Spizaetus is the typical hawk-eagle birds of prey genus found in the tropics of the Americas. It was however used to indicate a group of tropical eagles that included species occurring in southern and southeastern Asia and one representative of this genus in the rainforests of West Africa; the Old World species have been separated into the genus Nisaetus. Several species have a prominent head crest; these are medium to large-sized raptors, most being between 55 and 75 cm long, tend to be long-tailed and slender. The American Ornithologists' Union merges Spizastur into Spizaetus since 2007. Spizaetus eagles are forest birds with several species having a preference for highland woodlands, they build stick nests in trees. The sexes are plumaged with typical raptor brown upperparts and pale underparts, but young birds are distinguishable from adults by a whiter head; these eagles eat medium-sized vertebrate prey such as mammals and reptiles. The species that were placed in this genus are: New World species retained in Spizaetus Old World species now moved to Nisaetus Crested hawk-eagle, Nisaetus cirrhatus Flores hawk-eagle Nisaetus floris Mountain hawk-eagle, Nisaetus nipalensis The Western Ghats and Sri Lankan race has been suggested as a full species Nisaetus kelaarti.
Blyth's hawk-eagle, Nisaetus alboniger Javan hawk-eagle, Nisaetus bartelsi Sulawesi hawk-eagle, Nisaetus lanceolatus Philippine hawk-eagle, Nisaetus philippensis Southern Philippine hawk-eagle, Nisaetus pinskeri Wallace's hawk-eagle, Nisaetus nanus Moved to Aquila Cassin's hawk-eagle, Aquila africana Banks, Richard C.. V. Jr. Auk 124: 1109-1115. DOI:10.1642/0004-80381242.0. CO. Pica Press, Nr. Robertsbridge. ISBN 1-873403-32-1 ffrench, Richard. Comstock Publishing, Ithaca, N. Y.. ISBN 0-8014-9792-2 Gamauf, Anita; the dilemma of taxonomic ranking of some South-East Asian hawk-eagles. Bird Conservation International 15: 99–117. Doi:10.1017/S0959270905000080 Haring E. Kvaloy, K. Gjershaug, J.-O. Rov, N. Gamauf A.: Convergent evolution and paraphyly of the hawk-eagles of the genus Spizaetus - phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial markers. J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Research 45: 353-365. PDF Grimmett, Richard. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.. ISBN 0-691-04910-6 Hilty, Steven L.: Birds of Venezuela.
Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-6418-5 Stiles, F. Gary & Skutch, Alexander Frank: A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Comistock, Ithaca. ISBN 0-8014-9600-4
Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot
Louis Pierre Vieillot was a French ornithologist. Vieillot is the author of the first scientific descriptions and Linnaean names of a number of birds, including species he collected himself in the West Indies and North America and South American species discovered but not formally named by Felix de Azara and his translator Sonnini de Manoncourt. At least 26 of the genera erected by Vieillot are still in use, he was among the first ornithologists to study changes in plumage and one of the first to study live birds. Vieillot was born in Yvetot, he represented his family's business interests in Saint-Domingue on Hispaniola, but fled to the United States during the Haitian rebellions that followed the French Revolution. On Buffon's advice, he collected material for the Histoire naturelle des oiseaux de l'Amérique Septentrionale, the first two volumes of which were published in France beginning in 1807. Vieillot returned to France for the last time in 1798, where the position created for him at the Bulletin des Lois left him sufficient leisure to continue his natural history studies.
Following the death of Jean Baptiste Audebert, Vieillot saw the two parts of the "Oiseaux dorés" through to completion in 1802. Vieillot's Analyse d'une nouvelle Ornithologie Elémentaire set out a new system of ornithological classification, which he applied with slight modifications in his contributions to the Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle. In 1820, Vieillot undertook the continuation of the Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique, commenced by Pierre Joseph Bonnaterre in 1790, he published an Ornithologie française. Vieillot was granted a government pension in the final year of his life, but died unknown and in poverty. Vieillot is commemorated in the binomials of a number of birds, such as Lybius vieilloti and Saurothera vieilloti; some believe that Leach's Storm-petrel should be named Vieillot's Storm-petrel since he was the first to obtain a specimen of the species and to describe it. He did this in the New Dictionary of Natural History, published in 1817, he described the type location as the shores of Picardy, "se tient sur l"Ocean."
