A riot is a form of civil disorder characterized by a group lashing out in a violent public disturbance against authority, property or people. Riots involve theft and destruction of property, public or private; the property targeted varies depending on the inclinations of those involved. Targets can include shops, restaurants, state-owned institutions, religious buildings. Riots occur in reaction to a grievance or out of dissent. Riots have occurred due to poor people with no jobs or living conditions, governmental oppression, taxation or conscription, conflicts between ethnic groups, or religions, the outcome of a sporting event or frustration with legal channels through which to air grievances. While individuals may attempt to lead or control a riot, riots consist of disorganized groups that are "chaotic and exhibit herd behavior." However, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that riots are not irrational, herd-like behavior, but follow inverted social norms. T. S. Ashton, in his study of food riots among colliers, noted that "the turbulence of the colliers is, of course, to be accounted for by something more elementary than politics: it was the instinctive reaction of virility to hunger."
Charles Wilson noted, "Spasmodic rises in food prices provoked keelmen on the Tyne to riot in 1709, tin miners to plunder granaries at Falmouth in 1727."Today, some rioters have an improved understanding of the tactics used by police in riot situations. Manuals for successful rioting are available on the internet, with tips such as encouraging rioters to get the press involved, as there is more safety and attention with the cameras rolling. Civilians with video cameras may have an effect on both rioters and police. Dealing with riots is a difficult task for police forces, they may use tear gas or CS gas to control rioters. Riot police may use less-than-lethal methods of control, such as shotguns that fire flexible baton rounds to injure or otherwise incapacitate rioters for easier arrest. A police riot is a term for the disproportionate and unlawful use of force by a group of police against a group of civilians; this term is used to describe a police attack on civilians, or provoking civilians into violence.
A prison riot is a large-scale, temporary act of concerted defiance or disorder by a group of prisoners against prison administrators, prison officers, or other groups of prisoners. It is done to express a grievance, force change or attempt escape. In a race riot, race or ethnicity is the key factor; the term had entered the English language in the United States by the 1890s. Early use of the term referred to riots that were a mob action by members of a majority racial group against people of other perceived races. In a religious riot, the key factor is religion; the rioting mob targets people and properties of a specific religion, or those believed to belong to that religion. Student riots are riots precipitated by students in higher education, such as a college or university. Student riots in the US and Western Europe in the 1960s and the 1970s were political in nature. Student riots may occur as a result of oppression of peaceful demonstration or after sporting events. Students may constitute an active political force in a given country.
Such riots may occur in the context of wider social grievances. Urban riots are riots in the context of urban decay, provoked by conditions such as discrimination, high unemployment, poor schools, poor healthcare, housing inadequacy and police brutality and bias. Urban riots are associated with race riots and police riots. Sports riots such as the Nika riots can be sparked by the losing or winning of a specific team or athlete. Fans of the two teams may fight. Sports riots may happen as a result of teams contending for a championship, a long series of matches, or scores that are close. Sports are the most common cause of riots in the United States, accompanying more than half of all championship games or series. All sports riots occur in the winning team's city. Food and bread riots are caused by harvest failures, incompetent food storage, poisoning of food, or attacks by pests like locusts; when the public becomes desperate from such conditions, groups may attack shops, homes, or government buildings to obtain bread or other staple foods like grain or salt, as in the 1977 Egyptian Bread Riots.
The economic and political effects of riots can be as complex as their origins. Property destruction and harm to individuals are immediately measurable. During the 1992 Los Angeles riots, 2,383 people were injured, 8,000 were arrested, 63 were killed and over 700 businesses burned. Property damage was estimated at over $1 billion. At least ten of those killed were shot by police or National Guard forces; the 2005 civil unrest in France lasted over three weeks and spread to nearly 300 towns. By the end of the incident, over 10,000 vehicles were over 300 buildings burned. Over 2,800 suspected rioters were arrested and 126 police and firefighters were injured. Estimated damages were over €200 Million. Many governments and political systems have fallen after riots, including: Russian Empire Ancien Régime British Raj in India, when bread and salt riots hastened the withdrawal in 1947 Governments across the Middle East and North Africa during the Arab Spring Riots are dealt with by the police, although methods differ from country to country.
