TDK Corporation TDK Electronics Co. Ltd, is a Japanese multinational electronics company that manufactures electronic materials, electronic components, recording and data-storage media, its motto is "Contribute to culture and industry through creativity"."TDK" is an initialism of the original Japanese name of the company: Tokyo Denki Kagaku Kōgyō K. K.. The company is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the Nikkei 225 and TOPIX indices. TDK was founded in Tokyo, Japan, on 7 December 1935 to manufacture the iron-based magnetic material ferrite, invented by Yogoro Kato and Takeshi Takei. In 1952 and 1957 they began production of magnetic tapes, with compact cassette tapes following in 1966. TDK used to manufacture an extensive portfolio of magnetic and optical media, including several formats of videotape and blank CD-R and recordable DVD discs until the recording business was sold to Imation in 2007. Operations in the USA began in 1965 with a New York City office, European operations began in 1970 with an office in Frankfurt, West Germany.
In 1980, TDK developed a multilayering technology to create chip capacitors and inductors inside personal computers, laptops and other electronic devices. In 1986, TDK acquired SAE Magnetics and introduced high-density recording heads to their product offerings. In the 1990s TDK's Mass Storage Division included brushless DC spindle motors, magnetoresistance heads, thin-film heads. Since 1997 TDK has withdrawn from the production of compact cassettes. First with the MA-X and AR the AD and SA-X line in 2001 and 2002 then the MA line in 2004; the SA and D lines were withdrawn in 2012 under Imation ownership. Industry trends see the company moving into new forms of media. TDK operated a semiconductor division in California for about a decade, but divested it in 2005. In late 2007, Imation acquired TDK's recording business, including flash media, optical media, magnetic tape, accessories, for $300 million; this included a license to use the "TDK Life on Record" brand on data storage and audio products for 25 years.
In September 2015, Imation announced that it had agreed to relinquish this license and would cease selling TDK-branded products by the end of the year. Since the 2000s, TDK has turned its focus to the development and sales of electronic components, HDD heads and suspension, power supplies. Beginning in 2005, TDK has acquired a manner of electronic device manufacturers including passive component developers, sensors manufacturers and power supply companies; these areas remain TDK’s focus today. Since 2016, Shigenao Ishiguro has been President and CEO of TDK. 1986: SAE Magnetics Ltd. a magnetic head maker based in Hong Kong 2000: Headway Technologies, a magnetic head maker based in the United States 2005: Amperex Technology Limited, a Lithium Polymer battery company based in Hong Kong 2005: Lambda Power Division, a group of power supply businesses of London-based Invensys PLC. 2008: EPCOS, an electronic device manufacturer based in Germany 2000: Headway Technologies, a magnetic head maker based in the United States 2016: Micronas Semiconductor Holding AG, a magnetic sensor company based in Switzerland 2016: Hutchinson Technology Inc. a manufacturer of HDD suspension assemblies based in the United States 2017: RF360 Holdings Singapore PTE Ltd. – a joint venture with Qualcomm Inc. 2017: InvenSense, Inc. a sensor specialist based in the United States 2018: Chirp Microsystems, a developer of low power, ultrasonic 3D-sensing solutions based in the United States 2018: Faraday Semi LLC, a developer of miniature Point of Load solutions based in the United States TDK has sponsored the IAAF World Championships in Athletics since the 1983 inaugural event in Helsinki.
TDK sponsored Ajax for several years in the 1980s during which it won the European Cupwinners Cup in 1987. From 1993 to 1999, TDK were the sponsors of the English football club Crystal Palace, who were promoted to the Premier League twice during this era, though lasting for just one season before being relegated on both occasions. TDK was a minor sponsor of the Brisbane Broncos Rugby League Team during the early 90's, it is a current sponsor of the IAAF World Championships in Athletics. It sponsors activities and events such as those at The Cross nightclub in Central London, since 1990 has had a prominent sign at Piccadilly Circus although it was announced in November 2014 that they would not be renewing the contract. TDK has owned a sign on One Times Square since 2000; the screen is placed under that of Toshiba and can be seen during the annual Times Square New Year's Ball Drop. Since 2001, TDK has supported performances of some of the world’s distinguished orchestras in Japan within the company’s "TDK Orchestra Concerts" program.