Histoire naturelle des plus beaux oiseaux chanteurs de la zone torride. Dufour, Paris 1805. Histoire naturelle des oiseaux de l'Amérique septentrionale. Desray, Paris 1807–1808. Analyse d'une nouvelle ornithologie élémentaire. D'Éterville, Paris 1816. Mémoire pour servir à l'histoire des oiseaux d'Europe. Turin 1816. Ornithologie. Lanoe, Paris 1818. Faune française ou Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des animaux qui se trouvent en France. Le Vrault & Rapet, Strasbourg, Bruxelles, 1820–1830. La galerie des oiseaux du cabinet d'histoire naturelle du jardin du roi. Aillard & Constant-Chantpie, Paris 1822–1825. Ornithologie française ou Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière des oiseaux de France. Pelicier, Paris 1830. "Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot," in Tom Taylor and Michael Taylor, Aves: A Survey of the Literature of Neotropical Ornithology, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Libraries, 2011. Gallica.fr: All image plates for La galerie des oiseaux — the French word for'Search' is Recherche
The Accipitrinae are the subfamily of the Accipitridae known as the "true" hawks, including all members of Accipiter and the related genera Melierax, Urotriorchis and Megatriorchis. The large and widespread genus Accipiter includes goshawks, the sharp-shinned hawk and others, they are woodland birds that hunt by sudden dashes from a concealed perch, with long tails, broad wings and high visual acuity facilitating this lifestyle. In light of recent genetic research, the kites of the traditional subfamily Milvinae may belong to this group. Hawks, including the accipitrines, are believed to have vision several times sharper than humans, in part because of the great number of photoreceptor cells in their retinas, a high number of nerves connecting the receptors to the brain, an indented fovea, which magnifies the central portion of the visual field. Subfamily Accipitrinae Genus Accipiter African goshawk, A. tachiro Besra, A. virgatus Bicolored hawk, A. bicolor Black sparrowhawk, A. melanoleucus Brown goshawk, A. fasciatus Chestnut-flanked sparrowhawk, A. castanilius Chinese sparrowhawk, A. soloensis Christmas goshawk, Accipiter fasciatus natalis Collared sparrowhawk, A. cirrocephalus Cooper's hawk, A. cooperii Crested goshawk, A. trivirgatus Dwarf sparrowhawk, A. nanus Eurasian sparrowhawk, A. nisus Fiji goshawk, A. rufitorques Frances's sparrowhawk, A. francesii Grey goshawk, A. novaehollandiae Grey-bellied hawk, A. poliogaster Grey-headed goshawk, A. poliocephalus Gundlach's hawk, A. gundlachi Henst's goshawk, A. henstii Imitator sparrowhawk, A. imitator Japanese sparrowhawk, A. gularis Levant sparrowhawk, A. brevipes Little sparrowhawk, A. minullus Madagascar sparrowhawk, A. madagascariensis Moluccan goshawk, A. henicogrammus Meyer's goshawk, A. meyerianus New Britain goshawk, A. princeps New Britain sparrowhawk, A. brachyurus Nicobar sparrowhawk, A. butleri Northern goshawk, A. gentilis Ovambo sparrowhawk, A. ovampensis Pied goshawk, A. albogularis Plain-breasted hawk, A. ventralis Red-chested goshawk, A. toussenelii Red-thighed sparrowhawk, A. erythropus Rufous-chested sparrowhawk, A. rufiventris Rufous-necked sparrowhawk, A. erythrauchen Rufous-thighed hawk, A. erythronemius Semicollared hawk, A. collaris Sharp-shinned hawk, A. striatus Shikra, A. badius Slaty-mantled sparrowhawk, A. luteoschistaceus Spot-tailed sparrowhawk, A. trinotatus Sulawesi goshawk, A. griseiceps Tiny hawk, A. superciliosus Vinous-breasted sparrowhawk, A. rhodogaster White-bellied goshawk, A. haplochrous Genus Micronisus Gabar goshawk, M. gabar Genus Melierax Dark chanting goshawk, M. metabates Eastern chanting goshawk, M. poliopterus Pale chanting goshawk, M. canorus Genus Urotriorchis Long-tailed hawk, U. macrourus Genus Erythrotriorchis Chestnut-shouldered goshawk, E. buergersi Red goshawk, E. radiatus Genus Megatriorchis Doria's goshawk, M. doriae Hawks are sometimes used in falconry, a sport in which trained birds of prey are flown at small game for sport.
