Arab Sind

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Map of Sind and its dependencies in the eighth century

During the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates, the governor of Sind (Arabic: عامل السند‘āmil al-Sind)[1] was an official who administered the Muslim province of Sind.

The governor was the chief Muslim official in the province and was responsible for maintaining security in the region; as the leader of the provincial military, he was also in charge of carrying out campaigns against the non-Muslim kingdoms of India. Governors appointed to the region were selected either directly by the caliph, or by an authorized subordinate, and remained in office until they either died or were dismissed.

Geography[edit]

Sind was a frontier province of the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates from its conquest in c. 711 until the mid-ninth century. Situated at the far eastern end of the caliphate, it consisted of the territories held by the Muslims in India, which at the time were centered in the Indus region. Sind proper was bounded on the west by Makran, on the northwest by Sijistan and the district of Turan, on the northeast by Multan, on the east by the Thar Desert, on the southeast by the non-Muslim Hind, and on the southwest by the Indian Ocean.[2]

Conquest of Sind[edit]

In the history of the Muslim conquests of the caliphate, Sind was a relatively late achievement, occurring almost a century after the Hijrah. Military raids against India had been undertaken by the Muslims as early as the reign of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab (634–644), but the pace of expansion in the region was initially slow. Several governors were appointed to the Indian frontier (thaghr al-Hind) and tasked with conducting campaigns in the east; some of these expeditions were successful, but others ended in defeat and a number of governors were killed while serving there. In the caliphate of Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyah (661–680), the region of Makran was subdued and a garrison was established there. Over the course of the following decades, the Muslims gradually worked their way further east, conquering the district of Qusdar and raiding the areas around Qandabil and al-Qiqan.[3]

Sind was conquered in c. 711 by Muhammad ibn Qasim al-Thaqafi, who had been sent to undertake a punitive expedition against Dahir, the king of Sind. After marching through Makran and defeating its inhabitants, Muhammad entered Sind and attacked the port city of Daybul, which fell after a siege and was settled with a number of Muslim colonists. Following this victory, Muhammad worked his way north and encountered Dahir, who he defeated and killed, he then spent the next several years campaigning in Sind and Multan, forcing the various cities of the country to submit to him. This period of conquests continued until 715, when the caliph al-Walid ibn 'Abd al-Malik died; shortly after the ascension of the new caliph Sulayman ibn 'Abd al-Malik, Muhammad was arrested and executed, and a replacement was sent by the government to take control of Sind.[4]

Umayyad governors[edit]

As a result of its conquest, Sind became a province of the Islamic state and governors were appointed to administer the region; as the commander of a frontier province, the governor was responsible for protecting the country against foreign incursions, and could carry out raids into Hind at his discretion. The governor's jurisdiction usually included, besides Sind itself, the regions of Makran, Turan and Multan;[5] in addition, any territories that he conquered in India were added to his area of authority.[6]

In the administrative hierarchy of the Umayyad caliphate, the responsibility for selecting governors to the province was assigned to the governor of Iraq, or, if that position was vacant, to the governor of Basra. Unless he received specific commands from the caliph, the governor of Iraq had the authority to appoint and dismiss governors to Sind as he pleased and he was in charge of supervising their activities in the province.[7]

According to the historian Khalifah ibn Khayyat, after the downfall of Muhammad ibn al-Qasim the responsibilities of the governor of Sind were temporarily divided between two officials, of whom one was in charge of military affairs and the other was in charge of taxation; this change was soon rescinded and the next governor, Habib ibn al-Muhallab al-Azdi, had full authority over both the fiscal and military affairs on the province.[8]

As a general rule, provincial governorships in the Umayyad era were almost always staffed exclusively by Arabs,[9] and this trend was reflected in the appointees to Sind during this period. Tribal politics also played a strong role in the selection and dismissal of governors;[10] if the governor of Iraq was a Qaysi, then his governor to Sind would likely be a Qaysi, and if he was a Yamani, his selection would likely be a Yamani as well. There were, however, some exceptions to this; Junayd ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Murri, for example, was initially appointed to Sind by a fellow Qaysi, but was allowed to retain his position for two years after the governor of Iraq was replaced with a Yamani.[11]