Tactics and weapons used can include attack dogs, water cannons, plastic bullets, rubber bullets, pepper spray, flexible baton rounds, snatch squads. Many police forces have dedicated divisions to deal wit
Freedom of speech
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or legal sanction. The term "freedom of expression" is sometimes used synonymously but includes any act of seeking and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used. Freedom of expression is recognized as a human right under article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and recognized in international human rights law in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Article 19 of the UDHR states that "everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference" and "everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; the version of Article 19 in the ICCPR amends this by stating that the exercise of these rights carries "special duties and responsibilities" and may "therefore be subject to certain restrictions" when necessary "or respect of the rights or reputation of others" or "or the protection of national security or of public order, or of public health or morals".
Freedom of speech and expression, may not be recognized as being absolute, common limitations or boundaries to freedom of speech relate to libel, obscenity, sedition, fighting words, classified information, copyright violation, trade secrets, food labeling, non-disclosure agreements, the right to privacy, the right to be forgotten, public security, perjury. Justifications for such include the harm principle, proposed by John Stuart Mill in On Liberty, which suggests that: "the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others."The idea of the "offense principle" is used in the justification of speech limitations, describing the restriction on forms of expression deemed offensive to society, considering factors such as extent, motives of the speaker, ease with which it could be avoided. With the evolution of the digital age, application of the freedom of speech becomes more controversial as new means of communication and restrictions arise, for example the Golden Shield Project, an initiative by Chinese government's Ministry of Public Security that filters unfavorable data from foreign countries.
Freedom of speech and expression has a long history that predates modern international human rights instruments. It is thought that ancient Athenian democratic principle of free speech may have emerged in the late 6th or early 5th century BC; the values of the Roman Republic included freedom of freedom of religion. Concepts of freedom of speech can be found in early human rights documents; the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, adopted during the French Revolution in 1789 affirmed freedom of speech as an inalienable right. The Declaration provides for freedom of expression in Article 11, which states that: The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man; every citizen may, speak and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law. Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948, states that: Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression.
Today, freedom of speech, or the freedom of expression, is recognized in international and regional human rights law. The right is enshrined in Article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, Article 13 of the American Convention on Human Rights and Article 9 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights. Based on John Milton's arguments, freedom of speech is understood as a multi-faceted right that includes not only the right to express, or disseminate and ideas, but three further distinct aspects: the right to seek information and ideas; this means that the protection of freedom of speech as a right includes not only the content, but the means of expression. The right to freedom of speech and expression is related to other rights, may be limited when conflicting with other rights; the right to freedom of expression is related to the right to a fair trial and court proceeding which may limit access to the search for information, or determine the opportunity and means in which freedom of expression is manifested within court proceedings.
As a general principle freedom of expression may not limit the right to privacy, as well as the honor and reputation of others. However greater latitude is given; the right to freedom of expression is important for media, which plays a special role as the bearer of the general right to freedom of expression for all. However, freedom of the press does not enable freedom of speech. Judith Lichtenberg has outlined conditions in which freedom of the press may constrain freedom of speech, for example where the med
Nasserism is a socialist Arab nationalist political ideology based on the thinking of Gamal Abdel Nasser, one of the two principal leaders of the Egyptian revolution of 1952 and Egypt's second President. Spanning the domestic and international spheres, it combines elements of Arab socialism, nationalism, anti-imperialism, developing world solidarity and international non-alignment. In the 1950s and 1960s, Nasserism was amongst the most potent political ideologies in the Arab world; this was true following the Suez Crisis of 1956, the political outcome of, seen as a validation of Nasserism and a tremendous defeat for Western imperial powers. During the Cold War, its influence was felt in other parts of Africa and the developing world with regard to anti-imperialism and non-alignment; the scale of the Arab defeat in the Six-Day War of 1967 damaged the standing of Nasser and the ideology associated with him. Though it survived Nasser's death in 1970, certain important tenets of Nasserism were revised or abandoned by his successor Anwar Sadat during what he termed the Corrective Revolution and his Infitah economic policies.
Under the three decade rule of Sadat's successor Hosni Mubarak, most of the remaining socialist infrastructure of Egypt was replaced by neoliberal policies at odds with Nasserist principles. In the international arena, Mubarak departed entirely from traditional Egyptian policy, becoming a steadfast ally of both the United States government and Israel, the latter still viewed by most Egyptians with enmity and distrust, derived from the five wars that Egypt fought against Israel between 1948 and 1973. During Nasser's lifetime, Nasserist groups were encouraged and supported financially by Egypt to the extent that many became seen as willing agents of the Egyptian government in its efforts to spread revolutionary nationalism in the Arab world. In the 1970s, as a younger generation of Arab revolutionaries came to the fore Nasserism outside Egypt metamorphosed into other Arab nationalist and pan-Arabist movements, including component groups of the Lebanese National Movement during the Lebanese Civil War.
