Broadnose sevengill shark
The broadnose sevengill shark is the only extant member of the genus Notorynchus, in the family Hexanchidae. It is recognizable because of its seven gill slits, while most shark species have five gill slits, with the exception of the members of the order Hexanchiformes and the sixgill sawshark; this shark has a thick body, with a broad head and blunt snout. The top jaw has jagged, cusped teeth and the bottom jaw has comb-shaped teeth, its single dorsal fin is set far back along the spine towards the caudal fin, is behind the pelvic fins. In this shark the upper caudal fin is much longer than the lower, is notched near the tip. Like many sharks, this sevengill is counter-shaded, its dorsal surface is silver-gray to brown in order to blend with the dark water and substrate when viewed from above. In counter to this, its ventral surface is pale, blending with the sunlit water when viewed from below; the body and fins are covered in a scattering of white spots. In juveniles, their fins have white margins.
It is known as sevengill shark or sevengill and was known as cow shark and mud shark. Because of this, it was listed along with the sharpnose sevengill shark by Guinness World Records as having the most gill slits, it is similar to the sharpnose sevengill shark but the latter has a pointed snout and lacks spots on its dorsal surface. The sevengill species are related to ancient sharks as fossils from the Jurassic Period had seven gills; as as the 1930s and 1940s, the shark was targeted by fisheries along the coast of California and, once the commercial fishery receded, recreational fishing of the shark started in the 1980s and 1990s. The length at birth is 40–45 cm while the mature male length is 1.5 m and mature female length is around 2.2 m. The maximum length found is 3 metres; the shark has a large head but small eyes and snout. The shark has one dorsal fin at the back of the body that spans from the insertion to the tops of the pelvic fins; the broadnose sevengill shark is known as sevengill shark or sevengill and was known as cow shark and mud shark.
Because of this, it was listed along with the sharpnose sevengill shark by Guinness World Records as having the most gill slits. It is similar to the sharpnose sevengill shark but the latter has a pointed snout and lacks spots on its dorsal surface; the sevengill species are related to ancient sharks as fossils from the Jurassic Period had seven gills. The broadnose sevengill has so far been found in the western Pacific Ocean off China, Australia, New Zealand, the eastern Pacific Ocean off Canada, United States and Chile, the southern Atlantic Ocean off Argentina and South Africa. In San Francisco, California, it is found in the San Francisco Bay near the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Island. Large, old individuals tend to live in deep offshore environments as far down as 446 feet. However, most individuals live in either the deep channels of bays, or in the shallower waters of continental shelves and estuaries; these sharks are benthic in nature, cruising along the sea floor and making an occasional foray to the surface.
Other foreign names are cação-bruxa, cañabota gata, gatita, gevlekte zevenkieuwshaai, kammzähner, koeihaai, k'wet'thenéchte, minami-ebisuzame, platneus-sewekiefhaai, requin malais, Siebenkiemiger Pazifischer Kammzähner, siedmioszpar plamisty, tiburón manchado, tiburón de 7 gallas, tiburón pinto and tollo fume, tuatini. An opportunistic predator, the broadnose sevengill preys on a great variety of animals and has been found at a depth of 1,870 feet in offshore waters, it has been found to feed on sharks, chimaeras, pinnipeds, bony fishes and carrion and will feed on whatever it finds such as shark egg cases, sea snails and remains of rats and humans. Research in 2003 found that its diet consisted of 30% mammals with a frequency of occurrence of 35%, it is a frequent top predator in shallow waters and has comb-like teeth, with the upper teeth having slender, smooth edged cusps to swallow small enough prey whole and lower teeth broad enough to bite prey to pieces. These sharks hunt in packs to take down larger prey, using tactics such as stealth to succeed.