The governors of Sind in the Umayyad period undertook extensive campaigns against the non-Muslim kingdoms of Hind, but the results of their efforts were extremely mixed. Al-Junayd's campaigns seem to have been very successful, but his successor Tamim ibn Zaid al-Utbi ran into difficulties and the Muslims were forced to retreat from Hind; the next governor, Al Hakam ibn Awana, vigorously campaigned in India and initially achieved some victories, but he too suffered a reversal of fortune and was eventually killed. Raids into Hind continued after al-Hakam's death, but it appears that no major territorial gains were achieved, and the Muslim presence in India remained largely restricted to the Indus valley region.[12]

As part of his efforts to secure the Muslim position in Sind, al-Hakam constructed the military garrison of al-Mahfuzah, which he made into his capital (miṣr). Shortly after this, his lieutenant 'Amr ibn Muhammad ibn al-Qasim built a second city near al-Mahfuzah, which he called al-Mansurah; this latter city eventually became the permanent administrative capital of Arab Sind, and it served as the seat of the Umayyad and Abbasid governors.[13]

The names of the caliphal governors of Sind are preserved in the histories of Khalifah ibn Khayyat and al-Ya'qubi; some differences exist between the two authors' versions; these are noted below. The Futuh al-Buldan by al-Baladhuri, which focuses on the military conquests of the early Muslim state, also contains the names of many of the governors who served in Sind.

Military governors
Name Years Nature of
Termination
Notes
Muhammad ibn Qasim al-Thaqafi 711–715 Dismissed Conquered Sind. Appointed by the governor of Iraq, al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf al-Thaqafi[14]
Habib ibn al-Muhallab al-Azdi 715–717 Dismissed(?) Appointed either by the caliph Sulayman ibn 'Abd al-Malik or by Salih ibn 'Abd al-Rahman[15]
Abd al-Malik ibn Misma from 717 Dismissed Not listed by al-Ya'qubi. Appointed by the governor of al-Basrah, 'Adi ibn Artah al-Fazari[16]
'Amr ibn Muslim al-Bahili to 720 Overthrown Not listed by al-Ya'qubi. Appointed by 'Adi ibn Artah[17]
'Ubaydallah ibn 'Ali al-Sulami from 721 Dismissed Not listed by al-Ya'qubi. Appointed by the governor of Iraq, 'Umar ibn Hubayrah al-Fazari[18]
Junayd ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Murri to 726 Dismissed Appointed by 'Umar ibn Hubayrah[19]
Tamim ibn Zaid al-Utbi from 726 Died(?) Appointed by the governor of Iraq, Khalid ibn 'Abdallah al-Qasri[20]
Al Hakam ibn Awana to 740 Killed Appointed by Khalid ibn 'Abdallah[21]
'Amr ibn Muhammad al-Thaqafi 740–744 Dismissed Son of Muhammad ibn al-Qasim. Appointed by the governor of Iraq, Yusuf ibn 'Umar al-Thaqafi[22]
Yazid ibn 'Irar al-Kalbi(?) 740s Overthrown Name and details of governorship given variously in the sources. See especially this note[23]
Fiscal governors
Name Years Nature of
Termination
Notes
Yazid ibn Abi Kabshah al-Saksaki 715 Died Not listed by al-Ya'qubi. Appointed by the fiscal administrator of Iraq, Salih ibn 'Abd al-Rahman[24]
'Ubaydallah ibn Abi Kabshah al-Saksaki 715(?) Dismissed Not listed by al-Ya'qubi. Brother of Yazid ibn Abi Kabshah, who he succeeded as governor[25]
'Imran ibn al-Nu'man al-Kala'i 715(?) Unspecified Not listed by al-Ya'qubi. Appointed by Salih ibn 'Abd al-Rahman[26]
After 'Imran, fiscal and military affairs were jointly assigned to Habib ibn al-Muhallab.

Abbasid governors (to 854)[edit]

At the time of the Abbasid Revolution, Sind was in the hands of the anti-Umayyad rebel Mansur ibn Jumhur al-Kalbi. Following their victory over the Umayyads, the Abbasids at first left Mansur in control of the province, but this state of affairs did not last and the new dynasty sent Musa ibn Ka'b al-Tamimi to take over the region, he was able to defeat Mansur and enter Sind,[27] thereby firmly establishing Abbasid control over the province.

After the new dynasty came to power, Sind's administrative status was somewhat ambiguous, with governors being appointed either directly by the caliph or by the governor of Khurasan, Abu Muslim;[28] this situation lasted only until Abu Muslim's murder in 755; thereafter, appointments to Sind were almost always handled by the caliph and the central government.