TDK's "Outreach-Mini Concerts" and "Special Rehearsals and Main Concert Invitations" additionally serve as avenues for the company to attract younger audiences. In 2002, the company's consumer electronics division was the presenting sponsor of the Third Annual Jammy Awards, with the TDK Live Performance of the Year award honoring the best live performance, available on the Web as a free download; the award was given to the band moe. for their performance at the Bonnaroo Music Festival. TDK's own football club, based in Nikaho, Akita split from the corporation to become independent football club Blaublitz Akita, with the aim for the profess
Nintendo Power is a video game news and strategy podcast from Nintendo of America, which had originated in August 1988 as Nintendo's official print magazine. The magazine's publication was done monthly by Nintendo of America independently, in December 2007 contracted to Future US, the American subsidiary of British publisher Future, its 24 year production run is one of the longest of all video game magazines in the United States and Canada. On August 21, 2012, Nintendo announced that it would not be renewing its licensing agreement with Future Publishing, that Nintendo Power would cease publication in December; the final issue, volume 285, was released on December 11, 2012. On December 20, 2017, Nintendo Power returned as a podcast. Predating Nintendo Power is the Nintendo Fun Club News, a newsletter sent to club members for free. In mid-1988 it was discontinued after seven issues in favor of Nintendo Power; the new magazine was founded by Nintendo of America marketing manager Gail Tilden in 1988.
The first issue, dated July/August 1988, spotlights the NES game Super Mario Bros. 2. Of this issue, 3.6 million copies were published, with every member of the Nintendo Fun Club receiving a free copy. From the beginning, Nintendo Power focuses on providing game strategy and previews of upcoming games. In mid-1998, Nintendo Power first allowed outside advertising in the magazine reserved for Nintendo-based products only. In its early years, ads only appeared in the first and last few pages of the magazine, leaving no ads to break up the magazine's editorial content; as of July 2005, Nintendo Power has a new design to appeal to a limited gaming audience, including a new logo and article format. Along with the cosmetic overhaul came a greater focus on Nintendo fans, staff reviews, rumor-milling, fan service including an expanded and enhanced reader mail segment and a revamped "Community" section. Nintendo introduced a new incentive promotional offer that involved the registration of three Nintendo products through Nintendo.com to receive a free three issue trial subscription to Nintendo Power.
The magazine changed its focus from game strategies and cheat codes to news and articles on upcoming games. On September 19, 2007, Nintendo announced that the large magazine publisher Future US would begin publishing Nintendo Power; the company's first official issue was released in October, as issue #222. It was revealed that circulation would be increased to 13 issues a year, with the extra magazine being a holiday season bonus issue. Nintendo Power stopped making the Bonus issue in 2011. On August 21, 2012, Nintendo announced that it had opted not to renew the licensing agreement with Future Publishing and that Nintendo Power would cease publication after 24 years; the final issue would be December 2012. Senior Editor, Chris Hoffman stated that his staff would "try to make the last issues memorable". Nintendo did not participate in discussions to continue the magazine online. Nintendo Power returned on December 20, 2017 as a podcast, using the original logo design; the magazine was edited at first by himself an avid gamer.
While the Fun Club News focused on games made in-house by Nintendo, Nintendo Power was created to allow for reviews of games produced by those licensed by Nintendo, such as Konami and the like. Nintendo Power's mascot in the late 1980s and early 1990s was Nester, a comic character created by Phillips. After Phillips left the company, Nester became the magazine's sole mascot. Early issues of the magazine featured a two-page Howard and Nester comic, replaced with the two-page Nester's Adventures reduced to one page, dropped altogether. Subsequently, Mario replaced Nester as the mascot of the magazine. During the early 2000s, the magazine made another mascot out of its Senior Writer, Alan Averill. Camera-shy, Averill himself never appeared in any photos. Fans clamored to see what Averill looked like, but the magazine continued to substitute with photos of the toy, claimed that Alan was, in fact, a Blue Slime. Averill retired from Nintendo Power, joining Nintendo of America's localization department.