After feeding, it digests the food for several hours and days and can go weeks until eating again. Large predatory sharks such as the great white shark can be a threat and cannibalism among this shark has been recorded; when not active, it hunts stealthily while making little movement except for moving its caudal fin until dashing to strike. It can be one of the most abundant predators in coastal waters in summer and, in southeast Tasmania, there is a high abundance of elasmobranches including the gummy shark in coastal regions in summer. In New Zealand, it is one of the most common inshore sharks. While it is a nocturnal forager, it may opportunistically feed on prey casually found during the day, research in 2010, found amounts of activity during day and night. During this research, this shark was detected at all depths from bottom to near surface whereas it was the substrate during the day, it found that as Norfolk Bay does not have adequate shelter cover, this species
The school shark is a houndshark of the family Triakidae, the only member of the genus Galeorhinus. Common names include tope shark, snapper shark, soupfin shark, it is found worldwide in temperate seas at depths down to about 800 m. It can grow to nearly 2 m long, it feeds both in midwater and near the seabed, its reproduction is ovoviviparous. This shark is caught in fisheries for its flesh, its fins, its liver, which has a high vitamin A content; the IUCN has classified this species as "vulnerable" in its Red List of Threatened Species. The school shark is a shallow-bodied shark with an elongated snout; the large mouth is crescent-shaped and the teeth are of a similar size and shape in both jaws. They are triangular-shaped and flat, set at an oblique angle facing backwards and with a notch; the spiracles are small. The first dorsal fin is triangular with a straight leading edge and is set just behind the pectoral fins; the second dorsal fin is about the same size as the anal fin and is set above it.
The terminal lobe of the caudal fin is as long as the rest of the fin. School sharks are white on their bellies. Juveniles have black markings on their fins. Mature sharks range from 150 to 195 cm for females; the school shark has a widespread distribution and is found near the seabed around coasts in temperate waters, down to depths around 800 m. It occurs in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, where it is uncommon and the Southwest Atlantic where it occurs between Patagonia and southern Brazil, it occurs around the coast of Namibia and South Africa. It is present in the NorthWESt Pacific where it occurs between British Columbia and Baja California, in the Southeast Pacific off Chile and Peru, it occurs round the southern coasts of Australia, including Tasmania, New Zealand. The school shark is a migratory species. Animals tagged in the United Kingdom have been recovered in the Azores, the Canary Islands, Iceland. Tagged individuals in Australia have travelled distances of 1,200 km along the coast and others have turned up in New Zealand.
The school shark feeds on fish. Examination of stomach contents of fish caught off California showed that they were not fussy eaters and consumed whatever fish were plentiful at the time, their diet was predominantly sardines, flatfish and squid. Feeding is done both in open water and near the seabed as sardines and squid are pelagic animals, while the remainder are benthic species; the school shark is ovoviviparous. Males become mature at a length around females around 150 cm; the gestation period is about one year and the number of developing pups carried varies with the size of the mother, averaging between about 28 and 38. Pups in the same litter may have different sires because females are able to store sperm for a long time after mating; the females have traditional "pupping" areas in sheltered bays and estuaries where the young are born. The juvenile fish remain in these nursery areas; the meat of the school shark is consumed in Andalusian cuisine, where it is known as cazón. Among recipes are the traditional cazón en adobo in the mainland, tollos in the Canary Islands.
In Mexican cuisine, the term cazón refers to other species, is prepared similarly. In the United Kingdom, the flesh is sometimes used in "fish and chips" as a substitute for the more usual cod or haddock. In Greek cuisine, it is known as galéos and is served with skordaliá, a dip made of mashed potatoes or wet white bread, with mashed garlic and olive oil. Before 1937, the school shark was caught in California to supply a local market for shark fillet, the fins were dried and sold in the Far East. Around that date, laboratory tests on its liver showed that it was higher in vitamin A content than any other fish tested. Subsequent to this discovery, it became the subject of a much larger-scale fishery which developed as a result of the high prices obtainable for the fish and its liver, it became the main source of supply for vitamin A in the United States during World War II, but was overexploited, populations were reduced, the numbers of fish caught dwindled. Its oil was replaced by a similar product from the spotted spiny dogfish and subsequently by lower-potency fish oils from Mexico and South America.