The main Nasserite movements that continued to be active until today on the Lebanese scene are represented by the organization in Sidon of populist Nasserist partisans that are led by Oussama Saad and in Beirut as represented by the Al-Mourabitoun movement. Both groups have been active since the early 1950s among Sunni Muslims and they are associated politically with the March 8 coalitions in Lebanese politics. Nasserism continues to have significant resonance throughout the Arab world to this day and informs much of the public dialogue on politics in Egypt and the wider region. Prominent Nasserist Hamdeen Sabahi competed in the first round of the 2012 Egyptian Presidential election and only narrowly avoided securing a position in the run-off against eventual winner Mohamed Morsi. "Nasserism", the broad term used in literature to describe the aspects of Nasser's rule and his legacy, can be interpreted in many ways. Granted that there is a multitude of ways in which the term is read and used, P. J. Vatikiotis in his book Nasser and his Generation argues that Nasserism had the limited political connotation of a phenomenon of "personal charismatic leadership, not to a movement or ideology".
Vatikiotis elaborates upon Nasser's use of speech as a political tool to sway his constituents despite their deprivation of any participation in their leader's policies. To this end, Nasser addressed masses on both radio and television as well as in huge rallies, with a "repeated hypnotic incantation of "imperialism" and "agents of imperialism", "reactionaries", "revenge", "dignity and self-respect", "Zionism" and "Arabism". Crowds were galvanized to hysteria as Nasser excited them with hopes and aspirations of strong leadership and Arab unity. In Rethinking Nasserism and Winckler discuss another interpretation of Nasserism. According to them, "Western social scientists in the 1950s and 1960s, perceived Nasserism as a modernization movement and Nasser as a modernizing leader…Egypt was seen as a typical Third World country undergoing a process of decolonization and, under new revolutionary leadership, aspiring to national prosperity through modernization. Thus, Nasserism was perceived as an attempt to transform Egyptian traditional society through the modernization of its economy and society".
Yet another insight into Nasserism is provided in Political Trends in the Fertile Crescent by Walid Khalidi, who discusses it as not an ideological movement, rather an "attitude of mind", "eclectic, empirical and yet conservative". According to Walidi, Nasserism was able to attract support in the Arab world because it "transferred, if only to the Arab world itself, the center of decisions concerning the future of that world". Khalidi asserts that this change inspired self-confidence in the Arab community, welcome after the recent shock over the loss of Palestine. Nasserism is an Arab nationalist and pan-Arabist ideology, combined with a vaguely defined socialism distinguished from Eastern Bloc or Western socialist thought by the label "Arab socialism". Though opposed ideologically to Western capitalism, Arab socialism developed as a rejection of communism, seen as incompatible with Arab traditions and the religious underpinnings of Arab society; as a consequence, Nasserists from the 1950s to the 1980s sought to prevent the rise of communism in the Arab world and advocated harsh penalties for individuals and organizations identified as attempting
Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden rendered Usama bin Ladin, was a founder of the pan-Islamic militant organization al-Qaeda. He was a Saudi Arabian until 1994, a member of the wealthy bin Laden family, an ethnic Yemeni Kindite. Bin Laden's father was Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, a Saudi millionaire from Hadhramaut and the founder of the construction company, Saudi Binladin Group, his mother, Alia Ghanem, was from a secular middle-class family based in Syria. He was born in Saudi Arabia and studied at university in the country until 1979, when he joined Mujahideen forces in Pakistan fighting against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan, he helped to fund the Mujahideen by funneling arms and fighters from the Arab world into Afghanistan, gained popularity among many Arabs. In 1988, he formed al-Qaeda, he was banished from Saudi Arabia in 1992, shifted his base to Sudan, until U. S. pressure forced him to leave Sudan in 1996. After establishing a new base in Afghanistan, he declared a war against the United States, initiating a series of bombings and related attacks.