Hawk videos on the Internet Bird Collection Hawk photos taken on the central coast of California
The African hawk-eagle is a large bird of prey. Like all eagles, it belongs to the family Accipitridae; the African hawk-eagle breeds in tropical Sub-Saharan Africa. It is a bird of wooded hills, building a stick nest about 3 feet in diameter in the fork of a large tree; the clutch is one or two eggs. The African hawk-eagle hunts small mammals and birds; the call is a shrill kluu-kluu-kluu. The African hawk-eagle is a small to medium-sized eagle at about 55–65 centimetres in length; the upper parts are blackish. Its underparts are white streaked with black; the underwing flight feathers are white with a black trailing edge. The underwing coverts are black with white spots. Sexes are similar, but young birds are brown above and rufous coloration replaces the black underparts of the adult, it was noted in a 2010 study that you could distinguish a male and female adult due to the fact that the female tends to be more marked below than a male. They can be confused with the Ayres's hawk-eagle however in flight, the Ayres lacks the white windows on the primaries and tends to be smaller with a nuchal crest.
Their underparts are more streaked than that of the African hawk-eagle. The African hawk-eagle is found in large parts of Africa south of the Sahara, it occurs in Angola, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, DRCongo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Malawi, Mauritania, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, Swaziland, Togo, Uganda and Zimbabwe. This is a bird of well-wooded countryside, they can inhabit sparse savanna, semi-desert areas to tall broad-leaved woodland and avoid evergreen forests and mountainous areas. They have however been known to nest on cliff faces, counter-intuitive; the African hawk-eagle is seen in pairs. It has a wide range and is a common species. No particular threats have been identified but the population is thought to be declining slowly; the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation status as being of "least concern". A 2006 study found that the African hawk eagle, among other raptor species have been declining at high rates outside of protected areas and only seem to be stabilizing through the efforts of national parks.
The African hawk-eagle's primary hunting tool is its feet. They can see prey up to 1 km away, their prey of choice tends to be birds and they flush gamebirds such as spurfowl and guineafowl out of dense vegetation. It has been found that a pair of eagles can hunt cooperatively with one bird flushing and the other waiting nearby to strike. Other prey items include small mammals and reptiles and insects; this species is monogamous and places its nest below the canopy of tall trees and the nest is built by both the male and female. They have been known to roost on man-made structures such as pylons. Nests have been known to have been used for up to 60 years in some cases, their courtship routine involves the pair calling above the nest. In many cases, the male will dive towards the female and the female, in turn, turns to the male and displays her claws; this mating ritual culminates in the male presenting the female with nuptial gifts in the form of prey. Eggs are laid in clutches of 1 to 2 between August.
Incubation lasts around 43 days with both parents being involved. In a study conducted in Zimbabwe in 1988, 116 African hawk-eagle pairs were assessed in terms of breeding success in two areas of varying substrate quality, it was found that nests were placed in flat-crowned thorn trees in areas with basaltic soils and round-crowned, rough-barked trees in areas with sandy soil. Rainfall affected breeding success, laying dates and the sizes of clutches with higher success laying dates and larger clutch sizes correlating with higher rainfall. More breeding attempts were made in open woodland areas than in closed however the number of resulting chicks did not differ between vegetation structure. A 2008 study found that the first-born chick in a nest will crush, acquire more food than, kill the second, smaller chick; this is a common occurrence in many bird species which allows for a chick to thrive and in the unlikely event that the first chick dies, there will be the second chick to propagate the species.
According to a 1959 study, the instinct for two chicks to fight subsides after a few weeks thus if the second chick manages to survive for that long, the chances that it will fledge will be increased. The same paper suggests that intrabrood cannibalism follows a siblicide event; when the chicks are newly hatched, they are altricial and are unable to preen, move in a coordinated fashion and fly. At 5 days old, they by 11 days can move around the nest. Only at the age of 24 days can the chicks defend the nest however cannot tear meat off of the food that a parent provides. Young eaglets spend a great deal of the day sleeping and most awake activity involves preening and feeding. At 50 days of age, the chicks show signs of fledging through being able to feed themselves and through flapping their wings. A bored chick will nibble the nest, practice pouncing on sticks and play with bones; these activities are said to improve coordination. Barlow and Disley. Birds of The Gambia. ISBN 1-873403-32-1 Collinson, M. Splitting headaches?