The school shark, along with the gummy shark, is the most important species in the southern Australian commercial fishery. It is fished throughout its range and exploited; the IUCN lists the school shark as "vulnerable" in its Red List of Threatened Species. Although it is distributed, it is threatened by overexploitation in many parts of its range, where it is targeted for its liver oil and fins, it is caught by gillnets and longline fishing and to a lesser extent by trawling. Pups are sometimes caught inshore and some nursery areas are subject to siltation and their habitat may become degraded. Deep-sea cables and the magnetic field caused by the current flow may disrupt migration routes. In 2010, Greenpeace International added the school shark to its seafood red list. In June 2018 the New Zealand Department of Conservation classified the school shark as "Not Threatened" with the qualifiers "Conservation Dependent" and "Threatened Overseas" under the New Zealand Threat Classification System.
Data related to Galeorhinus galeus at Wikispecies
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the US state of California. It is surrounded by a contiguous region known as the San Francisco Bay Area, is dominated by the large cities of San Jose, San Francisco and Oakland. San Francisco Bay drains water from 40 percent of California. Water from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, from the Sierra Nevada mountains, flow into Suisun Bay, which travels through the Carquinez Strait to meet with the Napa River at the entrance to San Pablo Bay, which connects at its south end to San Francisco Bay; the Guadalupe River enters the bay at its southernmost point in San Jose. The Guadalupe drains water from the Santa Cruz mountains and Hamilton Mountain ranges in southernmost San Jose, it enters the bay at the town of Alviso. It connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait. However, this entire group of interconnected bays is called the San Francisco Bay; the bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on February 2, 2012. The bay covers somewhere between 400 and 1,600 square miles, depending on which sub-bays, wetlands, so on are included in the measurement.
The main part of the bay measures three to twelve miles wide east-to-west and somewhere between 48 miles 1 and 60 miles 2 north-to-south. It is the largest Pacific estuary in the Americas; the bay was navigable as far south as San Jose until the 1850s, when hydraulic mining released massive amounts of sediment from the rivers that settled in those parts of the bay that had little or no current. Wetlands and inlets were deliberately filled in, reducing the Bay's size since the mid-19th century by as much as one third. Large areas of wetlands have been restored, further confusing the issue of the Bay's size. Despite its value as a waterway and harbor, many thousands of acres of marshy wetlands at the edges of the bay were, for many years, considered wasted space; as a result, soil excavated for building projects or dredged from channels was dumped onto the wetlands and other parts of the bay as landfill. From the mid-19th century through the late 20th century, more than a third of the original bay was filled and built on.
The deep, damp soil in these areas is subject to soil liquefaction during earthquakes, most of the major damage close to the Bay in the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 occurred to structures on these areas. The Marina District of San Francisco, hard hit by the 1989 earthquake, was built on fill, placed there for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, although liquefaction did not occur on a large scale. In the 1990s, San Francisco International Airport proposed filling in hundreds more acres to extend its overcrowded international runways in exchange for purchasing other parts of the bay and converting them back to wetlands; the idea was, remains, controversial. There are five large islands in San Francisco Bay. Alameda, the largest island, was created when a shipping lane was cut to form the Port of Oakland in 1901, it is now a suburban community. Angel Island was known as "Ellis Island West" because it served as the entry point for immigrants from East Asia, it is now a state park accessible by ferry.
Mountainous Yerba Buena Island is pierced by a tunnel linking the east and west spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. Attached to the north is the artificial and flat Treasure Island, site of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition. From the Second World War until the 1990s, both islands served as military bases and are now being redeveloped. Isolated in the center of the Bay is Alcatraz, the site of the famous federal penitentiary; the federal prison on Alcatraz Island no longer functions, but the complex is a popular tourist site. Despite its name, Mare Island in the northern part of the bay is a peninsula rather than an island. San Francisco Bay is thought to represent a down-warping of the Earth's crust between the San Andreas Fault to the west and the Hayward Fault to the east, though the precise nature of this remains under study. About 560,000 years ago, a tectonic shift caused the large inland Lake Corcoran to spill out the central valley and through the Carquinez Strait, carving out sediment and forming canyons in what is now the northern part of the San Francisco Bay and Golden Gate strait.