To this day, most fans have never seen a real image of Averill. The inclusion of a photo of Mr. T in the Player's Pulse section became a running gag in the early half of 2005. Late in the magazine's life, running gags centered on Chuck Norris references and jokes at the expense of writer Chris Shepperd. During the early 1990s, the magazine used what was a unique and expensive promotion: giving away a free copy of the new NES game Dragon Quest to every new subscriber; this promotion was in part a move on Nintendo's part to make money off Dragon Warrior which had not sold nearly as well as Nintendo had anticipated, it was left with a large number of unsold cartridges on its hands. The promotion both helped the company get rid of the unsold merchandise, won the magazine thousands of new subscribers. Following the release of the Super NES, the magazine featured lengthy, continuous comic stories based on Super Mario World and The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past. After these stories ended, they were replaced by similar multi-issue stories based on Star Fox, Super Metroid, on, Nintendo 64 games such as Star Wars: Shadows of the Empire and Blast Corps.
Comics based on the animated series of Pokémon and Kirby: Right Back At Ya! made several appearances. Toward the end, short excerpts based on Custom Robo and Metal Gear Solid are f
Ziff Davis, LLC is an American publisher and Internet company. It was founded in 1927 in Illinois, by William Bernard Ziff Sr. and Bernard George Davis. Throughout most of Ziff Davis' history, it was a publisher of hobbyist magazines ones devoted to expensive, advertiser-rich technical hobbies such as cars and electronics. However, since 1980, Ziff Davis has published computer-related magazines, its websites, derived from its magazines, have established Ziff Davis as an internet information company. Ziff Davis had several broadcasting properties, first during the mid-1970s, with its own technology network ZDTV renamed to TechTV, sold to Vulcan Ventures in 2001. Ziff Davis' magazine publishing and internet operations offices are based in New York City and San Francisco. On January 6, 2009, the company sold 1UP.com to UGO Entertainment, a division of Hearst Corporation and announced the January 2009 issue of the long-running Electronic Gaming Monthly magazine as the final one. Former Time Inc. executive Vivek Shah, with financial backing from Boston private equity company Great Hill Partners, announced on June 4, 2010, the acquisition of Ziff Davis Inc. as the "first step in building a new digital media company that specializes in producing and distributing content for consumers making important buying decisions."On November 12, 2012, Ziff Davis Inc. was acquired by cloud computing services company j2 Global of Hollywood, Calif. for $167 million cash.
According to a late 2015 Fortune article, Ziff Davis comprises 30% of parent company j2 Global's $600 million annual revenue and is increasing 15% to 20% each year. Analyst Gregory Burns of Sidoti & Company calculates; the William B. Ziff Company, founded in 1920, was a successful Chicago advertising agency that secured advertising from national companies such as Procter & Gamble for all African American weekly newspapers. In 1923, Ziff acquired E. C. Auld Company, a Chicago publishing house. Ziff's first venture in magazine publishing was Ziff's Magazine, which featured short stories, one-act plays, humorous verse, jokes; the title was changed to America's Humor in April 1926. Bernard George Davis was the student editor of the University of Pittsburgh's humor magazine, the Pitt Panther, was active in the Association of College Comics of the East. During his senior year he attended the association's convention and met William B. Ziff; when Davis graduated in 1927 he joined Ziff as the editor of America's Humor.
Ziff, an aviator in World War I, created a new magazine, Popular Aviation, in August 1927, published by Popular Aviation Publishing Company of Chicago, Illinois. Under editor Harley W. Mitchell it became the largest aviation magazine, with a circulation of 100,000 in 1929; the magazine's title became Aeronautics in June 1929 and the publishing company's name became Aeronautical Publications, Inc. The title was changed back to Popular Aviation in July 1930; the magazine is still published today by the Bonnier Corporation. The magazine celebrated its 90th anniversary in 2017; the company histories give the founding date as 1927. This is when B. G. Davis joined and Popular Aviation magazine started. However, it was not until 1936 that the company became the "Ziff-Davis Publishing Company". Davis was given a substantial minority equity interest in the company and was appointed a vice-president and director, he was named president in 1946. Davis was a photography enthusiast and the editor of the Popular Photography magazine started in May 1937.
In early 1938, Ziff-Davis acquired the magazines Amazing Stories. These were started by Hugo Gernsback but sold as a result of the Experimenter Publishing bankruptcy in 1929. Both magazines had declined since the bankruptcy but the resources of Ziff-Davis rejuvenated them starting with the April 1938 issues. Radio News was published until 1972; the magazine Popular Electronics, derived from Radio News, was begun in 1955 and published until 1985. Amazing Stories was a leading science fiction magazine and Ziff Davis soon added a new companion, Fantastic Adventures. In 1954 FA was merged into the newer magazine Fantastic, founded in 1952 to great initial success. ZD published a number of other pulp magazines and digest-sized fiction magazines during the 1940s and 1950s, continued to publish Amazing and Fantastic until 1965. Ziff-Davis published comic books during the early 1950s, operating by their own name and the name Approved Comics. Eschewing superheroes, they published horror, sports and Western comics, though most titles didn't last more than a few issues.
