Ruins are the remains of human-made architecture: structures that were once intact have fallen, as time went by, into a state of partial or total disrepair, due to lack of maintenance or deliberate acts of destruction. Natural disaster and population decline are the most common root causes, with many structures becoming progressively derelict over time due to long-term weathering and scavenging. There are famous ruins all over the world, from ancient sites in China, the Indus valley and Judea to Zimbabwe in Africa, ancient Greek and Roman sites in the Mediterranean basin, Incan and Mayan sites in the Americas. Ruins are of great importance to historians and anthropologists, whether they were once individual fortifications, places of worship, ancient universities and utility buildings, or entire villages and cities. Many ruins have become UNESCO World Heritage Sites in recent years, to identify and preserve them as areas of outstanding value to humanity. Ancient cities were highly militarized and fortified defensive settlements.
In times of war they were the central focus of armed conflict and would be sacked and ruined in defeat. Although less central to modern conflict, vast areas of 20th-century cities such as Warsaw, Coventry, Stalingrad, Königsberg, Berlin were left in ruins following World War II, a number of major cities around the world – such as Beirut, Sarajevo and Baghdad – have been or ruined in recent years as a result of more localised warfare. Entire cities have been ruined, some lost to natural disasters; the ancient city of Pompeii was lost during a volcanic eruption in the 1st century AD, its uncovered ruins now preserved as a World Heritage Site. The city of Lisbon was destroyed in 1755 by a massive earthquake and tsunami, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake left the city in complete ruin. Apart from acts of war, some important historic buildings have fallen victim to deliberate acts of destruction as a consequence of social and economic factors; the spoliation of public monuments in Rome was under way during the fourth century, when it was covered in protective legislation in the Theodosian Code and in new legislation of Majorian. and the dismantling increased once popes were free of imperial restrictions.
Marble was still being burned for agricultural lime in the Roman Campagna into the nineteenth century. In Europe, many religious buildings suffered as a result of the politics of the day. In the 16th century, the English monarch Henry VIII set about confiscating the property of monastic institutions in a campaign which became known as the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Many abbeys and monasteries fell into ruin. In the 20th century, a number of European historic buildings fell into ruin as a result of taxation policies, which required all structures with roofs to pay substantial property tax; the owners of these buildings, like Fetteresso Castle and Slains Castle in Scotland, deliberately destroyed their roofs in protest at, defiance of, the new taxes. Other decrees of government have had a more direct result, such as the case of Beverston Castle, in which the English parliament ordered significant destruction of the castle to prevent it being used by opposition Royalists. Post-colonial Ireland has encouraged the ruin of grand Georgian houses, symbols of British imperialism.
As a rule, towers built of steel are dismantled, when not used any more, because their construction can be either rebuilt on a new site or if the state of construction does not allow a direct reuse, the metal can be recycled economically. However, sometimes tower basements remain. One example of such a basement is the basement of the former radio mast of Deutschlandsender Herzberg/Elster; the basements of large wooden towers such as Transmitter Ismaning may be left behind, because removing them would be difficult. The contemplation of "rust belt" post-industrial ruins is in its infancy. In the Middle Ages Roman ruins were inconvenient impediments to modern life, quarries for pre-shaped blocks for building projects, or marble to be burnt for agricultural lime, subjects for satisfying commentaries on the triumph of Christianity and the general sense of the world's decay, in what was assumed to be its last age, before the Second Coming. With the Renaissance, ruins took on new roles among a cultural elite, as examples for a consciously revived and purified architecture all' antica, for a new aesthetic appreciation of their innate beauty as objects of venerable decay.