Until the last ice age, the basin, now filled by the San Francisco Bay was a large linear valley with small hills, similar to most of the valleys of the Coast Ranges. As the great ice sheets began to melt, around 11,000 years ago, the sea level started to rise. By 5000 BC the sea level rose 300 feet; the valley become a bay, the small hills became islands. From 15,000 – 10,000 years ago, the Ohlone tribe inhabited the area, now the San Francisco Bay; the natives were displaced 5,000 years ago as the bay filled with water due to the rising sea level at the end of the ice age. The first European to see San Francisco Bay is N. de Morena, left at New Albion at Drakes Bay in Marin County, California by Sir Francis Drake in 1579 and walked to Mexico. The first recorded European discovery of San Francisco Bay was on November 4, 1769 when Spanish explorer Gaspar de Portolà, unable to find the port of Monterey, continued north close to what is now Pacifica and reached the summit of the 1,200-foot-high Sweeney Ridge, now marked as the place where he first sighted San Francisco Bay.
Portolá and his party did not realize what they had discovered, thinking they had arrived at a large arm of what is now called Drakes Bay. At the time, Drakes Bay went by the name Bahia de San
The Dungeness crab, Metacarcinus magister or Cancer magister, is a species of crab that inhabits eelgrass beds and water bottoms on the west coast of North America. It grows to 20 cm across the carapace and is a popular seafood prized for its sweet and tender flesh, its common name comes from the port of Washington. The carapace widths of mature Dungeness crabs may reach 25 centimetres in some areas off the coast of Washington, but are under 20 cm, they are a popular delicacy, are the most commercially important crab in the Pacific Northwest, as well as the western states generally. The annual Dungeness Crab and Seafood Festival is held in Washington each October. Dungeness crabs have a wide, hard shell, which they must periodically moult to grow, they have five pairs of legs, which are armoured, the foremost pair of which ends in claws the crab uses both as defense and to tear apart large food items. The crab uses its smaller appendages to pass the food particles into its mouth. Once inside the crab's stomach, food is further digested by the "gastric mill", a collection of tooth-like structures.
M. magister prefers to eat clams, other crustaceans and small fish, but is an effective scavenger. Dungeness crabs can bury themselves in the sand if threatened. Mature female crabs molt between May and August, mating occurs after the female has molted and before the new exoskeleton hardens. Males are attracted to potential mates by pheromones present in the urine of females. Upon locating an available female, the male initiates a protective premating embrace that lasts for several days. In this embrace, the female is tucked underneath the male, oriented such that their abdomens touch and their heads face each other. Mating occurs only after the female has molted, the female signals her readiness to molt by urinating on or near the antennae of the male; the female extrudes the eggs from her body several months later. Young crabs are free-swimming after hatching, go through five larval stages before reaching maturity after about 10 molts or two years. Juvenile crabs develop in eelgrass estuaries where salinity levels tend to be low.
The hyposaline conditions of the estuaries are lethal to some of the crab's symbionts, such as Carcinonemertes errans which consumes a brooding female's live eggs. Dungeness crabs surveyed in Coos Bay were less to be infected by C. errans and have fewer worms present on their carapace when inhabiting less saline waters farther inland. The Dungeness crab is named after Dungeness, located 5 miles north of Sequim and 15 miles east of Port Angeles, its typical range extends from Alaska's Aleutian Islands to Point Conception, near Santa Barbara, while it is found as far south as Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Dungeness crabs have been found in the Atlantic Ocean, far from their known range, raising concern about their possible effects on the local wildlife. About one-quarter of the crab's weight is meat; the flesh has what is considered to be a delicate flavour and sweet taste. Dungeness crabs can be purchased either live or cooked. Live crabs are cooked by dropping them into boiling salt water, waiting for a boil to return, allowing it to continue for 15 minutes, after which time the crabs are removed and placed into cold water to cool, cleaned.
