|• Also spelled||
|• Head of Municipality||Jawdat 'Abd al-Hadi|
|• Jurisdiction||34,659 dunams (34.7 km2 or 13.4 sq mi)|
Aqraba (Arabic: عقربا) is a Palestinian town in the Nablus Governorate, located eighteen kilometers southeast of Nablus in the northern West Bank. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), Aqraba had a population of approximately 8,180 inhabitants in 2007.
Nearby hamlets surround the village and are considered to be natural extensions of Aqraba; they are the khirbets of al-Arama, al-Kroom, Abu ar-Reisa, ar-Rujman, Firas ad-Din and Tell al-Khashaba. The total population of these hamlets was estimated to be 500 in 2008. The prominent families of Aqraba are Al Dayriyeh, Bani Jaber, Al-Mayadima, Bani Jame', and Bani Fadel.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History and archaeology
- 3 Economy
- 4 Government
- 5 References
- 6 Bibliography
- 7 External links
History and archaeology
General remarks - Iron Age to Mamluk period
Pottery sherds from Iron Age II, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Umayyad and Crusader/Ayyubid period, as well as rock-hewn cisterns have been found in Aqraba. In 1874 surveyors found near the village rock-cut kokhim tombs.
Hellenistic to Roman period
During the Second Temple period it was an importat town (see Mishna, Ma'aser Sheni 5:2), named by Josephus (37–c. 100) as Akrabbatá, the capital of a district called Akrabbatène (Wars 3:3, 5). Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 260–339) calls the town 'Akrabbeim and the district Akrabbatinés.
Early Muslim period
Crusader/Ayyubid to Mamuk period
Several medieval buildings and other remains were described in the 1930s and 1940s and revisited in the 1990s, such as a fortified courtyard building northwest of the mosque, known as al-Hisn ("the castle") dominating the village from its highest point and now part of a private building; an open cistern or pool (Arabic:birka) in the centre of the village, well preserved but now used as an orchard; and a domed building said to be Mamluk, probably a mosque which is in use as the village school The mosque's mihrab was flanked by marble columns topped by capitals, both from the Crusader period.
The village mosque is built on the remains of a church, and in the Survey of Western Palestine the Greek inscriptions found there on a lintel decorated by a cross, are described as similar to Crusader-period ones.
Aqraba, like the rest of Palestine, was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517, and in the census of 1596 the village appeared under the name Aqraba as being in the Nahiya (Subdistrict) of Jabal Qubal of the Liwa (District) of Nablus. It had a population of 102 households, all Muslim. They paid a fixed tax-rate of 33.3% on agricultural products, including wheat, barley, summer crops, olive trees, goats and bee-hives; vineyards and fruit trees, in addition to occasional revenues, and a press for olive oil or grape syrup.
During his travels in the region in 1838 Edward Robinson mentions it, believing it was ancient Acrabi. Victor Guérin visited in 1870, and described as a large town with 2000 inhabitants. He further noted that it consisted of four quarters, each with their own sheikh.
In 1882, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described it as "A large village, surrounded with olives, of houses better built than most in the country. It stands on a saddle between two hills, one of which rises north of it 700 feet, the village standing at the mouth of a pass, through which the main road runs. The place crescent-shaped, whence perhaps its name, ' carved.' On south is the fertile plain (Jehir 'Akrabeh). There is a mosque in the east part of the village, founded on the remains of a Christian church, and a second sacred place (er Rafai) on the south. The inhabitants used to number, according to their own account, 2,000 guns, but the present population appears to be about 600 to 800 souls."
British Mandate period
In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Aqraba had a population of 1,160; 1,158 Muslims and 2 Orthodox Christians, increasing in the 1931 census, where Aqraba (together with the smaller location Kh. Fasayil) had a population of 1,478, all Muslims, in a total of 309 houses.
In 1945 Aqraba (including Kh. Fasayil) had a population of 2,060, all Muslims, with 142,530 dunams of land, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, 3,383 dunams were plantations and irrigable land, 19,732 used for cereals, while 55 dunams were built-up land.
In 1961, the population of Aqraba was 2,875.
The village's total land area is 34,700 dunams, of which 1,783 is built-up area. Around 62% of the remaining land is covered with olive and almond groves, 8% with other fruits and vegetables and the remaining 30% for grazing purposes.
Aqraba's unemployment rate is above 50%. Because the Palestinian labor force is unable to work in Israeli localities, the town's workers currently hold public and private jobs. Some also depend on agriculture and industrial workshops as main sources of income.
Some farmland near Yanun owned by 300 Aqraba villagers was defined as an IDF firing range in 1967, but exercises were customarily suspended for brief periods in the past to allow the villagers access to their lands, according to local Palestinians. Since then they claim, the area has not been used in as a fire range for two decades. Recently these villagers, who either farm or live there have been denied access. They claim that this restriction does not apply equally to an outpost, Givat 777, of the Israeli settlement of Itamar. They complain of settler harassment, the burning of vehicles, and of settler sheep flocks being led to greaze on their wheat fields. The IDF has replied that both Palestinians and Israeli settlers are treated in the same way.