The chance discovery of Nero's Domus Aurea at the turn of the sixteenth century, the early excavations at Herculaneum and Pompeii had marked effects on current architectural styles, in Raphael's Rooms at the Vatican and in neoclassical interiors, respectively. The new sense of historicism that accompanied neoclassicism led some artists and designers to conceive of the modern classicising monuments of their own day as they would one day appear as ruins. In the period of Romanticism ruins were frequent object for painters, place of meetings of romantic poets, nationalist students etc.. Ruin value is the concept that a building be designed such that if it collapsed, it would leave behind aesthetically pleasing ruins that would last far longer without any maintenance at all. Joseph Michael Gandy completed for Sir John Soane in 1832 an atmospheric watercolor of the architect's vast Bank of England rotunda as a picturesquely overgrown ruin, tha
Židovar is an archeological site and settlement near Vršac, Serbia. The earliest archeological findings date from the early Bronze Age and are followed by middle Bronze Age relics of the Vatin culture and late Bronze Age remains of the Belegiš culture; the subsequent findings belonging to the early and middle Iron age Bosut-Basarabi culture date back to the 9th to 8th century BC. Finds of the La Tène era dating from the 2nd century BC until the 1st century AD pottery and weapons, are the work of the Scordisci, their more numerous presence after the Celtic invasions in 279 BC, with a significant 10% belonging to the earlier Getae-Dacian cultures, is a result of co-existence and trading between the two peoples. The remains of the Scordisci fortifications with ditch and defense wall impart special importance to the site. In 1990, Židovar was added to the list of Archaeological Sites of Exceptional Importance under the protection of the Republic of Serbia. Archaeological Sites of Exceptional Importance
Serbia the Republic of Serbia, is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. The sovereign state borders Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, Montenegro to the southwest; the country claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia's population is about seven million, its capital, ranks among the oldest and largest citiеs in southeastern Europe. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the territory of modern-day Serbia faced Slavic migrations to the Balkans in the 6th century, establishing several sovereign states in the early Middle Ages at times recognized as tributaries to the Byzantine and Hungarian kingdoms; the Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by the Vatican and Constantinople in 1217, reaching its territorial apex in 1346 as the short-lived Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entirety of modern-day Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans, their rule was at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which started expanding towards Central Serbia from the end of the 17th century while maintaining a foothold in the north of the country.
In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. Following disastrous casualties in World War I, the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro, peacefully dissolved in 2006. In 2008, the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community. Serbia is a member of the UN, CoE, CERN, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA, is acceding to the WTO. Since 2014 the country has been negotiating its EU accession with perspective of joining the European Union by 2025. Serbia dropped in ranking from Free to Partly Free in the 2019 Freedom House report. Since 2007, Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality.
An upper-middle income economy with a dominant service sector followed by the industrial sector and agriculture, the country ranks high on the Human Development Index, Social Progress Index as well as the Global Peace Index. The origin of the name, "Serbia" is unclear. Various authors mentioned names of Serbs and Sorbs in different variants: Surbii, Serbloi, Sorabi, Sarbi, Serboi, Surbi, etc; these authors used these names to refer to Serbs and Sorbs in areas where their historical presence was/is not disputed, but there are sources that mention same or similar names in other parts of the World. Theoretically, the root *sъrbъ has been variously connected with Russian paserb, Ukrainian pryserbytysia, Old Indic sarbh-, Latin sero, Greek siro. However, Polish linguist Stanisław Rospond derived the denomination of Srb from srbati. Sorbian scholar H. Schuster-Šewc suggested a connection with the Proto-Slavic verb for "to slurp" *sьrb-, with cognates such as сёрбать, сьорбати, сёрбаць, srbati, сърбам and серебати.
From 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia was the People's Republic of Serbia, which became the Socialist Republic of Serbia from 1963 to 1990. Since 1990, the official name of the country is the "Republic of Serbia". However, between the period from 1992 to 2006, the official names of the country were the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Archeological evidence of Paleolithic settlements on the territory of present-day Serbia are scarce. A fragment of a human jaw was believed to be up to 525,000 -- 397,000 years old. Around 6,500 years BC, during the Neolithic, the Starčevo and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated much of Southeastern Europe. Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube. During the Iron Age, Thracians and Illyrians were encountered by the Ancient Greeks during their expansion into the south of modern Serbia in the 4th century BC.
The Celtic tribe of Scordisci settled throughout the area in the 3rd century BC and formed a tribal state, building several fortifications, including their capital at Singidunum and Naissos. The Romans conquered much of the territory in the 2nd century BC. In 167 BC the Roman province of Illyricum was established; as a result of this, contemporary Serbia extends or over several former Roman provinces, including Moesia, Praevalitana, Dalmatia and Macedoni
Ulpiana was an ancient Roman city located in what is today Kosovo. It was named Justiniana Secunda. Ulpiana is situated in the municipality of Lipljan. In 1955, under Resolution No.v. E. K.21/55, Ulpiana was added to Serbia's Archaeological Sites of Exceptional Importance list. Ulpiana lies in a fertile land, near the left bank of the river Gračanica where nearby there is a mine, used since Roman times; these days you can find the ruins of the city around 9 km in south-east of Prishtina and it includes the municipality of Laplje Selo. Because it's located on the left side of the river in Gračanica it's considered as a fertile land, near there is a mine, used in Roman times and had a great role on the development of the most important cities on the Roman province of Dardania. In the geo-physical research made by an Albanian archaeologist and foreigners, have been found out that there are more than 100 ha worth objects that Ulpiana lies in. On the north side of the city is the cemetery,where there have been found lots of objects:the foundations of a Basilica of early Christianity build in the beginning of the 4th century by Emperor Justinian.