Another method of preparing crab is called half backing. Half backing is done by flipping the crab upside down and chopping it in half, after which the guts and gills can be scooped or hosed out. Many consider half backing to be superior to cooking the entire crab, because the meat is not contaminated by the flavor or toxins of the guts. Furthermore, half backed crabs boil faster or can be steamed instead of boiled. Two common tools for removing crab meat from the shell are a shrimp fork. Sometimes, a cleaver, mallet, or small hammer is used for cracking Dungeness crab, but the use of these devices is not recommended, as the integrity of the meat may be compromised due to the impact. Seafood Watch has given the Dungeness crab a sustainable seafood rating of'Good Alternative' to overfished species or fish, farmed in ways that harm other marine life or the environment. In 2014, 53 million pounds worth $170 million was harvested. In 2009, based on lobbying from schoolchildren at Sunset Primary School in West Linn and citing its importance to the Oregon economy, the Oregon Legislative Assembly designated the Dungeness crab as the state crustacean of Oregon.
Dixon, Kirsten. The Winterlake Lodge Cookbook: Culinary Adventures in the Wilderness. Anchorage, AK: Alaska Northwest Books. ISBN 978-0-88240-562-9. OCLC 51855528. Hibler, Jane. Dungeness Crabs and Blackberry Cobblers: the Northwest Heritage Cookbook. New York, NY: Knopf. ISBN 978-0-394-57745-6. OCLC 24430394. Dana Point Fish Company - Top and Bottom Views of Dungeness Crab
Gobiidae is a family of bony fish in the order Gobiiformes, one of the largest fish families comprising more than 2,000 species in more than 200 genera, sometimes referred to as the "true gobies". Most of them are small less than 10 cm in length; the Gobiidae includes some of the smallest vertebrates in the world, such as Trimmatom nanus and Pandaka pygmaea,Trimmatom nanus are under 1 cm long when grown,then Pandaka pygmaea standard length are 9mm,maximum known standard length are 11 mm. Some large gobies can reach over 30 cm in length, but, exceptional, they are benthic, or bottom-dwellers. Although few are important as food for humans, they are of great significance as prey species for commercially important fish such as cod, sea bass, flatfish. Several gobiids are of interest as aquarium fish, such as the dartfish of the genus Ptereleotris. Phylogenetic relationships of gobiids have been studied using molecular data; the most distinctive aspects of gobiid morphology are the fused pelvic fins that form a disc-shaped sucker.
This sucker is functionally analogous to the dorsal fin sucker possessed by the remoras or the pelvic fin sucker of the lumpsuckers, but is anatomically distinct. The species in this family can be seen using the sucker to adhere to rocks and corals, in aquariums they will stick to glass walls of the tank, as well. Gobiidae are spread all over the world in tropical and temperate near shore-marine and freshwater environments, their range extends from the Old World coral reefs to the seas of the New World, includes the rivers and near-shore habitats of Europe and Asia. Gobies are bottom-dwellers. Although many live in burrows, a few species are true cavefish. On coral reefs, species of gobiids constitute 35% of the total number of fishes and 20% of the species diversity; the Gobiidae family underwent a major revision in the 5th edition of Fishes of the World. Before the revision the Gobiidae contained six subfamilies: Gobiinae, Amblyopinae, Gobionellinae and Sicydiinae; the revision retained the first two subfamilies and removed the other four to a separate family, the Oxudercidae.