Superman co-creator Jerry Siegel was the art director of the comics line. In 1953, the company abandoned comics, selling its most popular titles—the romance comics Cinderella Love and Romantic Love, the Western Kid Cowboy, the jungle adventure Wild Boy of the Congo—to St. John Publications. Ziff-Davis continued to publish one title, G. I. Joe, until 1957, a total of 51 issues. William B. Ziff, Sr. died in 1953 and son William B. Ziff, Jr. returned from Germany to assume his role in the company. In 1958 Bernard G. Davis sold his share of Ziff Davis to found Davis Publications, although Ziff-Davis continued to use his surname. With the younger Ziff's direction, ZD soon became a successful publisher of enthusiast magazines. Ziff Davis purchased titles like Car And Driv
DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. since 1967. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, produces material featuring numerous culturally iconic heroic characters including: Superman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern,Aquaman,Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman and Supergirl. Most of their material takes place in the fictional DC Universe, which features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, the Teen Titans, well-known villains such as The Joker, Lex Luthor, Darkseid, Brainiac, Black Adam, Ra's al Ghul and Deathstroke; the company has published non-DC Universe-related material, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo. The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name.
In Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and 575 Lexington Avenue. DC had its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Burbank, California in April 2015. Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market. DC Comics and its longtime major competitor Marvel Comics together shared 70% of the American comic book market in 2017. Entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson founded National Allied Publications in autumn 1934; the company debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 with a cover date of February 1935. The company's second title, New Comics #1, appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with larger dimensions than today's.
That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue #503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived Adventure Comics with its original numbering. In 1935, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the future creators of Superman, created Doctor Occult, the earliest DC Comics character to still be in the DC Universe. Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936 premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date; the themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue #27. By however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld—who published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News—Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners.
Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, he was forced out. Shortly afterwards, Detective Comics, Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction. Detective Comics, Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics #1, the first comic book to feature the new character archetype—soon known as "superheroes"—proved a sales hit; the company introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. National Allied Publications soon merged with Detective Comics, Inc. forming National Comics Publications on September 30, 1946. National Comics Publications absorbed an affiliated concern, Max Gaines' and Liebowitz' All-American Publications.
In the same year Gaines let Liebowitz buy him out, kept only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC Comics. At that point, "Liebowitz promptly orchestrated the merger of All-American and Detective Comics into National Comics... Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". National Periodical Publications became publicly traded on the stock market in 1961. Despite the official names "National Comics" and "National Periodical Publications", the company began branding itself as "Superman-DC" as early as 1940, the company became known colloquially as DC Comics for years before the official adoption of that name in 1977; the company began to move aggressively against what it saw as copyright-violating imitations from other companies, such as Fox Comics' Wonder Man, which Fox started as a copy of Superman. This extended to DC suing Fawcett Comics over Captain Marvel, at the time comics' top-selling character.
Faced with declining sales and the prospect of bankruptcy if it lost, Fawcett capitulated in 1953 and ceased publishing comics. Years Fawcett sold the rights for Captain Marvel to DC—which in 1972 revived Captain Marvel in the new title Shazam
The Xbox is a home video game console and the first installment in the Xbox series of consoles manufactured by Microsoft. It was released as Microsoft's first foray into the gaming console market on November 15, 2001, in North America, followed by Australia and Japan in 2002, it is classified as a sixth generation console, competing with Sony's PlayStation 2 and Nintendo's GameCube. It was the first console produced by an American company since the Atari Jaguar ceased production in 1996. Announced in 2000, the Xbox was graphically powerful compared to its rivals, featuring a 733 MHz Intel Pentium III processor, a processor that could be found on a standard PC, it was noted for its PC-like size and weight, was the first console to feature a built-in hard disk. In November 2002, Microsoft launched Xbox Live, a fee-based online gaming service that enabled subscribers to download new content and connect with other players through a broadband connection. Unlike online services from Sega and Sony, Xbox Live had support in the original console design through an integrated Ethernet port.