Found is the north entry of the city with its walls and a memorium, a room or a form of funeral. The ruins of a building with a beautiful mosaic are found in the south of the city; the research was focused on the antic objects which have been found on the sides of the main road which connected the antic city with the region. The attention was given to the findings of the objects in the north entrance of the city. With the addition of the use of air photography and satellites in the past years archaeologists, with no costly digging, were able to find and describe lots of big antique buildings which included a public bathroom, the forum, a residency of the bishop in the era of the early Christianity, a baptismal chapel. Ulpiana during the 3rd and 4th century achieved its peak of development and had the name of Municipum Ulpiana Splendisima In 518 e.s.a, after the earthquake Justinian gave a new name to the city: Justiniana Secunda Ulpiana played an important role in the development of the most important cities in the Roman province of Dardania.
Ulpiana is mentioned in ancient sources from the second decade of the 2nd century AD. Since it played an important role during the invasive expeditions when the emperor could stop during his travels. Ulpiana became an important center episcopal Episcopal joining Scupi city until the establishment of Justiniana primes. Under "Notitia" Ulpiana had a great garrison in Pseudocomitatenses Ulpiansis. Evidence exists that Emperor Theodosius I during the transition to Thessaloniki stayed in Ulpiana for a period of time. In the 5th century, the city was under the rule of the Goths. In 479 King Theodemir sent his son Theoderic the Great with 3,000 soldiers to destroy the city. According to the chronicle and writings of Marcellinus Comes, a devastating earthquake destroyed several towns in Dardania in the year 518; the city of Ulpiana suffered extensive damage. Emperor Justinian rebuilt its fortifications; the ancient city's fortifications had been strong, with semi-circular shaped towers that reached up to 35.5 ha in area.
Together with its surroundings, Ulpiana covered an area of 120 hectares, when including Castrum and other supporting facilities. The first landfills in the ruins of the ancient city were made before 1990. Ulpiana archaeological research for the first time took place in 1953, with four graves were dug in the northern part of the cemetery. Investigations are concentrated in the northern settlement and cemetery, where different findings have been discovered: the foundations of a basilica early Christianity, built at the beginning of the 6th century by the Emperor Justinian, the northern entrance of fortification and Memoriumi, a small room or ambient funeral. Since the start of excavation in Ulpiana, in this important Roman-Byzantine city there are few written knowledge. Few writings have come from memorials manuscripts which street descriptors who have visited this area since the 19th century wrote. Ulpiana city was studied by Nikola Vulić, he had the opportunity to collect and distribute written stories from Kosovo and Ulpiana.
These stories he presented at the beginning of the 20th century together with Anton von Premerstein. On this story Roman writers have added some new data again between the two world wars. N. Vuliċ in some cases provided explanations for historical events Ulpiana. Full statement of historical events of the city on the basis of data from ancient times and in the epigraph monument was presented by B. Sarie in Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft which Emil Čerškov directed to the data on new materials from landfill archaeological 1954−1959. Ulpiana was mentioned for the first time in the 2nd century BC about archaeological data, in the case of counting Dardania cities: Naissus, Skupi and Ulpiana. From before the Roman period, the city's history has not given any information unless signs; because of these signs we realize that Ulpiana in the 2nd century had municipal status and was the source of border stations. The remains of the building with beautiful mosaics are found in the southern part of the city, which have been excavated by municipal workers when placing pipes and water pipes across the zone that covers the ancient.
In 1974, at the location of the field Čerkezi, not far from Ulpiana, a large mound was discovered that combustion residue contained a princess. Discovered a rich treasure contai
Novi Bečej, is a town and municipality located in the Central Banat District of the autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. The town has a population of 13,133. Novi Bečej means "New Bečej". In the past it was known as Turski Bečej, while the current town of Bečej, across the river Tisa was in the past known as Stari Bečej and today is known as Bečej. There are several theories about town's name origin; the first one is that it derives from Castellum de Beche, the name of the fort located near today's town center. The other theory is that the name was given after the family Wechey, which used rule the settlement and the land around modern-day Novi Bečej; the town was known as Turski Bečej. In 1919 it was renamed Novi Bečej. For a short period of time after the World War II, from 1947 to 1952, the name of the town was Волошиново after the Red Army Colonel Lavrenty Voloshinov who died in the battle for the liberation of the town. In Serbian, the town is known as Novi Bečej, in Hungarian as Törökbecse and in German as Neu-Betsche.