In addition, species placed in the families Kraemeriidae, Microdesmidae and Schindleriidae were added to the revised Gobiidae, although no subfamilies were described. The two recognised subfamilies where the species have been retained in Gobiidae in the 5th Edition of Fishes of the World: Members of Benthophilinae are endemic to the Ponto-Caspian region; the representatives of the subfamily have elongated dorsal and anal fins. They are distinguished from the related subfamily Gobiinae by the absence of a swimbladder in adults and location of the uppermost rays of the pectoral fins within the fin membrane, its members include tadpole gobies, monkey gobies, bighead gobies. Members of the Gobiinae are known as true gobies, it is the most widespread and most diverse of the subfamilies recognised under the Gobiidae, containing around 2000 species and 150 genera. Gobiids are fish of shallow marine habitats, including tide pools, coral reefs, seagrass meadows. A few gobiid species are fully adapted to freshwater environments.
These include the round goby, Australian desert goby, the European freshwater goby Padogobius bonelli. Most gobies feed on small invertebrates, although some of the larger species eat other fish, a few eat planktonic algae. Most species in the Gobiidae attach their eggs to a substrate, such as vegetation, coral, or a rock surface, they lay from five depending on the species. After fertilizing the eggs, the male guards the eggs from predators and keep them free from detritus; the male fans the eggs, thereby providing them with oxygen. The female maintains the burrow; the eggs hatch after a few days. The larvae are born transparent, they develop coloration after spreading to find a suitable habitat; the larvae of many freshwater gobiid species are carried downstream to the brackish waters, or to the sea. They return to fresh water months later. Gobiiids in warmer waters reach adulthood in a few months, while gobies in cooler environments reach adulthood in two years; the total lifespan of gobiid varies from one to ten years, again with the species in warmer waters living longer.
Many species in the Gobiidae live in male-female pairs that construct and share burrows, similar to many other fish such as Mozambique tilapia. The burrows are used for spawning places. Gobiids use their mouths to dig into the sea bottom, removing dead coral-fragments and benthic algae in order to build their burrows. Gobiids maintain their burrows by fanning away sand inside the burrows. Furthermore, gobies use coral rubble to block burrow entrance. A single goby carry as many as nine pieces of coral rubble per minute. Gobiids build a 6–13 cm high mound over the entrance of their spawning burrow; the mound lets the water flow fast over the mound. The water flow created by the mound helps to provide oxygen to the eggs. While burrow building is a cooperative behavior done by both sexes, males put more effort in burrow maintenance than females. Females feed more instead, because the reproductive success is optimal when females put more energy in preparing for th
Embarcadero (San Francisco)
The Embarcadero is the eastern waterfront and roadway of the Port of San Francisco, San Francisco, along San Francisco Bay. It was constructed on reclaimed land along a three mile long engineered seawall, from which piers extend into the bay, it derives its name from the Spanish verb embarcar, meaning "to embark". The Central Embarcadero Piers Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places on November 20, 2002; the Embarcadero right-of-way begins at the intersection of Second and King Streets near Oracle Park, travels north, passing under the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. The Embarcadero continues north past the Ferry Building at Market Street, Pier 39, Fisherman's Wharf, before ending at Pier 45. A section of The Embarcadero which ran between Folsom Street and Drumm Street was known as East Street. For three decades, until it was torn down in 1991, the Embarcadero Freeway dominated the area; the subsequent redevelopment and restoration efforts have, according to the National Trust for Historic Preservation, "contributed to a remarkable urban waterfront renaissance", with the Embarcadero Historic District serving as a "major economic engine for the Bay Area".
San Francisco's shoreline ran south and inland from Clark's Point below Telegraph Hill to present-day Montgomery Street and eastward toward Rincon Point, enclosing a cove named Yerba Buena Cove. As the city grew, the cove was filled. Over fifty years a large offshore seawall was built and the mudflats filled, creating what today is San Francisco's Financial District; the San Francisco Belt Railroad, a short line railroad for freight, ran along The Embarcadero. The roadway follows the seawall, a boundary first established in the 1860s and not completed until the 1920s. During the early-20th century when the seaport was at its busiest and before the construction of the Bay Bridge, piers 1, 1½, 3 and 5 were dedicated chiefly to inland trade and transport; these connections facilitated the growth of communities in the Sacramento- and San Joaquin Valleys and fostered California's agricultural business. Today, these piers comprise the Central Embarcadero Piers Historic District; the Delta Queen Sacramento.