In the first century of the Abbasid caliphate, governors continued to conduct raids against the non-Muslim kingdoms of Hind, and some minor gains were achieved; the historians also recorded the various struggles of the governors to maintain stability within Sind, as internecine tribal warfare, Alid partisans and disobedient Arab factions intermittently threatened the government's control over the region. Another potential source of trouble came from the governors themselves; a few of the individuals appointed to Sind attempted to rebel against the Abbasids, and had to be subdued by force of arms. In general, however, Abbasid authority in Sind remained effective during this period of their rule.[29]

Under the Abbasids, Arabs continued to frequently occupy the governorship, but over time the selections became somewhat more diverse. Under the caliphs al-Mahdi (775–785) and al-Rashid (786–809), non-Arab clients (mawali) were sometimes appointed to Sind.[30] In the caliphate of al-Ma'mun (813–833), the governorship was given to a member of the Persian Barmakid family, and the province remained under their rule for a number of years.[31] After the Barmakids, the Turkish general Itakh was given control of Sind, although he deputed the actual administration of the province to an Arab.[32] During this period several members of the prominent Muhallabid family served in Sind; their combined administrations spanned over a period of more than three decades.[33][34][35][36] Under al-Rashid, a few minor members of the Abbasid family were also appointed as governors of the province.[37][38]

Name Years Nature of
Termination
Notes
Mansur ibn Jumhur al-Kalbi 747–751 Revolted Initially took Sind as an anti-Umayyad rebel, then confirmed as governor by the Abbasids[27]
Mughallis al-'Abdi 751(?) Killed Appointed either by the caliph al-Saffah or by the governor of Khurasan, Abu Muslim[39]
Musa ibn Ka'b al-Tamimi 752–754 Resigned Appointed either by al-Saffah or by Abu Muslim[40]
'Uyaynah ibn Musa al-Tamimi 754–760 Revolted Son of Musa ibn Ka'b, who appointed him[41]
'Umar ibn Hafs Hazarmard 760–768 Dismissed Member of the Muhallabid family. Appointed by the caliph al-Mansur[33]
Hisham ibn 'Amr al-Taghlibi 768–774 Dismissed Appointed by al-Mansur[42]
Bistam ibn 'Amr al-Taghlibi 774(?) Dismissed Not listed by al-Ya'qubi. Brother of Hisham ibn 'Amr, who appointed him[43]
Ma'bad ibn al-Khalil al-Tamimi 774-775/6 Died Variant name given by Ibn Khayyat. Appointed by al-Mansur[44]
Muhammad ibn Ma'bad al-Tamimi 775(?) Dismissed Not listed by al-Ya'qubi. Son of Ma'bad ibn al-Khalil, who he succeeded as governor[45]
Rawh ibn Hatim al-Muhallabi 776–778 Dismissed Member of the Muhallabid family. Appointed by the caliph al-Mahdi[34]
Nasr ibn Muhammad al-Khuza'i 778–781 Died Appointed by al-Mahdi[46]
Al-Zubayr ibn al-'Abbas 781(?) Dismissed Not listed by Ibn Khayyat. Never went to Sind. Appointed by al-Mahdi[47]
Sufyah ibn 'Amr al-Taghlibi(?) 781–782 Dismissed Name given variously in the sources. Brother of Hisham ibn 'Amr. Appointed by al-Mahdi[48]
Layth ibn Tarif 782–785 Dismissed Appointed by al-Mahdi[49]
Muhammad ibn Layth 785–786 Dismissed Not listed by al-Ya'qubi. Son of Layth ibn Tarif. Appointed during the caliphate of al-Hadi[50]
Layth ibn Tarif from 786 Dismissed Not listed by al-Ya'qubi. Re-appointed, this time by the caliph al-Rashid[51]
Salim al-Yunusi/Burnusi 780s Died Salim's nisbah is given variously in the sources. Appointed by al-Rashid[52]
Ibrahim ibn Salim al-Yunusi/Burnusi 780s Dismissed Not listed by al-Ya'qubi. Son of Salim, who he succeeded as governor[53]
Ishaq ibn Sulayman al-Hashimi from 790 Dismissed First cousin twice removed of al-Rashid, who appointed him[37]
Muhammad ibn Tayfur al-Himyari(?) 790s Dismissed Name given variously in the sources. Appointed by al-Rashid[54]
Kathir ibn Salm al-Bahili 790s Dismissed Grandson of Qutaybah ibn Muslim. Deputy governor for his brother Sa'id ibn Salm[55]
Muhammad ibn 'Adi al-Taghlibi 790s Resigned Nephew of Hisham ibn 'Amr. Appointed by the governor of al-Basrah, 'Isa ibn Ja'far al-Hashimi[56]
'Abd al-Rahman ibn Sulayman 790s Resigned Appointed either by al-Rashid or by Muhammad ibn 'Adi[38]
'Abdallah ibn 'Ala' al-Dabbi 790s Unspecified Not listed by al-Ya'qubi. Appointed by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Sulayman[53]
Ayyub ibn Ja'far al-Hashimi to 800 Died Second cousin once removed of al-Rashid, who appointed him[38]
Dawud ibn Yazid al-Muhallabi 800–820 Died Last governor listed by Ibn Khayyat. Member of the Muhallabid family. Appointed by al-Rashid[35]
Bishr ibn Dawud al-Muhallabi 820–826 Revolted Son of Dawud ibn Yazid, who he succeeded as governor. Confirmed in office by the caliph al-Ma'mun[36]
Hajib ibn Salih 826 Expelled Appointed by al-Ma'mun[57]
Ghassan ibn 'Abbad 828–831 Resigned Appointed by al-Ma'mun[58]
Musa ibn Yahya al-Barmaki 831–836 Died Member of the Barmakid family. Appointed by Ghassan ibn 'Abbad[59]
'Imran ibn Musa al-Barmaki from 836 Killed Son of Musa ibn Yahya, who he succeeded as governor[60]
'Anbasah ibn Ishaq al-Dabbi 840s Dismissed Deputy governor for Itakh al-Turki[61]
Harun ibn Abi Khalid al-Marwrudhi to 854 Killed Appointed by the caliph al-Mutawakkil[62]