Bin Laden was on the American Federal Bureau of Investigation's lists of Ten Most Wanted Fugitives and Most Wanted Terrorists for his involvement in the 1998 U. S. embassy bombings. From 2001 to 2011, bin Laden was a major target of the United States, as the FBI offered a $25 million bounty in their search for him. On May 2, 2011, bin Laden was shot and killed by United States Navy SEALs inside a private residential compound in Abbottabad, where he lived with a local family from Waziristan, during a covert operation conducted by members of the United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group and Central Intelligence Agency SAD/SOG operators on the orders of U. S. President Barack Obama. One of the most controversial, influential figures in the 20th and 21st centuries, bin Laden was described as a spiritual leader for al-Qaeda organization, he became one of the most symbolic figures in the Arab world following the Soviet withdrawal. Under his leadership, the al-Qaeda organization was responsible for the mass murder of 2,977 victims of the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
There is no universally accepted standard for transliterating Arabic words and Arabic names into English. The FBI and Central Intelligence Agency, as well as other U. S. governmental agencies, have used either "Usama bin Laden" or "Usama bin Ladin". Less common renderings include "Ussamah bin Ladin" and, in the French-language media, "Oussama ben Laden". Other spellings include "Binladen" or, as used by his family in the West, "Binladin"; the decapitalization of bin is based on the convention of leaving short prepositions and patronymics uncapitalized in surnames. The spellings with o and e come from a Persian-influenced pronunciation used in Afghanistan, where bin Laden spent many years. Osama bin Laden's full name, Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, means "Osama, son of Mohammed, son of Awad, son of Laden". "Mohammed" refers to bin Laden's father Mohammed bin Laden. The Arabic linguistic convention would be to refer to him as "Osama" or "Osama bin Laden", not "bin Laden" alone, as "bin Laden" is a patronymic, not a surname in the Western manner.
According to bin Laden's son Omar bin Laden, the family's hereditary surname is "al-Qahtani", but bin Laden's father, Mohammed bin Laden, never registered the name. Osama bin Laden had assumed the kunyah "Abū'Abdāllāh", his admirers have referred to him by several nicknames, including the "Prince" or "Emir", the "Sheik", the "Jihadist Sheik" or "Sheik al-Mujahid", "Hajj", the "Director". The word usāmah means "lion", earning him the nicknames "Lion" and "Lion Sheik". Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a son of Yemeni Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, a millionaire construction magnate with close ties to the Saudi royal family, Mohammed bin Laden's tenth wife, Syrian Hamida al-Attas. In a 1998 interview, bin Laden gave his birth date as March 10, 1957. Mohammed bin Laden divorced Hamida. Mohammed recommended Hamida to an associate. Al-Attas married Hamida in the late 1950s or early 1960s, they are still together; the couple had four children, bin Laden lived in the new household with three half-brothers and one half-sister.
The bin Laden family made $5 billion in the construction industry, of which Osama inherited around $25–30 million. Bin Laden was raised as a devout Sunni Muslim. From 1968 to 1976, he attended the élite secular Al-Thager Model School, he studied economics and business administration at King Abdulaziz University. Some reports suggest he earned a degree in civil engineering in 1979, or a degree in public administration in 1981. One source described him as "hard working". At university, bin Laden's main interest was religion, where he was involved in both "interpreting the Quran and jihad" and charitable work. Other interests included writing poetry.
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is an Iranian politician and statesman who served as the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013. He was the main political leader of the Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran, a coalition of conservative political groups in the country. An engineer and teacher from a poor background, ideologically shaped by thinkers such as Navvab Safavi, Jalal Al-e-Ahmad and Ahmad Fardid, Ahmadinejad joined the Office for Strengthening Unity after the Iranian Revolution. Appointed a provincial governor, he was removed after the election of President Mohammad Khatami and returned to teaching. Tehran's council elected him mayor in 2003, he took a religious hard line. His 2005 presidential campaign, supported by the Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran, garnered 62% of the runoff election votes, he became President on 3 August 2005. During his presidency, Ahmadinejad was a controversial figure within Iran, as well as internationally, he has been disregard for human rights. Internationally, he is criticized for his hostility towards countries including Israel, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, the United States and other Western and Arab states.
In 2007, Ahmadinejad introduced a gas rationing plan to reduce the country's fuel consumption, cut the interest rates that private and public banking facilities could charge. He supports Iran's nuclear program, his election to a second term in 2009 was disputed and caused widespread protests domestically and drew significant international criticism. During his second term, Ahmadinejad came under fire not only from reformers but traditionalists in parliament and the Revolutionary Guard, from Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, over accusations of corruption, Ahmadinejad's dismissal of Intelligence minister Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i, his support for his controversial close adviser Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei. On 14 March 2012, Ahmadinejad became the first president of the Islamic Republic of Iran to be summoned by the Islamic Consultative Assembly to answer questions regarding his presidency. Limited to two terms under the current Iranian constitution, Ahmadinejad supported Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei's campaign for president.