The service gave Microsoft an early foothold in online gaming and would help the Xbox become a competitor in the sixth-generation of consoles. The popularity of blockbuster titles such as Bungie's Halo 2 contributed to the popularity of online console gaming, in particular first-person shooters. Despite this, being in second position by the sales numbers—ahead of Nintendo's GameCube and Sega's Dreamcast—sales of the Xbox were always well behind Sony's PlayStation 2. Xbox's successor and the next console in the series, the Xbox 360, was launched in November 2005 as part of the seventh generation; the Xbox was discontinued soon after, beginning with Japan, Microsoft's worst-performing market, in 2005. Other countries followed suit in 2006; the last Xbox game in Europe was Xiaolin Showdown, released in June 2007, the last game in North America was Madden NFL 09 from EA Sports, released in August 2008. Support for out-of-warranty Xbox consoles was discontinued on March 2, 2009. Support for Xbox Live on the console ended on April 15, 2010.
In 1998, four engineers from Microsoft's DirectX team, Kevin Bachus, Seamus Blackley, Ted Hase and DirectX team leader Otto Berkes, disassembled some Dell laptop computers to construct a prototype Microsoft Windows-based video game console. The team hoped to create a console using a standardized set of hardware to compete with Sony's upcoming PlayStation 2, luring game developers away from the Windows platform; the team approached Ed Fries, the leader of Microsoft's game publishing business at the time, pitched their "DirectX Box" console based on the DirectX graphics technology developed by Berkes's team. Fries decided to support the team's idea of creating a Windows DirectX based console. During development, the original DirectXbox name was shortened to Xbox. Microsoft's marketing department did not like the Xbox name, suggested many alternatives. During focus testing, the Xbox name was left on the list of possible names to demonstrate how unpopular the Xbox name would be with consumers. However, consumer testing revealed that Xbox was preferred by far over the other suggested names and "Xbox" became the official name of the product.
It was Microsoft's first video game console after collaborating with Sega to port Windows CE to the Dreamcast console. Microsoft delayed the console, first mentioned publicly in late 1999 during interviews with Microsoft's then-CEO Bill Gates. Gates stated: "we want Xbox to be the platform of choice for the best and most creative game developers in the world"; the Xbox was announced at the Game Developers Conference on March 10, 2000. Audiences were impressed by the console's technology. At the time of Gates's announcement, Sega's Dreamcast sales were diminishing and Sony's PlayStation 2 was just going on sale in Japan. Gates was in talks with Sega's late chairman Isao Okawa about the possibility of Xbox compatibility with Dreamcast games, but negotiations fell apart over whether or not the Dreamcast's SegaNet online service should be implemented; the Xbox was unveiled to the public by Gates and guest professional wrestler The Rock at CES 2001 in Las Vegas on January 3, 2001. Microsoft announced Xbox's release prices at E3 2001 in May.
Most Xbox launch titles were unveiled at E3, most notably Halo: Combat Evolved and Dead or Alive 3. Due to the immense popularity of gaming consoles in Japan, Microsoft delayed the release of the Xbox in Europe to focus on the Japanese video game market. Although delayed, the European release proved to be more successful than the launch of the Xbox in Japan; some of Microsoft's plans proved effective. In preparation for its launch, Microsoft acquired Bungie and used Halo: Combat Evolved as its launch title. At the time, GoldenEye 007 for the Nintendo 64 had been one of the few hit FPS games to appear on a console, as well as titles such as Perfect Dark and Medal of Honor. Halo: Combat Evolved proved a good application to drive the Xbox's sales. In 2002, Microsoft made the second place slot in consoles sold in North America; the Xbox Live service gave Microsoft an early foothold in online gaming and would help the Xbox become a relevant competitor to other sixth-generation consoles. In 2002, the Independent Television Commission banned a television advertisement for the Xbox in the United Kingdom after complaints that it was "offensive, shocking and in bad taste".