Decline of Abbasid authority[edit]

Over the course of the ninth century, Abbasid authority in Sind gradually waned. A new era in the history of the province began in 854, when 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-Aziz al-Habbari, a local Arab resident of Sind, was appointed to govern the country. Shortly after this, the central government entered a period of crisis which crippled its ability to maintain its authority in the provinces; this stagnation allowed 'Umar to rule Sind without any interference from the caliphal court at Samarra. 'Umar ended up creating a hereditary dynasty, that of the Habbarids, which ruled in al-Mansurah for almost two centuries. Although the Habbarids continued to acknowledge the Abbasids as their nominal suzerains, the effective authority of the caliph largely disappeared and the Habbarids were de facto independent.[63]

In spite of their loss of effective control over Sind, the Abbasid government continued to formally appoint governors to the province. In 871 the caliphal regent Abu Ahmad ibn al-Mutawakkil invested the Saffarid Ya'qub ibn al-Layth with the governorship of Sind.[64] In 875 the general Masrur al-Balkhi was given control of most of the eastern provinces, including Sind.[65] Four years after this, Sind was again assigned to the Saffarids, with 'Amr ibn al-Layth receiving the appointment;[66] these appointments, however, were purely nominal, and it is unlikely that these individuals exercised any actual authority over the local rulers within the province.[67]