On 15 June 2013, Hassan Rouhani was elected as Ahmadinejad's successor and assumed office on 3 August 2013. On 12 April 2017, Ahmadinejad announced that he intended to run for a third term in the 2017 Iranian presidential election, against the objections of Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei, his nomination was rejected by the Guardian Council. During the 2017–18 Iranian protests Ahmedinejad criticized the current government of Iran. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was born on 28 October 1956 near Garmsar, in the village of Aradan, in Semnan province, his mother, was a Sayyida, an honorific title given to those believed to be direct bloodline descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. His father, was a grocer and barber, was a religious Shia who taught the Quran; when Mahmoud was one year old, his family moved to Tehran. Mahmoud's father changed their family name from "Saborjhian" or "Sabaghian" to Ahmadinejad in 1960 to avoid discrimination when the family moved to the city. Sabor is Persian for a once common occupation within the Semnan carpet industry.
Ahmadinejad's uncle and his brother Davoud Ahmadinejad have confirmed that the previous surname was "Sabbaghian". Ahmadinejad is a composite name: Ahmadi Nejad. Ahmad was his father's name; the suffix Nejad in Persian means race, therefore the term Ahmadi Nejad means "the lineage of Ahmad". According to the interviews with the relatives of Ahmadi Nejad, his father who works in a small shop, sold his house in Tehran and bought a smaller one, giving the leftover to charity and poor people. In 1976, Ahmadinejad took Iran's national university entrance examination. According to his autobiography, he was ranked 132nd out of 400,000 participants that year, soon enrolled in the Iran University of Science and Technology, located at Tehran, as an undergraduate student of civil engineering, he would earn his doctorate in 1997 in transportation engineering and planning from Iran University of Science and Technology as well, when he was the mayor of Ardabil Province, located at the north-west of the country.
Some details of Ahmadinejad's life during the 1980s are not publicly known, but it is known that he held a number of administrative posts in the province of West Azerbaijan, Iran. Many reports say that after Saddam Hussein ordered the invasion of Iran, Ahmadinejad joined the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and served in their intelligence and security apparatus, but his advisor Mojtaba Samareh Hashemi has said: "He has never been a member or an official member of the Revolutionary Guards", having been a Basiji-like volunteer instead. Ahmadinejad was accepted to a Master of Science program at his alma mater in 1986, he joined the faculty there as a lecturer in 1989, in 1997 received his doctorate in civil engineering and traffic transportation planning. After the Islamic Revolution, Ahmadinejad became a member of the Office for Strengthening Unity, an organization developed to prevent students from sympathizing or allying with the emerging militant Mojahedin-e Khalq organisation. Ahmadinejad first assumed political office as unelected governor to both Maku and Khoy in West Azarbaijan Province during the 1980s.
He became an advisor to the governor general of Kurdistan Province for two years. During his doctoral studies at Tehran, he was appointed governor general of newly formed Ardabil Prov
2003 Belgian federal election
The 18 May 2003 Belgian federal elections were the first Belgian elections to be held under a new electoral code. One of the novelties was an electoral threshold of 5%, which has cost many seats to the N-VA and the Green parties and Agalev; the Belgian Socialists recovered well. The Flemish Greens lost all their seats; the Greens were attacked on two fronts: some, including their coalition partners, accused them of being too fundamentalist, while others said that they had betrayed their ideals. The resignation of a Walloon green minister, one week before the elections didn't do them much good either. Although it was predicted in some opinion polls, the gains of the Front National were surprising, considering that it appeared in the media; the most important trend was the recovery of the Flemish social-democrats, led by the popular Steve Stevaert. The fact that Elio Di Rupo was learning Dutch caused rumours that he hoped to become Prime Minister, if the social-democrats would turn out to be the largest political family.