Recent taxonomic changes affecting the British and Western Palaearctic lists. British Birds vol 99, 306-
Carl Linnaeus known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist and zoologist who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus. Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland in southern Sweden, he received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and published the first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands, he returned to Sweden where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals and minerals, while publishing several volumes, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe at the time of his death. Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist." Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum and "The Pliny of the North". He is considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. In botany and zoology, the abbreviation L. is used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for a species' name. In older publications, the abbreviation "Linn." is found. Linnaeus's remains comprise the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen that he is known to have examined was himself. Linnaeus was born in the village of Råshult in Småland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707, he was the first child of Christina Brodersonia. His siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus, Emerentia Linnæa, his father taught him Latin as a small child.
One of a long line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister, the curate of the small village of Stenbrohult in Småland. Christina was the daughter of the rector of Samuel Brodersonius. A year after Linnaeus's birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius died, his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult; the family moved into the rectory from the curate's house. In his early years, Linnaeus seemed to have a liking for plants, flowers in particular. Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which calmed him. Nils spent much time in his garden and showed flowers to Linnaeus and told him their names. Soon Linnaeus was given his own patch of earth. Carl's father was the first in his ancestry to adopt a permanent surname. Before that, ancestors had used the patronymic naming system of Scandinavian countries: his father was named Ingemarsson after his father Ingemar Bengtsson; when Nils was admitted to the University of Lund, he had to take on a family name. He adopted the Latinate name Linnæus after a giant linden tree, lind in Swedish, that grew on the family homestead.
This name was spelled with the æ ligature. When Carl was born, he was named Carl Linnæus, with his father's family name; the son always spelled it with the æ ligature, both in handwritten documents and in publications. Carl's patronymic would have been Nilsson, as in Carl Nilsson Linnæus. Linnaeus's father began teaching him basic Latin and geography at an early age; when Linnaeus was seven, Nils decided to hire a tutor for him. The parents picked a son of a local yeoman. Linnaeus did not like him, writing in his autobiography that Telander "was better calculated to extinguish a child's talents than develop them". Two years after his tutoring had begun, he was sent to the Lower Grammar School at Växjö in 1717. Linnaeus studied going to the countryside to look for plants, he reached the last year of the Lower School when he was fifteen, taught by the headmaster, Daniel Lannerus, interested in botany. Lannerus gave him the run of his garden, he introduced him to Johan Rothman, the state doctor of Småland and a teacher at Katedralskolan in Växjö.
A botanist, Rothman broadened Linnaeus's interest in botany and helped him develop an interest in medicine. By the age of 17, Linnaeus had become well acquainted with the existing botanical literature, he remarks in his journal that he "read day and night, knowing like the back of my hand, Arvidh Månsson's Rydaholm Book of Herbs, Tillandz's Flora Åboensis, Palmberg's Serta Florea Suecana, Bromelii Chloros Gothica and Rudbeckii Hortus Upsaliensis...."Linnaeus entered the Växjö Katedralskola in 1724, where he studied Greek, Hebrew and mathematics, a curriculum designed for boys preparing for the priesthood. In the last year at the gymnasium, Linnaeus's father visited to ask the professors how his son's studies were progressing. Rothman believed otherwise; the doctor offered to have Linnaeus live with his family in Växjö and to teach him physiology and botany. Nils accepted this offer. Rothman showed Linnaeus that botany was a serious sub
The long-crested eagle is an African bird of prey. Like all eagles, it is in the family Accipitridae, it is placed in a monotypic genus Lophaetus. The long-crested eagle is a distinctive eagle when perched due to the long, shaggy crest and all dark plumage; the adults are blackish-brown with long, thin feathers growing from the rear of the crown which are held erect to form a crest. The secondary feathers are black barred with light grey and with broad black tips, the primary feathers and median underwing coverts are white, forming a noticeable white patch on the upper and lower surfaces of the wing, visible in flight; the tail is black, barred with pale grey. The eyes of adults are bright yellow but can be darker in females, the cere and feet are yellow, paling to white in males; the juveniles are similar to the adults, but the plumage is lighter in color and the crest is not developed and their eyes are grey. The body length is 53–58 cm and the weight of the female is 1,300–1,500 g, while the smaller male is 912–1,300 g.
The long-crested eagle occurs in sub-Saharan Africa from Senegal and Gambia eastwards to Ethiopia and south to the Eastern Cape, in South Africa, northern Namibia and northern Botswana. It is regarded as sedentary, but in arid areas may be nomadic depending on the rains. The long-crested eagle is a bird of forest edges and moist woodland if that habitat is near to grassland, marsh, a river or a stream. Long-crested eagles will use exotic plantations such as those of pine or eucalyptus, they range in altitude from sea level to 3,000 m. The long-crested eagle is territorial and the male displays during courtship in which he performs steep dives and uses a rocking, level display flight, they call during these displays. Both sexes build the nest, constructing a stick platform with a bowl shaped depression in the centre, lined with green leaves; the nest is situated in the mid canopy and close to the trunk of a tree near the forest edge. If available, the long-crested eagle will reuse the nest of another bird, for example the black sparrowhawk or lizard buzzard.