Both Serbian and Hungarian are used by municipal authorities. 12th century BC. The Dacians inhabited the region before the Roman conquest in the 2nd–1st century BC; the town was first mentioned in 1091 during the administration of the Kingdom of Hungary. In the 15th century, it was a possession of the Serbian despot Đurađ Branković. During the Ottoman rule, it was populated by ethnic Serbs. Ottomans administered the town as Beçe from 1552 to 1718; until 1918, it was part of the Habsburg Monarchy part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes and subsequent South Slavic states. Novi Bečej municipality includes the town of Novi Bečej and the following villages: Bočar Kumane Novo Miloševo According to the 2011 census, the total population of the municipality of Novi Bečej was 23,925 inhabitants. Municipality According to the 2011 census, the Novi Bečej municipality has 23,925 inhabitants, including: 16,132 Serbs 4,319 Hungarians 1,295 Romani 2,179 Others and undeclared All settlements in the municipality have an ethnic Serb majority.
TownThe town of Novi Bečej had 13,133 inhabitants, including: 7,738 Serbs 3,210 Hungarians 609 Romani Others and undeclared Yugoslavs There are several factories operating in Novi Bečej, but the leading branch of economic development is tourism. The town is located on the river Tisa, thus it offers many leisure opportunities. One of the most notable large companies are PD Vojvodina and Serbia Manufacture; the following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity: Serbia's fourth largest festival, Velikogospojinski Dani, is held in Novi Bečej. The festival honors Mary, it gathers more than 200,000 visitors from across surrounding areas. Most popular Serbian and Hungarian singers and bands, such as Lepa Brena, Zdravko Čolić, Tony Cetinski, Crvena Jabuka, Plavi Orkestar, Željko Joksimović, Omega, etc. have performed here. Great historical legacy is a big boost, since there are remains of a medieval monastery Arača and the old fort. Arača, is a medieval Romanesque church ruin about 12 km north of Novi Bečej.
It is the one of the older churches built in the region during administration of the Kingdom of Hungary. The Department for the Protection and Scientific Study of Cultural Monuments in Belgrade issued a decision in 1948 which placed the Romanesque church of Arača under state protection; the church was built around 1230, robbed and devastated in 1280, reconstructed in 1370 at the command of Queen Elizabeth. The Gothic tower, still extant today dates from this time. In the year 1417 it came into possession of Serbian despot Stefan Lazarević, it belonged to the Serbian despot Đurađ Branković who gave it as a present to Pál Birinyi. In the year 1551, the Ottomans burned the cathedral down and it was never reconstructed again. At the end of the 18th century it belonged to Sissány family; the Serbian Orthodox church dedicated to Saint Nicholas was built in 1774. The belfry was added in 1789, during the Austro-Turkish War of 1788-91; the church was renovated in 1858 and again in 1871, when the bell was enclosed in the new belfry and the cross on the top of it was plated with gold.
The church was renovated in 1928: icons were rejuvenated, frescoes turned black from the silt and smoke were cleaned, the interior was ornamented with the plated gold and was repainted and decorated, both the exterior and the interior. New floor was built, made from the white-grayish ceramic tiles imported from Czechoslovakia, the electricity was introduced into the building; the 1928 reconstruction was work of en entire group of artists and craftsmen, headed by painter Vasa Pomnorišac. The church was renovated again in 1981. Due to the rapid deterioration because of the moist, the Institute for the protection of the cultural monuments drafted a preservation project; the works on the edifice itself were finished by 2018, while the restoration of the icons and other artifacts continued. Artifacts are considered more valuable than the church itself. Most of them originated from the older and demolished church dedicated to the Dormition of the Mother of God, located on the bank of the Tisza. Slano Kopovo is located in the northeast
The Diana Fortress is a Roman castrum built in 100-101 AD, located in Kladovo, in eastern Serbia. It is located on cliffs of the Đerdap, above the Danube, in the Karataš archaeological site near Kladovo; the main buildings were built on a strategic location overlooking the Danube frontier with stone in 100 AD during the reign of Roman Emperor Trajan, who had a military camp located at the vicinity. Further modifications were made at the end of the 3rd and beginning of the 4th century when additional towers were added towards the river for extra defence towards the Danube shores. At the mid 4th century the fort was damaged by the invading Huns and in 530 AD rebuilt by Emperor Justinian. Besides the military buildings, a sacrificial necropolis and civilian settlement is located within the walls. Items such as various daily tools and bronze sculptures were found. In 1983, Diana Fortress was added to the Archaeological Sites of Exceptional Importance list, protected by Republic of Serbia. Archaeological Sites of Exceptional Importance