid Fatteh Khans services by having him assassinated in 1818, after a bloody conflict, Mahmud Shah was deprived of all his possessions but Herat, the rest of his dominions being divided among Fatteh Khans brothers. Of these, Dost Mohammad received Ghazni, to which in 1826 he added Kabul, in 1834 Shah Shujah made a last attempt to recover his kingdom. He was defeated by Dost Mohammad Khan under the walls of Kandahar, Dost Mohammad sent his son Akbar Khan to defeat the Sikhs at the Battle of Jamrud in 1837. The non- recovery of the Jamrud Fort became the Afghan Amirs worst concern, at the intersection of British, Russian and, to a lesser degree, French imperial interests, political maneuvering was necessary. Rejecting overtures from Russia, he endeavoured to form an alliance with Great Britain, however, was unable to prevail on the governor-general, Lord Auckland, to respond to the emirs advances.
Dost Mohammad was enjoined to abandon the attempt to recover Peshawar and he replied by renewing his relations with Russia, and in 1838 Lord Auckland set the British troops in motion against him. To enable such an action, the British manufactured the evidence needed to justify the overthrow of the Afghan ruler, Dost Muhammad erected a fort at Ali Masjid at the other end. In the beginning of 1837, as Prince Nau Nihal Singh returned to Lahore to get married, Dost Muhammad Khan sent a 25,000 strong force, including a large number of local irregulars and equipped with 18 heavy guns, to invest Jam rud. The Sikh garrison there had only 600 men and a few artillery pieces. The Afghans besieged the fort and cut off its water supply, mahan Singh Mirpuri, the garrison commander of Jamrud, kept the invaders at bay for four days and managed meanwhile to send a desperate appeal for help to Hari Singh Nalva at Peshawar
Afghan Turkestan is a region in northern Afghanistan, on the border with the former Soviet republics of Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. It thus comprised about 57,000 square miles or roughly two-ninths of the former Kingdom of Afghanistan, the area is agriculturally poor except in the river valleys, being rough and mountainous towards the south, but subsiding into undulating wastes and pasture-lands towards the Karakum Desert. The province included the khanates of Kunduz, Tashkurgan and Akcha in the east, the bulk of the people are Uzbek and Turkmen with large concentrations of Hazara and Pashtuns. Ancient Balkh or Bactria was a part of Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex. In the 5th century BCE, it became a province of the Achaemenian Empire, after this came a Buddhist era which has left its traces in the gigantic sculptures at Bamian and the rock-cut topes of Haibak. The district was devastated by Genghis Khan, and has never fully recovered its prosperity. For about a century it belonged to the Delhi empire, in the 18th century it formed part of the dominion of Ahmad Shah Durrani, and so remained under his son Timur.
But under the wars of Timurs sons the separate khanates fell back under the independent rule of various Uzbek chiefs. The sovereignty over Andkhui, Shibarghan and Maimana was in dispute between Bukhara and Kabul until settled by the Anglo-Russian agreement of 1873 in favour of the Afghan claim. Under the strong rule of Abdur Rahman these outlying territories were closely welded to Kabul, in the late 19th and 20th centuries, many ethnic Pashtuns either voluntarily or involuntarily settled in Afghan Turkestan. In 1890, the district of Qataghan and Badakhshan was divided from Afghan Turkestan, administration of the province was assigned to the Northern Bureau in Kabul
Mazar-i-Sharif or Mazar-e-Sharif is the third-largest city of Afghanistan, with a 2015 UN—Habitat population estimate between 577,500 to 693,000. It is the capital of Balkh province and is linked by highways with Kunduz in the east, Kabul in the southeast, Herat in the west and Uzbekistan in the north. Mazar-e Sharif, along with Herat, Jalalabad in the east and Kandahar in the south, the city serves as one of the many tourist attractions because of its famous shrines as well as the Muslim and Hellenistic archeological sites. In 2006, the discovery of new Hellenistic remains was announced, Mazar-i-Sharif is the Regional Hub located in the northern region in close proximity to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. The Mazari Sharif Airport in the city has been used during the 1980s Soviet war. The name Mazar-e Sharif means Noble Shrine, a reference to the large, blue-tiled sanctuary, according to tradition, the city of Mazari Sharif owes its existence to a dream. The famous Jalal al-Din Rumi was born in area but like many historical figures his exact location of birth cannot be confirmed.
His father Baha Walad was descended from the first caliph Abu Bakr and was influenced by the ideas of Ahmad Ghazali, Baha Walads sermons were published and still exist as Divine Sciences. Rumi completed six books of poetry and tales called Masnavi before he died in 1273. Although rebuilt, Mazar stood in the shadow of its neighbor Balkh, thus the ruler of North Central Afghanistan decided to shift the capital of the city of Mazar-e-Sharif. The Mazar-i-Sharif means the noble shrine and this name represents the Blue Mosque which is widely known to be the grave of Hazrat Ali. In the late 1870s, Emir Sher Ali Khan ruled the area from his Tashkurgan Palace in Mazar-i Sharif and this northern part of Afghanistan was un-visited by the British-led Indian forces during the Anglo-Afghan wars of the 19th century. During the 1980s Soviet war, Mazar-i-Sharif was a base for the Soviet Army as they used its airport to launch air strikes on Afghan mujahideen. As a garrison for the Soviet-backed Afghan army, the city was under the command of Dostum, under Dostums 5 year rule from the early 1990s to early 1997, the city was relatively peaceful.
The rest of the nation disintegrated and was taken over by the Taliban forces. He printed his own currency and established his own airline and he is widely believed to have been responsible for the brutal massacre of up to 3,000 Taliban prisoners after inviting them into Mazar-i-Sharif. Several of the Taliban escaped the slaughtering and reported what had happened, the Taliban retaliated in 1998 attacking the city and killing an estimated 8,000. More than 8000 noncombatants were reported killed in Mazar-i-Sharif and in Bamiyan, in addition, the Taliban were criticized for forbidding anyone from burying the corpses for the first six days while the remains rotted in the summer heat and were eaten by dogs