It breeds all year. The female lays 1-2 eggs, she take most of the burden of incubating them, incubation lasting 42 days, as she incubates the male provides her with food; as is normal in birds of prey the eggs are laid asynchronously, as much as two weeks apart, the female begins incubation as soon as the first egg is laid which mans that hatching is asynchronous. When the young hatch they are mainly fed by the male; the period from hatching to fledging is about 53 days, the juveniles remain dependent on the adults for about a further 2–3 months. The nests have been recorded as being preyed upon by monkeys Cercopithecus spp and genets. Up to 98% of the diet of the long-crested eagle consists of rodents. In southern Africa the rodents taken included vlei rats Otomys spp.. African marsh rat and four-striped grass mouse. Birds, including owls and the young of other raptors and lizards, invertebrates and fish and fruit were alo recorded as forming part of the diet of this species; the long-crested eagle is a "sit and wait" hunter which waits on a perch, scanning the ground and swoops on prey with a gliding flight when it come to the bird's notice.
Although placed in the monotypic genus Lophaetus recent research has suggested that this species forms a clade with the spotted eagles, greater spotted eagle, Indian spotted eagle and lesser spotted eagle. The merged genus would be called Lophaetus but most authorities regard that further work on the classification of the booted eagles is required and retain the long-crested eagle in the monotypic Lophaetus. Long-crested eagle - Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds
A sea eagle is any of the birds of prey in the genus Haliaeetus in the bird of prey family Accipitridae. Sea eagles vary in size, from Sanford's sea eagle, averaging 2.0–2.7 kg, to the huge Steller's sea eagle, weighing up to 9 kg. At up to 6.9 kg, the white-tailed eagle is the largest eagle in Europe. Bald eagles can weigh up to 7.5 kg. The white-bellied sea eagle can weigh up to 3.4 kg. Their diets consist of fish and small mammals; the genus Haliaeetus was introduced in 1809 by the French naturalist Marie Jules César Savigny in his chapter on birds in the Description de l'Égypte. The two fish eagles in the genus Ichthyophaga found to lie within the genus in a genetic study in 2005, placed therein, they are similar to the tropical Haliaeetus species. A prehistoric form from Maui in the Hawaiian Islands may represent a species or subspecies in this genus; the 10 living species are: The tail is white in adult Haliaeetus species except for Sanford's, White-bellied, Pallas's. Three species pairs exist: white-tailed and bald eagles, Sanford's and white-bellied sea eagles, the African and Madagascan fish eagles, each of these consists of a white- and a tan-headed species.
Haliaeetus is one of the oldest genera of living birds. A distal left tarsometatarsus recovered from early Oligocene deposits of Fayyum, Egypt (Jebel Qatrani Formation, about 33 million years ago is similar in general pattern and some details to that of a modern sea eagle; the genus was present in the middle Miocene with certainty. The relationships to other genera in the family are less clear; the origin of the sea eagles and fishing eagles is in the general area of the Bay of Bengal. During the Eocene/Oligocene, as the Indian subcontinent collided with Eurasia, this was a vast expanse of shallow ocean; the Central Asian Pallas's sea eagle's relationships to the other taxa. The rate of molecular evolution in Haliaeetus is slow, as is to be expected in long-lived birds which take years to reproduce. In the mtDNA cytochrome b gene, a mutation rate of 0.5–0.7% per million years or maybe as little as 0.25–0.3% per million years has been shown. A 2005 molecular study found that the genus is paraphyletic and subsumes Ichthyophaga, the species diverging into a temperate and tropical group.
In India, sea eagles found near Malvan in Konkan belt. In winter, these species migrate in from North Maharashtra. Nesting pairs of both the bald eagle and white-bellied sea eagle have been subject to live-streaming webcam footage. Brahminy kite called red-backed sea eagle Sourcesdel Hoyo, J.. Handbook of the Birds of the World. 2. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. ISBN 84-87334-15-6. Wink, M.. "A mtDNA phylogeny of sea eagles based on nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome b gene". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 24: 783–791. Doi:10.1016/S0305-197800049-X