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Aqueous solution

An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. It is shown in chemical equations by appending to the relevant chemical formula. For example, a solution of table salt, or sodium chloride, in water would be represented as Na+ + Cl−; the word aqueous related to, similar to, or dissolved in, water. As water is an excellent solvent and is naturally abundant, it is a ubiquitous solvent in chemistry. Aqueous solution is water with a pH of 7.0 where the hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions are in Arrhenius balance. A non-aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is not water. Substances that are hydrophobic do not dissolve well in water, whereas those that are hydrophilic do. An example of a hydrophilic substance is sodium chloride. Acids and bases are aqueous solutions, as part of their Arrhenius definitions; the ability of a substance to dissolve in water is determined by whether the substance can match or exceed the strong attractive forces that water molecules generate between themselves.

If the substance lacks the ability to dissolve in water, the molecules form a precipitate. Reactions in aqueous solutions are metathesis reactions. Metathesis reactions are another term for double-displacement; the cation bonded with the latter anion will bond with the other anion. Aqueous solutions that conduct electric current efficiently contain strong electrolytes, while ones that conduct poorly are considered to have weak electrolytes; those strong electrolytes are substances that are ionized in water, whereas the weak electrolytes exhibit only a small degree of ionization in water. Nonelectrolytes are substances that maintain their molecular integrity. Examples include sugar, urea and methylsulfonylmethane; when writing the equations of aqueous reactions, it is essential to determine the precipitate. To determine the precipitate, one must consult a chart of solubility. Soluble compounds are aqueous. There may not always be a precipitate; when performing calculations regarding the reacting of one or more aqueous solutions, in general one must know the concentration, or molarity, of the aqueous solutions.

Solution concentration is given in terms of the form of the solute prior to it dissolving. Aqueous solutions may contain in alkaline zone or subjected to radiolysis, hydrated atomic hydrogen an hydrated electron. Metal ions in aqueous solution Acidity function Solubility Dissociation Acid-base reaction theories Properties of water Solvated electron Zumdahl S. 1997. Chemistry. 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. P 133-145

Trinidad and Tobago–United Kingdom relations

Trinidad and Tobago–United Kingdom relations are foreign relations between Trinidad and Tobago and the United Kingdom. Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations. Since the independence of Trinidad & Tobago in 1962, relations between the two countries have been friendly and there are many areas in which both Trinidad and Tobago and the UK seek stronger ties for mutual benefit. There are strong cultural and social ties between the two nations. In Trinidad and Tobago, English is one of the official languages, Cricket is among the most popular sports. In the UK, Caribbean Carnival is hugely popular. Trinidad and Tobago is the UK’s largest export market in the Caribbean; the UK is the sixth largest supplier. Trinidad and Tobago has a high commission in London. United Kingdom has a high commission in Port of Spain. Trinidadian and Tobagonian British

Tony Forrester

Anthony R. Forrester is an English bridge player and writer, he is a World Bridge Federation World International Master. Forrester was a bridge columnist for The Daily Telegraph from 1993 until 2019 and for The Sunday Telegraph from 1996 until 2019. Forrester was brought up in West Yorkshire, he is married to Diana, they live in Herefordshire. Forrester won the European Youth Team Championship in 1978 and the European Team Championship in 1991; the European Team Championship win was in partnership with Andrew Robson, with whom he played for seven years. The pair won the Cap Gemini and the Sunday Times-Macallan. Since that time he was regarded, as England's number one player. Playing for Rita Shugart's team, in 1998 he was the first Briton, with teammate Robson, to win a prestigious US Major, the Reisinger, the same squad won the event a second time the following year. Forrester has won the US Board-a-Match Teams on two occasions, 1999 and 2013. In 2014 he and Robson revived their partnership, played together as part of the England team in that year's European Open Championship.

The team finished second, thereby winning the silver medal and qualifying for the finals of the 2015 World Championships. With 43 caps for England in the Camrose Trophy, Forrester is Britain's most capped player. Forrester has won the Gold Cup, the premier British teams competition, 14 times: in 1983, 1986, 1989, 1990, 1992, 1993, 2000, 2001, 2007, 2009, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2019, putting him first in the all-time list, he won the Spring Foursomes in 1983, 1996, 1999, 2009, 2016, 2017 and 2018. His seven victories represent an all-time record, he has won the Crockfords Cup a record ten times: 1982, 1985, 1987, 1990, 1995, 1999, 2001, 2008, 2012 and 2019 He has won the Premier League on seven occasions. In 2010, he won the Brighton Four Stars A Final, with teammates Alexander Allfrey, Andrew Robson and Peter Crouch. In 2015 he was one of the first two winners of the English Bridge Union's Diamond Award, introduced to recognise players who have "represented England with distinction over a long period".

Forrester, Tony. Secrets of Success. London: Faber and Faber. Forrester, Tony. Over Your Shoulder: Learn from the Experts. Batsford Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7134-7638-5. Forrester, Tony. Play Bridge at Home. Batsford Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7134-7646-0. Forrester, Tony. "Daily Telegraph" Improve Your Bridge at Home. Batsford Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7134-7779-5. Forrester, Tony. "Daily Telegraph" Winning Bridge at Home. Batsford Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7134-7780-1. Forrester, Tony; the Bridge Player's Bedside Book. R&L Yeatman. ISBN 978-0-905899-61-9. Forrester, Tony. Secrets of Expert Cardplay. Batsford Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7134-8281-2. Forrester, Tony. Vintage Forrester: Selected Writings from the "Daily Telegraph". Batsford Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7134-8292-8 Forrester, Tony. Secrets of Expert Defence. Batsford Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7134-8330-7. "International record for Tony Forrester". World Bridge Federation. Tony Forrester at Library of Congress Authorities, with 0 catalogue records