In August 2014, the IDF brought in bulldozers to demolish 4 Palestinian homes on the outskirts of the town, in the al-Taweel neighbourhood, apparently claiming that they were built without a permit. The villagers claimed that the houses have been there for a century.
The town is governed by a municipal council, consisting of eleven members including the mayor. In the 2005 Palestinian municipal elections, the Fatah-backed Future Palestine list won the majority of the seats (six) while the Hamas-backed al-Islamiya list won five seats. Jawdat 'Abd al-Hadi was elected mayor.
- Palmer, 1881, p. 251
- 2007 PCBS Census Archived December 10, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. p.110.
- Aqraba Village: General Information Archived March 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. Land Research Center. 2008-10-20.
- Acraba, the last village adjacent to the desert Studium Biblicum Franciscanum - Jerusalem. 2000-12-19.[dead link]
- Finkelstein and Lederman, 1997, p. 818
- Dauphin, 1998, p. 849.
- Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, pp. 389-390
- Conder, 1876, p.196
- Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 386
- Sharon, 1997, pp. 110-111
- Pringle, 2009, p. 235
- Pringle, 1997, p. 20
- Ellenblum, 2003, p. 245
- Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 131
- Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 3, p. 103
- Guérin, 1875, pp. 3-5
- Clermont-Ganneau, 1896, pp. 302-3
- Barron, 1923, Table IX, Sub-district of Nablus, p. 25
- Barron, 1923, Table XV, p. 47
- Mills, 1932, p. 59
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 18
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 59
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 105
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 155
- Government of Jordan, 1964, p. 14
- A new Expansion in the colony of Itamar on the Lands of the Palestinian Town of Aqraba: General Information about Aqraba Archived June 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. The Land Research Center via POICA. ARIJ and LRC 2007-10-21
- Amira Hass, 'IDF bars Palestinian farmers, but not settler outpost, from land in disputed firing range,' at Haaretz 3 July 2012.
- 'Israel demolishes 4 Palestinian homes near Nablus,' Ma'an News Agency 20 August 2014.
- Aqraba Town Profile (including Yanun Locality), ARIJ, p. 16
- Local Elections (Round Three)- Successful lists by local authority and No. of votes obtained Central Elections Commission - Palestine. p.4.
- Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
- Clermont-Ganneau, Charles Simon (1896). [ARP] Archaeological Researches in Palestine 1873-1874, translated from the French by J. McFarlane. 2. London: Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Conder, C. R. (1876). "Samarian Topography". Quarterly statement - Palestine Exploration Fund. 8: 182–197.
- Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, H. H. (1882). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. 2. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Dauphin, Claudine (1998). La Palestine byzantine, Peuplement et Populations. BAR International Series 726 (in French). III : Catalogue. Oxford: Archeopress. ISBN 0-860549-05-4.
- Ellenblum, Ronnie (2003). Frankish Rural Settlement in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521521871. (pp. 228, 266-7)
- Finkelstein, Israel; Lederman, Zvi, eds. (1997). Highlands of many cultures. Tel Aviv: Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University Publications Section. ISBN 965-440-007-3.
- Government of Jordan, Department of Statistics (1964). First Census of Population and Housing. Volume I: Final Tables; General Characteristics of the Population (PDF).
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics (1945). Village Statistics, April, 1945.
- Guérin, Victor (1875). Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine (in French). 2: Samarie, pt. 2. Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale.
- Hadawi, Sami (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center.
- Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. ISBN 3-920405-41-2.
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Neubauer, Adolf (1868). La géographie du Talmud : mémoire couronné par l'Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres (in French). Paris: Lévy. (p. 159)
- Palmer, E. H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Pringle, Denys (1997). 'Aqraba (no. 18). Secular Buildings in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: An Archaeological Gazetteer. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521460101. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
Fortified courtyard building (al-Hisn) at highest point of the village, NW ofmosque, consisting of rectangular courtyard between two parallel rows of vaults, entered on E through arched gate flanked by projecting towers. Mosque contains Crusader capitals on fluted marble columns, flanking the mihrab (1947). / PAM: Reports by Anon (15 Feb.1937) and S.A.S. Husseini (114 June 1947). Conder and Kitchhner 1881: II, 386, 389: Palestine 1929; 148: 116.
- Pringle, Denys (2009). The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: The cities of Acre and Tyre with Addenda and Corrigenda to Volumes I-III. IV. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85148-0.
The medieval buildings in 'Aqraba noted in the 1930s and 1940s included a fortified courtyard building (al-Hisn), a birka and a building with a dome and drum carried on pendentives (cf. Pringle 1997: 20. no. 18)
- Robinson, Edward; Smith, Eli (1841). Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A Journal of Travels in the year 1838. 3. Boston: Crocker & Brewster.
- Sharon, Moshe (1997). 'Aqrabah. Corpus Inscriptionum Arabicarum Palaestinae: A. 1. Brill. pp. 110-111. ISBN 90-04-10833-5. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
- Aqraba municipality
- Welcome To 'Aqraba
- Aqraba, Welcome to Palestine
- Survey of Western Palestine, Map 15: IAA, Wikimedia commons
- Aqraba Town Profile (including Yanun Locality), Applied Research Institute - Jerusalem (ARIJ)
- Aqraba, aerial photo, ARIJ
- March 2009 demolition orders for Aqraba homes and mosque