Themes that influenced the election results in some way or another were the government's opposition to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the controversy around the nuisance around the airport of Zaventem, the controversy surrounding the banning of tobacco publicity, unemployment. But a general dominating theme was lacking; the 1999 data are resp. SP instead of SPA-S, CVP instead of CD&V, PRL-FDF-MCC alliance instead of MR, PSC instead of cdH and Volksunie instead of N-VA. Fitzmaurice, John. "Belgium Stays'Purple': The 2003 Federal Election". West European Politics. 27: 146–156. Doi:10.1080/01402380412331280843
Maoism, known in China as Mao Zedong Thought, is a communist political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Maoists. Developed from the 1950s until the Deng Xiaoping reforms in the 1970s, it was applied as the guiding political and military ideology of the Communist Party of China and as theory guiding revolutionary movements around the world. A key difference between Maoism and other forms of Marxism–Leninism is that peasants should be the bulwark of the revolutionary energy, led by the working class in China; the modern Chinese intellectual tradition of the turn of the 20th century is defined by two central concepts, namely iconoclasm and nationalism. By the turn of the 20th century, a proportionately small yet significant cross-section of China's traditional elite found themselves skeptical of the efficacy and the moral validity of Confucianism; these skeptical iconoclasts formed a new segment of Chinese society, a modern intelligentsia whose arrival—or as historian of China Maurice Meisner would label it, their defection—heralded the beginning of the destruction of the gentry as a social class in China.
The fall of the last imperial Chinese dynasty in 1911 marked the final failure of the Confucian moral order and it did much to make Confucianism synonymous with political and social conservatism in the minds of Chinese intellectuals. It was this association of conservatism and Confucianism which lent to the iconoclastic nature of Chinese intellectual thought during the first decades of the 20th century. Chinese iconoclasm was expressed most and vociferously by Chen Duxiu during the New Culture Movement which occurred between 1915 and 1919. Proposing the "total destruction of the traditions and values of the past", the New Culture Movement was spearheaded by the New Youth, a periodical, published by Chen Duxiu and was profoundly influential on the young Mao Zedong, whose first published work appeared on the magazine's pages. Along with iconoclasm, radical anti-imperialism dominated the Chinese intellectual tradition and evolved into a fierce nationalist fervor which influenced Mao's philosophy immensely and was crucial in adapting Marxism to the Chinese model.
Vital to understanding Chinese nationalist sentiments of the time is the Treaty of Versailles, signed in 1919. The Treaty aroused a wave of bitter nationalist resentment in Chinese intellectuals as lands ceded to Germany in Shandong were—without consultation with the Chinese—transferred to Japanese control rather than returned to Chinese sovereignty; the negative reaction culminated in the 4 May Incident in 1919 during which a protest began with 3,000 students in Beijing displaying their anger at the announcement of the Versailles Treaty's concessions to Japan. The protest took a violent turn as protesters began attacking the homes and offices of ministers who were seen as cooperating with, or being in the direct pay, of the Japanese; the 4 May Incident and Movement which followed "catalyzed the political awakening of a society which had long seemed inert and dormant". Yet another international event would have a large impact not only on Mao, but on the Chinese intelligentsia, i.e. the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917.
Although the revolution did elicit interest among Chinese intellectuals, socialist revolution in China was not considered a viable option until after the May 4 Incident. Afterwards, "o become a Marxist was one way for a Chinese intellectual to reject both the traditions of the Chinese past and Western domination of the Chinese present". During the period following the Long March and the Communist Party of China were headquartered in Yan'an, a prefecture-level city in Shaanxi province. During this period, Mao established himself as a Marxist theoretician and he produced the bulk of the works which would be canonized into the "thought of Mao Zedong"; the rudimentary philosophical base of Chinese Communist ideology is laid down in Mao's numerous dialectical treatises and it was conveyed to newly recruited party members. This period established ideological independence from Moscow for Mao and the CPC. Although the Yan'an period did answer some of the questions, both ideological and theoretical, which were raised by the Chinese Communist Revolution, it left many of the crucial questions unresolved.
Mao's Intellectual Marxist development can be divided into five major periods: the initial Marxist period from 1920–1926. The initial Marxist period from 1920–1926: Marxist thinking employs imminent socioeconomic explanations and Mao's reasons were declarations of his enthusiasm. Mao did not believe that education alone would bring about the transition from capitalism to communism because of three main reasons. Psychologically: the capitalists would not turn towards communism on their own; these reasons do not provide socioeconomic explanations, which form the core of Marxist ideology. The formative Maoist period from 1927–1935: in this period, Mao avoided all theoretical implications in his literature and employed a minimum of Marxist category thought, his writings in this period failed to elaborate what he meant by the "Marxist method of