As the central government's authority over Sind declined, the region underwent a period of decentralization. Habbarid authority appears to have been largely restricted to Sind proper, and did not extend to Makran, Turan and Multan, which all broke away under separate dynasties; some of the rulers in these regions also continued to nominally recognize the caliph as their ruler, but were effectively self-governing; others rejected the caliph's authority altogether and were outright independent. These minor dynasties continued to govern in their respective localities until the early eleventh century, when the Ghaznavids invaded India and annexed most of the Muslim territories in the country.[68]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, pp. 388, 557, 448, 599; al-Tabari, v. 32: p. 106
  2. ^ Le Strange, pp. 331–2 and Map 7; Blankinship, pp. 110–2
  3. ^ Gabriele, p. 283; Wink; pp. 129, 131; al-Baladhuri, pp. 209–15; al-Ya'qubi, pp. 278, 330–1
  4. ^ Gabriele, pp. 283–92; Wink, pp. 202–7; al-Baladhuri, pp. 216–24; al-Ya'qubi, pp. 345–7, 356; Encyclopaedia of Islam, s.v. "Sind" (T.W. Haig-[C.E. Bosworth])
  5. ^ Baloch and Rafiqi, pp. 293–4
  6. ^ Al-Baladhuri, p. 227
  7. ^ Blankinship, pp. 62–3
  8. ^ Khalifah ibn Khayyat, 318
  9. ^ Blankinship, p. 41
  10. ^ Crone, pp. 142 ff.; Blankinship, pp. 45–6, 98; Shaban, pp. 120 ff.
  11. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, p. 379; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 359; Crone, p. 147
  12. ^ Al-Baladhuri, pp. 225–9; Blankinship, pp. 131–4; 147–9; 186–90, 202–3; Wink, 207-9
  13. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, pp. 380, 389; al-Baladhuri, pp. 228–9; Encyclopaedia of Islam, s.v. "al-Mansura" (Y. Friedmann)
  14. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, pp. 345–7, 356; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, pp. 304–7, 310, 318; al-Baladhuri, pp. 216–25; al-Tabari, v. 23: p. 149; Crone, p. 135
  15. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, p. 356; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 318; al-Baladhuri, p. 225; Crone, p. 141. Habib either was dismissed or resigned, since he remained alive until 102/720; al-Tabari, v. 24: pp. 134–7
  16. ^ Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 322
  17. ^ Khalifah ibn Khayyat, pp. 322, 333; al-Baladhuri, p. 225
  18. ^ Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 333; Crone, p. 146
  19. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, pp. 379–80; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, pp. 333, 359; al-Baladhuri, pp. 226–7; Crone, pp. 98; 147
  20. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, p. 380; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 359; al-Baladhuri, p. 227-8; Crone, p. 148. Al-Ya'qubi and al-Baladhuri both give his nisbah as al-'Utbi. According to Khalifah ibn Khayyat, he was dismissed from office
  21. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, pp. 380, 388–9; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, pp. 354, 359; al-Baladhuri; pp. 228–9; Crone, p. 147
  22. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, pp. 389–90, 399–400; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, pp. 354, 359, 366; al-Tabari, v. 26: pp. 199–200
  23. ^ In al-Ya'qubi, pp. 399–400, 407, this individual is named as Yazid ibn 'Irar (although the editor, p. 389, notes variant readings, including 'Izan) and is said to have replaced 'Amr ibn Muhammad as governor in the reign of al-Walid ibn Yazid; he remained as governor until Mansur ibn Jumhur al-Kalbi arrived in Sind and killed him. Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 357, calls him Muhammad ibn 'Irar al-Kalbi and claims he became governor on an interim basis, after the death of al-Hakam ibn 'Awana; subsequently he was dismissed in 122/740 by the governor of Iraq, Yusuf ibn 'Umar al-Thaqafi, and replaced with 'Amr. All this is said to have taken place during the reign of Hisham. Al-Tabari, v. 26: pp. 199–200, calls him "Muhammad ibn Ghazzan – or 'Izzan – al-Kalbi" and states that he was appointed to succeed 'Amr in 126/744 by the governor of Iraq, Mansur ibn Jumhur al-Kalbi, in the reign of Yazid ibn al-Walid; he does not specify Muhammad's fate.
  24. ^ Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 318; al-Baladhuri, pp. 224–5; Crone, p. 96
  25. ^ Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 318
  26. ^ Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 318; Crone, p. 142
  27. ^ a b Al-Ya'qubi, pp. 407, 429; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 413; al-Baladhuri, p. 230; al-Tabari, v. 28: pp. 195, 198, 203; Crone, p. 158
  28. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, pp. 407, 429; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 413; al-Baladhuri, p. 230; al-Tabari, v. 27: p. 203
  29. ^ Wink, pp. 209–12; al-Baladhuri, pp. 230 ff.
  30. ^ These were Layth and Salim, as well as their respective sons. Crone, pp. 192, 194; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, pp. 441, 446, 463
  31. ^ Encyclopaedia of Islam, s.v. "al-Baramika" (D. Sourdel)
  32. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, p. 585
  33. ^ a b Al-Ya'qubi, p. 448; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 433; al-Baladhuri, p. 231, who however places 'Umar's governorship after Hisham ibn 'Amr's; al-Tabari, v. 28: p. 78; v. 27: pp. 51–55; Crone, p. 134