It depicted a mother giving birth to a baby boy, fired like a projectile through a window aging as he flies through the air. The advertisement ends with an old man crash-landing into his own grave and the slogan, "Life is short. Play more." The Xbox's successor, the Xbox 360, was announced on May 12, 2005 on MTV. It was the first n
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne
Nintendo Co. Ltd. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto. Nintendo is one of the world's largest video game companies by market capitalization, creating some of the best-known and top-selling video game franchises, such as Mario, The Legend of Zelda, Pokémon. Founded on 23 September 1889 by Fusajiro Yamauchi, it produced handmade hanafuda playing cards. By 1963, the company had tried several small niche businesses, such as cab services and love hotels. Abandoning previous ventures in favor of toys in the 1960s, Nintendo developed into a video game company in the 1970s becoming one of the most influential in the industry and one of Japan's most-valuable companies with a market value of over $37 billion in 2018. Nintendo was founded as a playing card company by Fusajiro Yamauchi on 23 September 1889. Based in Kyoto, the business marketed Hanafuda cards; the handmade cards soon became popular, Yamauchi hired assistants to mass-produce cards to satisfy demand.
In 1949, the company adopted the name Nintendo Karuta Co. Ltd. doing business as The Nintendo Playing Card Co. outside Japan. Nintendo continues to manufacture playing cards in Japan and organizes its own contract bridge tournament called the "Nintendo Cup"; the word Nintendo can be translated as "leave luck to heaven", or alternatively as "the temple of free hanafuda". In 1956, Hiroshi Yamauchi, grandson of Fusajiro Yamauchi, visited the U. S. to talk with the United States Playing Card Company, the dominant playing card manufacturer there. He found. Yamauchi's realization that the playing card business had limited potential was a turning point, he acquired the license to use Disney characters on playing cards to drive sales. In 1963, Yamauchi renamed Nintendo Playing Card Co. Ltd. to Nintendo Co. Ltd; the company began to experiment in other areas of business using newly injected capital during the period of time between 1963 and 1968. Nintendo set up a taxi company called Daiya; this business was successful.
However, Nintendo was forced to sell it because problems with the labour unions were making it too expensive to run the service. It set up a love hotel chain, a TV network, a food company and several other ventures. All of these ventures failed, after the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, playing card sales dropped, Nintendo's stock price plummeted to its lowest recorded level of ¥60. In 1966, Nintendo moved into the Japanese toy industry with the Ultra Hand, an extendable arm developed by its maintenance engineer Gunpei Yokoi in his free time. Yokoi was moved from maintenance to the new "Nintendo Games" department as a product developer. Nintendo continued to produce popular toys, including the Ultra Machine, Love Tester and the Kousenjuu series of light gun games. Despite some successful products, Nintendo struggled to meet the fast development and manufacturing turnaround required in the toy market, fell behind the well-established companies such as Bandai and Tomy. In 1973, its focus shifted to family entertainment venues with the Laser Clay Shooting System, using the same light gun technology used in Nintendo's Kousenjuu series of toys, set up in abandoned bowling alleys.
Following some success, Nintendo developed several more light gun machines for the emerging arcade scene. While the Laser Clay Shooting System ranges had to be shut down following excessive costs, Nintendo had found a new market. Nintendo's first venture into the video gaming industry was securing rights to distribute the Magnavox Odyssey video game console in Japan in 1974. Nintendo began to produce its own hardware in 1977, with the Color TV-Game home video game consoles. Four versions of these consoles were produced, each including variations of a single game. A student product developer named, he worked for Yokoi, one of his first tasks was to design the casing for several of the Color TV-Game consoles. Miyamoto went on to create and produce some of Nintendo's most famous video games and become one of the most recognizable figures in the video game industry. In 1975, Nintendo moved into the video arcade game industry with EVR Race, designed by their first game designer, Genyo Takeda, several more games followed.
Nintendo had some small success with this venture, but the release of Donkey Kong in 1981, designed by Miyamoto, changed Nintendo's fortunes dramatically. The success of the game and many licensing opportunities gave Nintendo a huge boost in profit and in addition, the game introduced an early iteration of Mario known in Japan as Jumpman, the eventual company mascot. In 1979, Gunpei Yokoi conceived the idea of a handheld video game, while observing a fellow bullet train commuter who passed the time by interacting idly with a portable LCD calculator, which gave birth to Game & Watch. In 1980, Nintendo launched Watch -- a handheld video game series developed by Yokoi; these systems do not contain interchangeable cartridges and thus the hardware was tied to the game. The first Game & Watch game, was distributed worldwide; the modern "cross" D-pad design was developed by Yokoi for a Donkey Kong version. Proven to be popular, the design was patented by Nintendo, it earned a Technology & Engineering Emmy Award.
In 1983, Nintendo launched the Family Computer home video game console in Japan, alongside ports of its most popular arcade games. In 1985, a cosmetically reworked version of the system known