There was once a pedestrian footbridge that connected Market Street directly with the Ferry building and a subterranean roadway to move cars below the plaza. During World War II, San Francisco's waterfront became a military logistics center; every pier and wharf was involved in military activities, with troop ships and naval vessels tied up all along the Embarcadero. However, after the completion of the Bay Bridge and the rapid decline of ferries and the Ferry Building, the neighborhood fell into decline; the transition to container shipping, which moved most shipping to Oakland, led to further decline. Automobile transit efforts led to the Embarcadero Freeway being built in the 1960s; this detracted aesthetically from the city. For 30 years, the highway divided the Ferry Building from downtown, it was torn down in 1991, after being damaged in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. After the freeway had been cleared, massive redevelopment began as a grand palm-lined boulevard was created and plazas were created and/or restored, Muni's N Judah and T Third Street and F Market & Wharves lines were extended to run along it, with the N and T lines going south from Market Street to Fourth and King Streets and the F line going north from Market to Fisherman's Wharf.
The Muni relaunched the ‘E’ line, a seasonal service connecting Fishermans' Wharf to the Caltrain Depot, the line now operates weekends between Jefferson and Jones adjacent Fisherman's Wharf and Fourth and King streets near the Caltrain terminus. The sidewalk along the waterfront between China Basin and Fisherman's Wharf was named "Herb Caen Way..." after the death of celebrated local columnist Herb Caen in 1997. The three dots, or ellipsis, deliberately are included in honor of columnist Herb Caen's Pulitzer Prize winning writing style. A large public sculpture, Cupid's Span, by Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, was installed in 2002 along the Rincon Park area. Resembling Cupid's bow and arrow with the arrow implanted in the ground, the artists stated that the statue was inspired by San Francisco's reputation as the home port of Eros, hence the stereotypical bow and arrow of Cupid. In 2016, the Embarcadero was named on the list of "11 Most Endangered Historic Places" in the US by the National Trust for Historic Preservation, citing "the dual natural threats of sea-level rise and seismic vulnerability" to the seawall.
Embarcadero Station, a BART and Muni Metro subway station, is located at the foot of Market Street, one block from The Embarcadero. While not in the original transit system plans, it has become the most trafficked BART station; as it is an infill station, the design is unique among the Market Street Subway. Embarcadero Center consists of four 30 to 45 story buildings and the Hyatt Regency San Francisco, located between the Ferry Building and the foot of Market Street; until 2001, there was a viewing deck on top of the Embarcadero Center. During the winter holidays, the edges of all four buildings are illuminated, the effect resembling the outlines of four giant books on a shelf. At the eastern end of Market Street is Justin Herman Plaza, opened in 1972, named for M. Justin Herman. Right along the Embarcadero Center is the Embarcadero YMCA, the city's flagship branch of a group of a dozen locales; the center features the unique Youth Chance Hig
Chrysaora melanaster known as the northern sea nettle or brown jellyfish, is a species of jellyfish native to the northern Pacific Ocean and adjacent parts of the Arctic Ocean. It is sometimes referred to as a Pacific sea nettle, but this name is used for C. fuscescens. The medusa of the northern sea nettle can reach 60 centimeters in length with tentacles growing up to three meters; the number of tentacles is up to 24. It dwells at depths of up to 100 meters, where it feeds on copepods, small fish, large zooplankton, other jellies; the sting is mild, although can cause burning. The life span of northern sea nettles found in Tokyo Bay is one year, however the lifespan is unknown in the Arctic Ocean; the northern sea nettle is found in open water of temperate northern Pacific Ocean, Arctic Ocean and the Bering Sea. Pollock can be both the food of the northern sea nettle and the competitor for limited sources of prey; the total biomass of the northern sea nettle has increased in recent years as climate change has caused a more stable and productive surface layer.
This increased stability of the water column would have contributed to the warmer surface temperatures found in late summer in the 1990s, leading to increased growth and survival of the northern sea nettle