  34. ^ a b al-Ya'qubi, p. 479; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 441; al-Tabari, v. 29: pp. 195, 203, who however places Rawh's appointment in 160/777; Crone, p. 134
  35. ^ a b Al-Ya'qubi, pp. 494, 532; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 463; al-Baladhuri, p. 231; al-Tabari, v. 30: p. 173; v. 32: p. 106; Crone, p. 135
  36. ^ a b Al-Ya'qubi, pp. 557–8; al-Baladhuri, p. 231; al-Tabari, v. 32: pp. 106, 175, 179, 189; Crone, p. 135
  37. ^ a b Al-Ya'qubi, p. 493; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 463; al-Tabari, v. 30: p. 109
  38. ^ a b c Al-Ya'qubi, p. 494; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 463
  39. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, p. 407; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 413; al-Baladhuri, p. 230
  40. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, pp. 429, 448; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, pp. 413, 433; al-Baladhuri, p. 230; al-Tabari, v. 27: p. 203-04; v. 28: p. 75; Crone, p. 186
  41. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, p. 447-8; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 433; al-Tabari, v. 28: pp. 75, 77–8; Crone, p. 186. According to both al-Ya'qubi and al-Tabari, 'Uyaynah's rebellion occurred in the year 142/759
  42. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, pp. 448–9; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 433; al-Baladhuri, pp. 230–1; al-Tabari, v. 29: pp. 51, 54–6, 68, 77, 79; Crone, pp. 167–8
  43. ^ Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 433; Crone, p. 168. Al-Tabari, v. 29: pp. 180, 193, however, says that Bistam was governor after the death of Ma'bad ibn al-Khalil until the arrival of Rawh ibn Hatim to Sind, although he also claims (p. 172) that Rawh was appointed as governor immediately following Ma'bad's death. Al-Ya'qubi, p. 448, mentions Bistam as Hisham ibn 'Amr's deputy in al-Mansurah, but makes no mention of him as a full governor.
  44. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, p. 449; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 433, where however he is named as Sa'id ibn al-Khalil (which the editor notes is a possible error); al-Tabari, v. 29: pp. 79, 80, 172. Ibn Khayyat says that he died in the reign of al-Mansur, while al-Tabari claims that he died in 159/776, in the reign of al-Mahdi.
  45. ^ Khalifah ibn Khayyat, pp. 433 (where he is named as Muhammad ibn Sa'id), 440 (where he is Muhammad ibn Ma'bad)
  46. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, pp. 479–80; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 441; al-Tabari, v. 29: pp. 203, 216, 218; Crone, p. 185
  47. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, p. 480
  48. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, p. 480; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 441; al-Tabari v. 29: p. 219, who all give different names for this individual; Crone, p. 168
  49. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, p. 480; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 441; al-Tabari, v. 29: p. 222; Crone, p. 192
  50. ^ Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 446
  51. ^ Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 463; Crone, p. 192
  52. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, p. 493; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 463; Crone, p. 194
  53. ^ a b Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 463
  54. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, pp. 493–4, where however he is named as Tayfur ibn 'Abdallah ibn Mansur al-Himyari; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 463; p. 195
  55. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, p. 494; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 463; Crone, p. 137
  56. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, p. 494; Khalifah ibn Khayyat, p. 463; Crone, p. 168
  57. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, p. 557; al-Tabari, v. 32: p. 175
  58. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, p. 557; al-Baladhuri, p. 231; al-Tabari, v. 32: pp. 179–80, 189
  59. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, p. 557; al-Baladhuri, p. 231
  60. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, pp. 557, 585; al-Baladhuri, pp. 231–2. Al-Tabari, v. 32: p. 189, says that 'Imran was appointed as chief financial officer of Sind by Ghassan, and does not mention 'Imran's father Musa
  61. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, pp. 585, 593, who says that 'Anbasah was appointed in the caliphate of al-Wathiq (842–847) and stayed in Sind for nine years; al-Baladhuri, p. 218, who claims that he was governor during the reign of al-Mu'tasim (833–842)
  62. ^ Al-Ya'qubi, pp. 593, 599; al-Baladhuri, p. 219
  63. ^ Baloch and Rafiqi, p. 294
  64. ^ Al-Tabari, v. 36: p. 119
  65. ^ Al-Tabari, v. 36: p. 166
  66. ^ Al-Tabari, v. 36: p. 205
  67. ^ Wink, 211-2
  68. ^ Baloch and Rafiqi, pp. 294–6; 296 ff.

References[edit]

  • Al-Baladhuri, Ahmad ibn Jabir. The Origins of the Islamic State, Part II. Trans. Francis Clark Murgotten. New York: Columbia University, 1924.
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